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GITAM UNIVERSITY

In Association With

Indian Institute of Safety Management

Safety in Manufacturing
By

Lynel. S
Executive Director, IISM

IGC 2 ELEMENT 4

Work Equipment Hazards and Risk controls

Work Equipment Hazards and Risk controls


Types of Work Equipment:

Hand Tools Power tools Machinery

Work Equipment
Hand held Tools:

Work Equipment
Hand held Non-powered Tools Hazards:

Broken/Split handles Incorrect use of saws and chisels Splayed spanners Chipped or loose hammer heads Incorrectly sharpened or blunt chisels Dull tools Damaged saw blades Use of pipes or similar equipments as extension handles Mushroom headed chisels

Work Equipment
Hand held Non-powered Tools Control Measures:

Tools made of suitable quality materials Use correct tools for the job Prior inspection before every use Do not use screw driver as chisel Do not use flat screw driver to remove Phillips screw Do not use the damaged tools Discarding or prompt repair of defective tools Use of alloy or bronze hammers to prevent sparks Proper maintenance and storage PPE Information, Instruction, Training and supervision

Work Equipment
Hand held Powered Tools:

Work Equipment
Safe use of Hand held Powered Tools:

Do not carry tool by cord Never pull the cord to disconnect Keep cord away from heat Disconnect when not in use Keep observers at safe distance Secure work with clamps Avoid accidental starting Use RCDs on electrical tools Maintain good footing and balance Wear appropriate PPE Inspect and maintain tools Report defects and remove faulty tools

Work Equipment
Mechanical Hazards:

Entanglement - Machinery which grips loose clothing, hair or working material such as emery paper. Trapping/Drawing In Trap between running gear wheels or rollers or between belts and pulley drives

Shearing Shears part of the body typically hands or fingers between moving and fixed parts of the machine or between two moving parts
Crushing Trapped between moving part of a machine and fixed structure such as wall or any material in a machine

Work Equipment
Mechanical Hazards:

Impact A Moving object/part directly strikes a person Puncture Through ejection of particles from a machine or sharp operating component forced to the skin Friction/Abrasion Contact with grinding wheels or sanding machines Cutting Contact with cutting edge such as saw or rotating disc Ejection High pressure fluid leakage from hydraulic system

Work Equipment
Entanglement:

Work Equipment
Trapping/Drawing In:

Work Equipment
Shearing:

Work Equipment
Crushing:

Work Equipment
Impact:

Work Equipment
Stabbing/Puncture:

Work Equipment
Friction/Abrasion:

Work Equipment
Cutting/Severing:

Work Equipment
Ejection:

Work Equipment
Non-Mechanical Hazards:

Noise Vibration Electricity Thermal High & Low temperatures Radiation Pressure & vacuum Dust and fumes Fire and Explosion Biological Chemical Ergonomics, Manual Handling .etc

Work Equipment
Methods of Protection Guards:

Fixed guards Interlock guards Automatic guards Trip devices Adjustable and self adjustable guards Two Hand Control Devices

Work Equipment
Fixed Guards:

A machine guard that is attached to the machine with screws or other devices that require a tool for removal.

Work Equipment
Interlock Guards:

A guard that shuts off or disengages the power whenever it is opened or pushed out of position.

Work Equipment
Automatic Guards:

A guard which operates as the machine goes through its cycle.

Work Equipment
Trip Devices:

A type of sensing device that uses a trigger mechanism to disengage the machine when the operator accidentally or purposefully presses a bar, a wire, or another type of switch.

Work Equipment
Adjustable and Self adjustable guards:
A guard that may be moved or reconfigured to allow for different types of production, such as different sizes of stock or raw materials.

Work Equipment
Two Hand Control Devices:

A machine start mechanism that requires simultaneous pressure on two separate controls to activate the machine or machine cycle

Work Equipment
Other Methods - Safeguarding Devices

Protection Appliances Emergency stop controls PPE Information, Instruction, Training and Supervision

Work Equipment
Protection Appliances:
Jigs, Holders and push sticks are few of the protection appliances help to keep the operators hands at a safe distance from the danger area.

Work Equipment
Emergency stop controls:
Rapid response to potentially dangerous situations

Work Equipment
Machinery maintenance Hazards:

Working whilst motion Unintentional starting of machinery Dust, fumes, Vapour, gases and smoke Residues E.g. Toxic, flammables, corrosive Poor lighting Ergonomics Extreme temperature Chemical Hazards Biological Hazards Stored energy Residual high or low pressure

Work Equipment
Machinery maintenance Hazards:

Movement due to gravity Hazardous atmosphere Restricted access and egress Unauthorized entry Incompetent person Person unaware about danger Lack of warning signs and barriers Mechanical & Non Mