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22, 29 - April 5, 2014


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The process of quantifying the degree to which someone/something possesses a given trait. The assignment of numbers to certain attributes of objects, events, or people according to rules to create ranking that reflects how much of the attribute different people process. Used as tools for measuring the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of learners. May vary according to function, content, form, administration procedures, scoring system, and interpretation.



Is a broader term than measurement that involves interpreting or placing such info in context. Involves the process of gathering and organizing data into an interpretable form to have a basis for decisionmaking. It is a pre-requisite to evaluation that provides the information from which enables evaluation to take place A process of systematic collection and analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data in order to make some judgment or decision It involves judgment about the desirability of changes in students.



is any systematic basis for making inferences about characteristics of people, usually based on various sources of evidences; the global process of sythesizing information about individuals in order to understand and describe them better.

Is a broader term than measurement that involves interpreting or placing such info in context. Involves the process of gathering and organizing data into an interpretable form to have a basis for decisionmaking. It is a pre-requisite to evaluation that provides the information from which enables evaluation to take place


shall be used primarily as a quality assurance tool to track learners progress in the attainment of standards, promote self-reflection and personal accountability for ones learning, and provide a basis for the profiling of learner performance.


for Learning as Learning

Determines learners background knowledge and indicators of learners progress in understanding

The learner reflects on results of assessment, charts his own progress, and plans next steps to improve performance; builds metacognition as it involves the learner in setting and monitoring own goals



of Learning

Being summative, it measures learners attainment of standards.

The garden analogy

If we think of our children as plants

Summative assessment of the plants is the process of simply measuring them. It might be interesting to compare and analyse measurements but, in themselves, these do not affect the growth of the plants.
Formative assessment, on the other hand, is the equivalent of feeding and watering the plants appropriate to their needs - directly affecting their growth.

To identify if students have mastered a concept or skill To motivate students to be more engaged in learning To get students to learn the content in a way that stresses application and other reasoning skills To help develop a positive attitude about a subject To communicate to parents what students know and can do To communicate expectations to students To give students feedback about what they know and can do To show students what they need to focus on to improve their understanding To encourage student self-evaluation To evaluate the effectiveness of instructional approaches

- Teaching without learning is just talking.

Learning can and often does take place without the benefit of teaching- and sometimes even in spite of but there is no such thing as effective teaching in the absence of learning Angelo & Cross,1998

Assessment of curricular offerings, school programs and instructional materials and facilities. Courses offered are evaluated to know if they are relevant, realistic and responsive to the changing needs of the society. Assessment of the mentors. Teachers should be evaluated to determine if they possess the qualities of a MODERN TEACHER( Model, Obedient, Dedicated, Economical, Resourceful, Noble Talented, Efficient, Active, Creative, Honest, Effective and ResourceOriented) Assessment of learners to determine whether they have reached the goals of the learning tasks.

Are tests results reflective of the teachers effectiveness? Yes, the tests results reflect how far the interactions between the teachers and the students have gone. If theres a good interaction, learning has taken place, so good test results are given by the students. 2. Easy questions are knowledge questions; difficult questions are high level questions. Not all easy questions are knowledge questions because there are cases that these questions lead the students to be confused but we agree that difficult questions are high level questions thats why we use some follow-up questions to come up with the correct answer.

Shall the teacher determine the difficulty level of the questions? Yes, of course everytime we do the test analysis, it helps us determine the difficulty level of questions. Also in giving the pre-test, the teacher has an idea of what topic does he/she give more time and effort. 4. Are what/who/when questions easy?; are why/how questions difficult? No, because what question is sometimes broad question which requires more informative answer. Also some easy questions using what/who/when/where questions are vague questions to some students. Why/how questions are quite difficult because it requires more knowledge in explaining ones answer.


talk about your IDEALstandards for a




Absolute Maximum Standard

Is a level of performance that can be reached by only a few students, e.g. 95% performance. Can be attained by majority of students enough to guarantee promotion to the next higher grade /level, e.g. 75% performance The level of competency compared with the performance of other students in a class or group. A level of performance of competency that utilizes a combination of absolute maximum, minimum, and relative standards.

Absolute Minimum Standard

Relative Standard

Multiple Standard



The objective paper-pencil test which assesses low level thinking skills Examples are standardized and teacher-made test Advantages: Scoring is objective; administration is easy because students can take the test at the same time. Disadvantages: Preparation is time consuming; It is prone to cheating



Requires actual demonstration of skills or creation of products of learning. Examples are practical test, oral test, projects, etc. Advantages: preparation is relatively easy; measures behavior that cannot be deceived. Disadvantages: scoring tends to be subjective without rubric; administration is time consuming


of Performance-based task

Problem Solving-e.g. routine or non-routine problems in math Oral/Psychomotor skills without a product-e.g. oral presentation, dancing a folkdance, playing basketball Written or psychomotor skills with a product-e.g. written compositions, a project plan, a preserved food



A process of gathering multiple indicators of student progress to support course goals in dynamic, ongoing and collaborative process. Examples: Working portfolio(daily learning activities undergone by the student), show portfolio (collection of the students best works), documentary portfolio (combination of working and show portfolios) Advantages: measures students growth and development; intelligence-fair Disadvantages: development is time consuming; raring tends to be subjective without rubrics


your own PORTFOLIO (Grade school, High school, College) next week. Present before the class SOMETHING you treasureit can be an old notebook, class picture, test paper, diary, project, etc.

Placement assessment

Done before instruction to determine the needs and ability levels of learners for possible adjustments in the teaching learning process Done before or during instruction to identify recurring difficulties of learners Done during or after instruction to find out how learners are progressing or to monitor how the learning objectives are attained Done after instruction to determine what have been learned

Diagnostic assessment

Formative assessment

Summative assessment



is a mental ability by means of which knowledge, skills, habits, attitudes, and ideals are acquired, retained, and utilized, resulting in the progressive adaptation and modification of conduct and behavior. It is any change in the behavior of organism. It is a continuous process.

Integrating Instruction and Assessment

Being confident that every student can improve. Creating a learning environment which supports a partnership

between teacher and students.

Using assessment to inform teaching and learning Sharing assessment results with students and constructing clear and

accessible learning goals with them

Clarifying or co-constructing learning outcomes and ensuring that

students understand them

Involving students in self and peer assessment and giving them

opportunities to reflect on their learning.

Providing feedback that helps students recognise their next steps and

how to take them.


life is fast paced, hectic, and

complex. This is what Michelle Barrow proves based on she does during a typical day in her first grade classroom. She has 10 boys and 11 girls in her class, four of whom are from racial minority groups and six of whom are from single-parent families


what was learned/taught the previous

day Goes over student papers to see who did or did not grasp concepts Prepares a rough agenda for the day Speaks with aide about plans for the day Puts journals on student desks


students at the door Reminds students to put away homework Speaks with Brent about his expected behavior for the day Reminds Anthony about what he is to do if he becomes bothered or frustrated by others


students to the table to go over the reading assignment Comments to Lucy that she has really improved since the first day of school Discusses with Kevin the importance of doing homework every night Reminds Maggie that she is to be working in her journal rather than visiting and talking with others Walks beside Anthony down the hall, verbally praising him for following directions


math lesson Walks behind Scott and gives the next problem to the class Notices that another table immediately stops talking and starts paying attention Praises Sarah and a few other students for good handwriting and concentration Notices that Tim is watching others, asks him if he needs help

Grades student papers


sure materials are ready for the next

day Makes note in her gradebook about notes sent home and how the day went Checks portfolios to see progress Calls some parents


different tasks+different preferences+different student abilities Simultaneity (Many things happen in the classroom, thus monitoring is important) Immediacy (Decisions are made quickly.) Unpredictability (Work on classroom distructions.) History (Talk about established routines and norms.)


is gathering, interpretation, and use of information to aid teacher decision making. Assessment is an umbrella concept that encompasses different techniques, strategies and uses.

Questions How much do my students know? Are my students motivated to learn? Are there any exceptional students? If so, what should I plan for them? What instructional activities should I plan? What homework assignments should I prepare?


type of feedback should I give to students? What question should I ask? How should a student respond to a question being answered? Which students need my individual attention? What response is best to student inattention or disruption? When should I stop this lecture?


well have my students mastered the material? Are students ready for the next unit? What grades should the students receive? What comments should I make to parents? How should I change my instruction?

What a teacher teaches determines the assessment.

learning target is a clear description of what students should KNOW and be able to do. It may be a goal, objective, competency, outcome, standard, or expectation. All of these facilitate credible assessments.


educational goal is a general statement of what students will know and be able to do. Goals are written to cover large blocks of instructional time, such as unit, semester, or year, and indicate in broad terms what will be emphasized during that time period. Examples:

Know how to think critically and solve problems Work collaboratively with others Understand the scientific method Appreciate cultural differences Learn to think independently Become good citizens


objectives are usually relatively specific statements of student performance that should be demonstrated at the end of an instructional unit. Instructional objectives mean intended learning outcomes. These are sometimes referred to as behavioral, performance, or terminal objectives. These are types of objectives characterized by the use of action verbs- add, state, define, list, design, categorize IO should be SMART.


of Objectives Summarize the main idea of the reading passage Underline the verb and subject of each sentence Write a title for the reading passage Explain the process of photosynthesis


are the teachers beliefs about what students are capable of achieving. Criteria are clearly stated dimensions of student performance that the teacher examines in making judgments about the student proficiency.



Students mastery of substantive subject matter and procedures.



Students ability to use knowledge to reason and solve problems Students ability to demonstrate achievement-related skills such as reading aloud, speaking a language, operating a computer



ability to create achievementrelated products such as written reports, oral presentations, and art products attainment of affective states such as attitudes, values, interests, motivation, and self-efficacy


Learning Target 1:



relates to description, definition, or perspective (what, who, when, where). Knowledge comprises strategy, practice, method, or approach (how). Wisdom embodies principle, insight, moral, or archetype (why


is information of which someone is aware. Knowledge is also used to mean the confident understanding of a subject, potentially with the ability to use it for a specific purpose Changes over time: Learning through education

Based on Blooms Cognitive Taxonomy



Train the learners the ability to recall materials learned previously such as specific names, facts, places, figures, events, concepts, principles, and others. Examples: Who founded the Katipunan? Identify people involved in the Philippine Revolution. Enumerate the demands of the La Liga Filipina. Key words: name, tell, list, describe, recall, state, define, identify

Based on Blooms Cognitive Taxonomy



Train a student to understand oral and written communications and make use of them. These can be manifested in the following questions: The student can express ideas in his own words. The student can separate from essential from the non-essential. The student can establish relationships among things. The student can make inferences. Examples: Explain in your own words the El Nino and La Nina Phenomena.
Key words: explain, compare, predict, infer

Based on Blooms Cognitive Taxonomy



Require the students to transfer what they have learned to new situations with little or no supervision. The student is expected to put some skills into practice, solve problems, and construct meaning. Examples: How do you express in algebraic equation-the age of the earth is twice the age of the moon?
Key words: demonstrate, plan, solve, apply,

build, develop, construct

Based on Blooms Cognitive Taxonomy



Require a student to breakdown an idea into parts, to distinguish these parts and know their relationships to one another. The student is able to distinguish relevant from irrelevant data, a fact from a generalization, etc. Examples: What part of the essay is conclusion? What are the fallacies in the arguments presented?
Key words: classify, distinguish, discriminate,

categorize, analyze

Based on Blooms Cognitive Taxonomy



The student puts together or integrates a number of ideas or facts into arrangement. Some common focus of synthesis is the summary of the lesson either written or oral, a proposal, a plan of action, a short story, a bulletin board display. Examples: How can you help improve our economy? What plans can you propose to make the centennial celebration more meaningful?
Key words: propose a plan, formulate a solution,

develop, create, summarize

Based on Blooms Cognitive Taxonomy



The students appraise, criticize or judge the worth of an idea, a statement, or a plan on the basis of a set of criteria provided to them or which they themselves have developed. Examples: Is it good for Filipinos to ratify the VFA? Are you in favor of amending the present constitution?
Key words: select, judge, evaluate, decide

Learning Target 2:



Motivation Academic

Self-concept Social Relationships Classroom Environment Affective Taxonomy


are more proficient at problem solving when they enjoy while they are doing. Students who are in a good mood and emotionally involved are more likely to pay attention to info, remember it, rehearse it meaningfully, and apply it. Too much anxiety interferes with learning. Classrooms with more positive climates foster student engagement and learning much more than do classrooms with negative classmates.


learning Being an involved and productive member of the society Preparing for occupational and vocational satisfaction and productivity (e.g. work habits, a willingness to learn, interpersonal skills Maximizing the motivation to learn now and in the future Preventing students from dropping out from school

ATTITUDES INTERESTS- personal reference for certain kinds of activities VALUES importance, worth, or usefulness of modes or conduct and end states or experience. OPINIONS are beliefs about specific occurrences and situation. PREFERENCE- desire to select one subject over another MOTIVATION- the desire and willingness to be engaged in behavior and intensity of involvement ACADEMIC SELF-CONCEPT- self-perceptions of competence in school and learning

SELF-ESTEEM- attitudes toward oneself; degree of self-respect, worthiness, or desirability of selfconcept LOCUS OF CONTROL- self-perception of whether success and failure is controlled by the student or by external influences EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT growth, change, and awareness of emotions and ability to regulate emotional expression. SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS- nature of interpersonal interactions and functioning in group setting ALTRUISM- willingness and propensity to help others. MORAL DEVT attainment of moral principles that guide decision making and behavior CLASSROOM ENVT nature of making one and interpersonal relationships in the class


refers to a wide variety of traits and dispositions that are different from knowledge, reasoning, and skill; the emotions or feelings we have toward someone or something. ATTITUDES are internal states that influence what students are likely to do. This internal state can be positive or negative, or favorable or unfavorable reaction toward an object, situation, person or the environment.

POSITIVE attitude toward

learning School Math, science, English, and other Subjects Homework Classroom rules Teachers Working with others Taking responsibility for ones acts cheating Drug abuse Fighting Dropping out Skipping school

NEGATIVE attitude


AFFECTIVE component of positive and negative feelings

Ex: describing a student for liking math or enjoying art

COGNITIVE component describing worth or value

Ex: Thinking that History is worthless while English is valuable

BEHAVIORAL component indicating a willingness or desire to engage in specific actions

Ex: student shows action for disliking math

Rarely misses classes Rarely late to class Asks lots of questions Helps other students Works well independently without supervision Laughs Is involved in extra curricular activities Says he/she likes school Comes to class early Stays after school

Volunteers to help Completes homework Tries hard to do well Completes assignments before they are due Rarely complains Rarely bothers other students

Is frequently absent Is frequently tardy Rarely asks questions Needs constant supervision Is not involved in extracurricular activities Says s/he doesnt like school Doesnt care about bad grades

Never does extra credit work Never completes assignments before the due date Complains Sleeps in class Bothers other students Stares out window


generally refer either to end states of existence or to modes of conduct that are desirable or sought. These end states are conditions or aspects of ourselves and our world that we want, such as safe life, world peace, freedom, happiness, social acceptance, and wisdom.


honest Cheerful Ambitious Loving Responsible helpful


Other Values: 1. Kindness 2. Generosity 3. Perseverance 4. Loyalty 5. respect 6. Courage 7. Compassion 8. Tolerance

about moral values, political, social, aesthetic, economic, technological, and religious values

MOTIVATION can be defined as the extent to which students are involved in trying to learn This includes initiation of learning, their intensity of effort, their commitment, and their persistence It is a purposeful engagement in learning to master knowledge or skills; students take learning seriously and value opportunities to learn. Motivation is determined by students expectations (SELF-EFFICACY students self-perception of his/her capability to perform something.)


will believe that they are capable of doing how to multiply fractions. (SELFEFFICACY) Students will believe that it is important to know how to multiply fractions. (VALUE)

Self-concept is the cousin of self-esteem. Like self-efficacy, it is likely that this aspect of selfconcept is formed, at least in part, when children experience meaningful success with moderate. Self-concept and self-esteem are multidimensional. There is bodily self, an athletic self, a social self, and so forth. Students also have self-regard, self-affirmation, and self-worth in each area (self-esteem). Ex: 1.) A student can have a self-concept that he is tall and thin, but feel very comfortable with that and accept the description. 2.) A student can have the same self-concept but feel inferior or have a low self-esteem.


relationships involve a complex set of interaction skills, including the identification of and appropriate responses to social cues. Peer relations, friendships, functioning in group, assertiveness, cooperation, collaboration, empathy, taking perspectives are examples of the nature of social relationships that can be specified as targets.


should be a unique climate and that students feel comfortable, relaxed, and productive, and whether students feel happy, content, and serious. A positive classroom promotes learning, so a reasonable affective target would be to establish student feelings, relationships, and beliefs that promote this kind of environment.

Affiliation- the extent to which students like and accept one another. Involvement- the extent to which the students are interested in and engaged in learning Task orientation to which the classroom activities are focused on the completion of academic tasks. Cohesiveness- the extent to which students share norms and expectations. Competition- the extent to which there is competition among the students. Favoritism- whether the students enjoy the same privileges Formality- the emphasis on enforcing rules Communication- the extent to which communication among students and with teacher is genuine and honest Warmth- the extent to which students care about each other and show empathy

RECEIVING- develops an awareness, shows willingness to receive RESPONDING- shows willingness to respond and finds some initial level satisfaction in responding VALUING- shows that the object, person, or situation has worth ORGANIZATION- brings together a complex set of values and organizes them in an ordered relationship. CHARACTERIZATION- organized system of values becomes a persons life outlook and the basis for a philosophy of life


affective traits influence motivation, involvement, and cognitive learning. Although the term affect refers to emotions and feelings, affective traits include cognitive and behavioral traits. Attitudes are predispositions to respond favorably or unfavorably. Values are end states of existence or desired modes of conduct.


is the purposeful engagement to learn. It is determined by self-efficacy (the students belief about his or her capability to learn) and the value of learning. Academic self-concept is the way students describe themselves as learners. Self-esteem is how students feel about themselves. Social relationship targets involve interpersonal interaction and competence. Classroom environment is the climate established through factors such as affiliation, involvement, cohesiveness, formality and warmth.

Three methods are used to assess student affect: teacher observation, student self-report, and peer ratings. Teacher observation can be structured or unstructured. Several observations should be made; recording of behavior should occur as soon as possible after the observation. Student self-reports include interviews, questionnaires and surveys. Trust between the teacher and the students is essential. Interviews allow teachers to probe and clarify in order to avoid ambiguity, though its time consuming.


should be based on clear and specific instructional objectives (knowledge based, skillbased, performing-based, affective-based, or product-based) Assessment tools/methods chosen must be appropriate to learning targets (knowledge, skills, reasoning, products, affects) Assessment must authentic, that is it must have meaningful performance; based on criteria; creates interaction between the examiner and examinee; shows transfers of learning


targets, standards, and results should be properly communicated to users/students. Assessment should follow ethical standards. Assessment observe balance by considering all domains of learning and intelligences. Assessment should be valid.

Validity is one important criterion of a good assessment instrument which means it should measure what it intends to measure.

Face Validity is established by examining the physical appearance of the instrument Content Validity is established when the objectives of assessment match the lesson objectives. Concurrent Validity is determined by correlating the sets of scores obtained from two measures given concurrently to describe the present status of an individual. Predictive Validity is done by correlating sets of scores obtained from two measures given at a loner time interval to describe the future performance of an individual. Construct Validity is established by statistically comparing psychological factors that affect the scores in a test


instrument must satisfy the criterion of reliability, that is, there should be consistency of scores obtained by an individual when retested using the same assessment instrument.

Factors Affecting Reliability

Length of the Test-the longer the test, the higher the reliability. A longer test provides a more adequate sample of the behavior being measured and is less distorted by chance factors like guessing. Difficulty of the Test- the bigger the spread of the scores, the more reliable the measured difference is likely to be. Objectivity- can be obtained by eliminating the bias, opinions and judgments who check the test.

Factors Affecting Reliability Administrability-the test should be administered with ease, clarity and uniformity Scorability- the test should be easy to score such that directions for scoring are clear, the scoring key is simple, provisions for answer sheets are made. Economy- the test should be given in the cheapest way; that the answer sheets must be provided. Adequacy- the test should contain a wide sampling of items to determine the educational outcomes Authenticity- the test should stimulate real-life situations

Assessment should observe the principle of fairness. Assessment should be practical and efficient, that is, it must consider cost, time, ease of administration, of scoring, and of interpretation. It must also be within the comprehension level of the learners. Assessment must be a continuing process. Assessment should have positive results for both students (motivation to learn) and teachers (improvement of instruction)

External Motivators

Competition for prizes Special honors for good performance Threats regarding poor performance Segregation of students into different classes by ability

Internal Motivators
Understand what it means to do something very well Has had a hand in setting the rules whereby an excellent is to be recognized Knows that there is someone who shares the joy of knowing the job was well done. Is taught to self-assess the work as it is going

-Demonstrates principles and criteria -are technically sound and provide results and improve student learning

VALIDITY- a characteristic that refers to the appropriateness of the inferences, interpretation and consequences that result from assessment. RELIABILITY- is concerned with the consistency, stability, and dependability of the scores. FAIRNESS-a fair assessment provides all students an equal opportunity to demonstrate achievement and yields scores that are comparably valid from one person or group to another.


Student knowledge of learning targets Opportunity to learn Avoiding student stereotyping Avoiding bias in assessment tasks Accommodating special needs

-Demonstrates principles and criteria -are technically sound and provide results and improve student learning

ALIGNMENT- concerns degree of standards, tests, curriculum and instruction (what is taught is what is tested) PRACTICALITY & EFFICIENCY- concerns:

Teachers familiarity with the method Time required Complexity of administration Ease of scoring Ease of interpretation

Good instruction involves much more than simply presenting information and giving students and giving students assignments to work on. Effective teaching requires constant monitoring of students understanding during instruction. The questions the teacher asks in the classroom are essential components of effective instruction. ORAL QUESTIONING is the predominant method of assessing student progress during instruction. It occurs in four formats: review of content, discussions, recitations and interactions


involve students in the lesson To promote students thinking and comprehension To review important content To control students To assess student progress

State questions clearly so that the intent of the question is understood Match questions with learning targets. Allow sufficient wait time for student responses Give appropriate responses to student answers Avoid questions answerable by a yes or a no. Extend initial answers Avoid tugging, guessing and leading questions Avoid asking students what they think they know. Ask questions in an appropriate sentence



Supply/Constructed/Free Response
Short Answer Completion

Selected/Fixed Response

Matching True-False/ Alternative Response



Extended response Restricted response

Determining the purpose of the test Specifying the instructional objectives Preparing the Table of Specifications Determining the item format, number of test items, sad difficulty level of the test Writing test items that match the objectives Editing, revising, and finalizing test items Administering the test Scoring Tabulating and analyzing the results Assigning grades

Are the instructional objectives clearly defined? 2. What knowledge, skills and attitudes do you want to measure? 3. Did you prepare a table of specifications? 4. Did you formulate well defined and clear test items? 5. Did you employ correct English in writing the items? 6. Did you avoid giving clues to the correct answer? 7. Did you test the important ideas rather than the trivial?

7. Did you adapt the tests difficulty to your students ability? 8. Did you avoid using textbook jargons? 9. Did you cast the items in positive form? 10.Did you prepare a scoring key? 11.Does each item have a single correct answer? 12. Did you review your items?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The test item should be selected very carefully. Only important facts should be included. The test should have extensive sampling items. The test items should be carefully expressed in simple, clear, definite and meaningful sentences. There should be only one possible correct response for each test item. Each item should be independent. Leading clues to other items should be avoided. Lifting sentences from books should not be done to encourage thinking and understanding.

1. 2. 3. 4.

The first person personal pronouns I and we should not be used. Various types of test items should be made to avoid monotony. Majority of the test items should be moderate difficulty. Few difficulty and few easy items should be included. The test items should be arranged in an ascending order of difficulty. Easy items should be at the beginning to encourage the examinee to pursue the test and the most difficult items should be at the end.



13. 14.





19. 20.

Clear, concise and complete directions should precede all types of test. Sample test items may be provided for expected responses. Items which can be answered by previous experience alone without knowledge of the subject matter should not be included. Catchy words should not be used in the test items. Test items must be based upon the objectives of the course and upon the course content. The test should measure the degree of achievement or determine the difficulties of the learners. The test should emphasize ability to apply and use facts as well as knowledge of facts. The test should be of such length that it can be completed within the time allotted by all or nearly all of the pupils. The teacher should perform the test herself to determine its approximate time allotment. Rules governing good language expression, grammar, spelling, punctuation and capitalizing should be observed in all items. Information on how scoring will be done should be provided. Scoring Keys in correcting and scoring tests should be provided.


a. b.

Simple recall type

This type consists of questions calling for a single word or expression as an answer. Items usually begin with who, where, when and what. Score is the number of correct answers. Only important word or phrases should be omitted to avoid confusion. Blanks should be of equal lengths. The blank, as much as possible, is placed near or at the end of the sentence. Articles a, an and the should not be provided before the omitted word or phrase to avoid clues for answers. Score is the number of correct answers. The exact number of expected answers should be stated. Score is the number of correct answers.



Completion type
a. b. c.




Enumeration type
a. b.


Identification type


The items should make an examinee think of a word, number or group of words that would complete the statement or answer the problem. Score is the number of correct answers.


a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

True-false or alternate-response type

Declarative sentences should be used. The number of true and false should be more or less equal. The truth or falsity of the sentence should not be too evident. Negative statements should be avoided. The modified true-false is more preferable than the plain true-false. In arranging the items, avoid the regular recurrence of true and false statements. Avoid using specific determiners like: all, never, always, none, nothing, most, often, some, etc. and avoid weak statements as may, sometimes, as a rule, in general, etc. Minimize the use of qualitative terms like: few, great, many, more, etc. Avoid leading clues to answers in all items. Score is the number of correct answers in modified true -false and right answers minus wrong answers in plain true-false. The items should be in interrogative sentences. The same rules as in true-false are applied. There should be three to five choices. The number of choices used in the first item should not be the same number of choices in all the items of this type of test. The choices should be numbered or lettered so that only the number or letter can be written on the blank provided, If the choices are figures, they should be arranged in descending orders.

h. i. j.


Yes-No type
a. b.


Multiple-response type



d. e.

g. h. i.

Avoid the use of a or an as the last word prior to the listing of the responses. Random occurrence of responses should be employed. The choices, as much as possible, should be at the end of statements. The choices should be related in some way or should belong to the same class. Avoid the use of none of these as one of the choices. Score is the number of correct answers.


Best answer type

b. c.

There should be three to five choices all of which are right but vary in their degree of merit, importance or desirability. The other rules for multiple-response items are applied here. Score is the number of correct answers.
There should be two columns. Under A are the stimuli which should be longer and more descriptive than the responses under column B. The response may be a word, a phrase, a number or a formula. The stimuli under column A should be numbered and the responses under column B should be lettered. Answers will be indicated by letters only on lines provided in column A. The number of pairs usually should not exceed twenty items. Less than ten introduces chance elements. Twenty pairs may be used but more than twenty is decidedly wasteful of time. The number of responses in column B should be two or more than the number of items in Column A to avoid guessing. Only one correct matching for each item should be possible. Matching sets should neither be too long nor too short. All items should be on the same page to avoid turning of pages in the process of matching pairs. Score is the number of correct answers.


Matching type

b. c.

e. f. g. h.



Common types of essay questions. (The types are related to purposes of which the essay examinations are to be used.)
Comparison of two things 2. Explanation to the use or meaning of a statement or passage. 3. Analysis 4. Decisions for or against 5. Discussion How to construct essay examinations 1. Determine the objectives or essentials for each question to be evaluated. 2. Phrase questions in simple, clear and concise language. 3. Suit the length of the questions to the time available for answering the essay examination. The teacher should try to answer the test herself. 4. Scoring: a. Have a model answer in advance b. Indicate the number of points for each question. c. Score a point for each essential.

a. b.




The objective test is free from personal bias in scoring. It is easy to score. With a scoring key, the test can be corrected by different individuals without affecting the accuracy of the grades given. It has high validity because it is comprehensive with wide sampling essentials. It is less time-consuming since many times can be answered in a given time. It is fair to students since the slow writers can accomplish the test as the fast as the fast writes.

a. b.


It is difficult to construct and requires more time to prepare. It does not afford the students the opportunity in training for self-and thought organization. It cannot be used to test ability in theme writing or journalistic writing.


b. c.



f. g.

The essay examination can be used in practically all subjects of the school curriculum. It trains students for thought organization and self expression. It affords students opportunities to express their originality and independence of thinking. Only the essay test can be used in some subjects like composition writing and journalistic writing which cannot be tested by the objective type of test. Essay examination measures higher mental abilities like comparison, interpretation, criticism, defense of opinion and decision. The essay test is easily prepared. It is inexpensive.

Disadvantages a. The limited sampling of items makes the test unreliable measure of achievements or abilities. b. Questions usually are not well prepared. c. Scoring is highly subjective due to the influence of the correctors personal judgement. d. Grading of the essay test is inaccurate measure of pupils achievements due to subjectivity of scoring.

Rule 1. Do not give a hint (inadvertently) in the body of the question. Example. The Philippines gained its independence in 1898 and therefore celebrated its centennial year in 2000. __________ Obviously, the answer is FALSE because 100 years from 1898 is not 2000 but 1998.

Rule 2. Avoid using the words always, never, often and other adverbs that tend to be either always true or always false. Example: Christmas always falls on a Sunday because it is a Sabbath day. __________ Statements that use the word always are almost always false. A test-wise student can easily guess his way through a test like these and get high scores even if he does not know anything about the test.

Rule 3. Avoid long sentences as these tend to be true. Keep sentences short. Example: Tests need to be valid, reliable and useful, although, it would require a great amount of time and effort to ensure that tests possess these test characteristics. ____________ Notice that the statement is true. However, we are also not sure which part of the sentence is deemed true by the student. It is just fortunate that in this case, all parts of the above sentence are true and hence, the entire sentence is true. The following example illustrates what can go wrong in long sentences: Example: Tests need to be valid, reliable and useful since it takes very little amount of time, money and effort to construct tests with these characteristics. _____________ The first part of the sentence is true but the second part is debatable and may, in fact, be false. Thus, a true response is correct and also, a false response is correct.

Rule 4. Avoid trick statements with some minor misleading word or spelling anomaly, misplaced phrases, etc. A wise student who does not know the subject matter may detect this strategy and thus can get the answer correctly. Example: True or False. The Principle of our school is Mr. Albert P. Panadero.

The principals name may actually be correct but since the word is misspelled and the entire sentence takes a different meaning, the answer would be false! This is an example of a trick but utterly useless item.

Rule 5. Avoid quoting verbatim from reference materials or textbooks. This practice sends the wrong signal to the students that it is necessary to memorize the textbook word for word and thus, acquisition of higher level thinking skills are not given due importance.

Rule 6. Avoid specific determiners or give-away qualifiers. Students quickly learn that strongly worded statements are more likely to be false than true, for example, statements with never no all or always. Moderately worded statements are more likely to be true than false. Statements with many often sometimes generally frequently or some should be avoided.
Rule 7. With true or false questions, avoid a grossly disproportionate number of either true or false statements or even patterns in the occurrence of true and false statements.

Guidelines for Constructing Multiple Choice Items


Do not use unfamiliar words, terms and phrases. The ability of the item to discriminate or its level of difficulty should stem from the subject matter rather than from the wording of the question.

Example: What would be the system reliability of a computer system whose slave and peripherals are connected in parallel circuits and each one has a known time to failure probability of 0.05?
A student completely unfamiliar with the term slave and peripherals may not be able to answer correctly even if he knew the subject matter of reliability.

Do not use modifiers that are vague and whose meanings can differ from one person to the next such as much, often, usually, etc.

Much of the process of photosynthesis takes place in the:
a. b. c.

Bark Leaf


The qualifier much is vague and could have been replaced by more specific qualifiers like: 90% of the photosynthetic process or some similar phrase that would be more precise. Avoid complex or awkward word arrangements. Also, avoid use of negatives in the stem as this may add unnecessary comprehension difficulties. Example: (Poor) As President of the Republic of the Philippines Corazon Cojuangco Aquino would stand next to which President of the Philippine Republic subsequent to the 1986 EDSA Revolution.

(Better) Who was the President of the Republic of the Philippines after Corazon C. Aquino?


Do not use negatives or double negatives as such statements tend to be confusing. It is best to use simpler sentences rather than sentences that would require expertise in grammatical construction.

Example: (Poor) Which of the following will not cause inflation in the Philippine economy? (Better) Which of the following will cause inflation in the Philippine economy?

Poor: Which does the statement Development patterns acquired during the formative years are NOT Unchangeable imply? A. B. C. D. Better: What does the statement Development patterns acquired during the formative years are changeable imply? A. B. C. D.

Each item stem should be as short as possible; otherwise you risk testing more for reading and comprehension skills.


Distracters should be equally plausible and attractive.

Example: The short story: May Days Eve, was written by which Filipino author? a. Jose Garcia Villa d. Robert Frost b. Nick Joaquin e. Edgar Allan Poe c. Genoveva Edrosa Matute If distracters had all been Filipino authors, the value of the item would be greatly increased. In this particular instance, only the first three carry the burden of the entire item since the last two can be essentially disregarded by the students.

All multiple choice options should be grammatically consistent with the stem.


The length, explicitness, or degree of technicality of alternatives should not be the determinants of the correctness of the answer. The following is an example of this rule: Example: If the three angles of two triangles are congruent, then the triangles are: a. congruent whenever one of the sides of the triangles are congruent b. similar c. equiangular and therefore, must also be congruent d. equilateral if they are equiangular

The correct choice, b, may be obvious from its length and explicitness alone. The other choices are long and tend to explain why they must be the correct choices forcing the students to think that they are, in fact, not the correct answers!


Avoid stems that reveal the answer to another item. Avoid alternatives that are synonyms with others or those that, include or overlap others. Example: What causes ice to transform from solid state to liquid state? a. Change in temperature b. Changes in pressure c. Change in the chemical composition d. Change in heat levels


The options a and d are essentially the same. Thus, a student who spot these identical choices would right away narrow down the field of choices to a, b, and c. The last distracter would play no significant role in increasing the value of the item.

Avoid presenting sequenced items in the same order as in the text. 12) Avoid use of assumed qualifiers that many examinees may not be aware of. 13) Avoid use of unnecessary words or phrases, which are not relevant to the problem at hand (unless such discriminating ability is the primary intent of the evaluation). The items value is particularly damaged if the unnecessary material is designed to distract or mislead. Such items test the students reading comprehension rather than knowledge of the subject matter. Example: The side opposite the thirty degree angle in a right triangle is equal to half the length of the hypotenuse. If the sine of a 30 degree is 0.5 and its hypotenuse is 5, what is the length of the side opposite the 30-degree angle? a. 2.5 b. 3.5 c. 5.5 d. 1.5

The sine of a 30-degree angle is really quite unnecessary since the first sentence already gives the method for finding the length of the side opposite the thirty-degree angle. This is a case of a teacher who wants to make sure that no student in his class gets wrong answer!

Avoid use of non-relevant sources of difficulty such as requiring a complex calculation when only knowledge of a principle is being tested. Note in the previous example, knowledge of the sine of the 30-degree angle would have led some students to use the sine formula for calculation even if a simpler approach would have sufficed.

Avoid extreme specificity requirements in responses. Include as much of the item as possible in the stem. This allows less repetition and shorter choice options.



Use the None of the above option only when the keyed answer is totally correct. When choice of the best response is intended, none of the above is not appropriate, since the implication has already been made that the correct response may be partially inaccurate. Note that use of all of the above may allow credit for partial knowledge. In a multiple option item, (allowing only one option choice) if a student only knew that two (2) options were correct, he could then deduce the correctness of all of the above. This assumes you are allowed only one correct choice. Having compound response choices may purposefully increase difficulty of an item.




The difficulty of a multiple choice item may be controlled by varying the homogeneity or degree of similarity of responses. The more homogeneous, the more difficult the item.

Example: (Less Homogenous) Thailand is located in: a. Southeast Asia b. Eastern Europe c. South America d. East Africa e. Central America (More Homogenous) Thailand is located next to: a. Laos and Kampuchea b. India and China c. China and Malaya d. Laos and China e. India and Malaya


Comparisons between two or more things The development and defense of an opinion Questions of cause and effect Explanations of meanings Summarizing of information in a designated area Analysis Knowledge of relationships Illustrations of rules, principles, procedures and applications Criticisms of the adequacy, relevance or correctness of a concept, idea or information Formulation of new questions and problems Reorganization of facts Discriminations between objects, concepts or events Inferential thinking Note that all these involved the higher-level skills mentioned in Blooms Taxonomy.

Rule 1. Phrase the direction in such a way that students are guided on the key concepts to be included. Example: Write an essay on the topic: Plant Photosynthesis using the following keywords and phrases: chlorophyll, sunlight , water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, by-product, stomata. Note that the students are properly guided in terms of the keywords that the teacher is looking for in this essay examination. An essay such as the one given below will get a score of zero (0). Why? Plant Photosynthesis Nature has its own way of ensuring the balance between food producers and consumers. Plants are


The test should include items that measure the content areas and processes covered in the lesson. APPLICATION: Prepare a TOS or a test blueprint and use it as guide for writing test items. There should be a close association between the intended learning outcomes and the test items. APPLICATION: Match the test items with the instructional objectives


The test items and the directions should be clearly understood by the takers. APPLICATION: Keep the reading difficulty and vocabulary level of the test items as simple as possible. Ensure that the test directions are direct and clear.


Each test item should have only one correct answer. It should be unanimously acceptable to the experts concerned. APPLICATION: State each test item so that only one answer is correct.
The test items should be distinct from each other. They should not be interrelated. APPLICATION: See to it that one test item does not provide help or give clues in answering other test item.




Measure outcomes/effects of instruction Example: Achievement Test



Measure intangible aspects of learners behavior Examples: Intelligence Tests, Personality Tests



Consist of words entailing reading/writing and speaking skills Examples: Achievement test, Diagnostic Test



Composed of numerals, drawings, or symbols Examples: Phil non-verbal intelligence tests



Are constructed by test experts and used over a period of years; are designed to measure broad objectives; and, are administered using uniform procedures Examples: NEAT/NSAT/NAT



Are constructed by classroom teachers and measure specific objectives Examples: Unit Tests, Quarterly tests



Scores are interpreted based on criterion like knowledge or skills Example: Teacher-made tests



Describe the performance of an examinee in terms of the relative position in a group Example: Standardized tests



Have no limit; measure accuracy rather than speed of response Example: Classroom tests



Have time limit; measure performance based on the number of tasks done at a given time. Examples: Reading test, Typing test


type tests

Require the examinee to provide answers to the given items Examples: Short answer test, Completion test


type tests

Ask the examinee to choose the correct from the given options Examples: Binary Choice/True-False, Multiple Choice test

Cognitive Tests
Measure knowledge, abilities and thinking skills Examples: Achievement test, Attitude test, Intelligence test

Affective Tests
Measure attitudes, values, motivation, social skills Examples: Rating scales, interviews, questionnaires, sociogram

Performance-based Tests
Measure communication and psychomotor skills as well as learning outputs like reports, projects. Example: Performance tests


Evaluation Measures

Restricted-type Tasks
Measure a narrowly defined skill Require brief response Are specific and structured Ex: Constructing a histogram for the data provided
Writing a term paper

Extended-type Tasks

More complex, elaborate and time-consuming Ex: Creating a commercial advertisement; putting up a newsletter


Assessment Measures

Teacher Observation
Unstructured=open-ended; does not require checklist or rating scale for recording Structured= uses a checklist or rating scale Autobiography=the learner describes his own life as he experienced or viewed it. Self-expression= the learner responds to a particular question or issue Self-description= the learner paints a picture of himself

Learner Self-Reports


An instrument used in rating performance-based tasks, consisting of specific descriptions used as criteria in scoring different levels of performance or qualities of products of learning.
Holistic rubric describes the overall quality of the performance or product and uses only one rating for the entire work. Analytic rubric describes the quality of the performance or product based on the identified criteria for rating, where each criterion is rated independently of the other criteria.



and clear description of each criterion to use in rating Balanced number of levels to assess Sequence of criteria Match between objectives of assessment and rubric items Specific weights or points given to each criterion

HOMEWORK- provides extra practice in applying knowledge and skills. It is used to extend, expand, and elaborate student learning. It is used to check on student learning to diagnostically determine which specific areas of knowledge and skills need further instruction. QUIZZES- are used for both formative and summative purposes. A quiz is a structural procedure to check on student learning of specific skills, standards, or objectives that are part of more general goals for major unit of instruction.


Short Used frequently Results provide individualized instructional correctives


the teachers response of transferring information from the teacher to the student following an assessment


Relates performance to standards Relates performance to strategies Indicates progress Indicates corrective procedures Is given frequently and immediately Is specific and descriptive Focuses on key errors Focuses on effort attributions

Effective praise if sincere, spontaneous, natural, accurate, varied and straightforward. It focuses on progress, internal attributions, specific behaviors and corrective actions


Focus on specific accomplishments Attribute success to effort and ability Praise spontaneously Refer to prior achievement Individualize and use variety Give praise immediately Praise accurately with credibility Praise privately Focus on progress

Which type of pencil-paper test is dichotomous choice?


Which objective domain includes emotions and feelings?


When a student can name, list, recall, and describe objects, which cognitive level does she acquire?


In the revised Blooms taxonomy, what is the highest cognitive level?



G word refers to the broad statement about student learning?



E word refers to the teachers beliefs about what students are capable of doing?


type of question requires multiple responses?



type of question requires only one response/answer?


If a quarterly test is a summative assessment, what kind of assessment is oral questioning?


Debate, speech, projects are examples of what tasks?


Which assessment method requires students to construct a more extensive and elaborate answer?


Which assessment method refers to students reporting or evaluating themselves?


Before the teacher develops a test, he first considers its appropriateness, what criterion of high quality assessment does he consider?


What is this process of determining whether the test items are good or not?


Which criterion is concerned with the consistency of the test scores?


What is the process in which the students actively receive, interpret and relate info?


Which process begins planning a lesson?


Instructional objectives must be SMART? What does this acronym mean?

Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Resource-oriented, Timebound

If a teacher assesses only what has been taught, which assessment criterion is observed?


If among the five choices in a test item, where C is the correct answer and none chose it as their answer, is it an effective distracter?


What does the teacher do if he emphasizes that boys do better in math and girls do better in linguistics?


Item Analysis is the process of determining whether the test items are good or not. The teacher prepares a draft of a test. Such a draft is subjected to item analysis and validation in order to ensure that the final version of the test would be useful and functional. First, the teacher tries out the draft test to a group of students of similar characteristics as the intended test takers (try-out test). From the try-out group, each item will be analyzed in terms of its ability to discriminate between those who know and those who do not know and also its level of difficulty (item analysis phase). The item analysis will provide information that will allow the teacher to decide whether to revise or replace an item (item revision phase). Then, the final draft of the test is subjected to validation if the intent is to make use of the test as a standard test for the particular unit or period.

ITEM DIFFICULTY is defined as the number of students who are able to answer the item correctly divided by the total number of students. Example: What is the item difficulty index of an item if 25 students are unable to answer it correctly while 75 answered it correctly? The total number of students is 100, hence, the item difficulty index is 75/100 or 75%.

Difficulty Index

- Interpretation

- Action

0.26 0.75 0.76 above

- difficult
- average - easy
= Ru + Rl ________ T

- Revise or discard
- retain - revise or discard

Discrimination Index - Interpretation

- Action

0.00- 0.20

- item is questionable/
very difficult - discard

0.21 0.80
0.81 1.00

moderately difficult

- revise
- retain

- very easy
= Ru + Rl ________ T


Item No. Group

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower

0 2 0 2 0 1 0 5 0 1 0 4 0 1 0 2 0 1 15* 5*

0 2 0 1 14* 3* 0 3 0 2 15* 1* 10* 1* 15* 8* 14* 2* 0 7

0 1 0 2 1 3 0 2 0 2 0 4 5 10 0 2 0 9 0 1

15* 10* 15* 10* 0 8 15* 4* 15 10 0 6 0 3 0 3 1 3 0 2

Difficulty Discrimination Index Index (15 + 10)/30 (15 - 10)/15 .83 .33 .83 .56 .63 .83 .53 .33 .33 .36 .73 .33 .93 .6

9 10

.53 .66

.8 .66

Response Item No. Group 1 2 Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower Upper Lower A 5 2 0 7 0 11 0 15 0 4 B 0 6 10 1 14* 0* 5 3 10 6 C 10 10 5 2 4 3 0 2 0* 2* D 5 2* 5* 10* 2 6 15* 0* 10 8

Difficulty Discrimina Decision Index tion Index

4 5



The average of a group of scores Can be affected by extreme scores Stable, varies less from sample to sample The most reliable measure is desired. There are no extreme scores or a few with very high, scores and a few with very low scores

When to use:



The midpoint or middle of a distribution of scores. Fifty percent of the scores fall above it and 5o% fall below it. It is not affected by extreme scores. There are extremely high scores and extremely low scores.

When to use:



The score that occurs most frequently in the distribution. The quickest estimate of typical performance is wanted

When to use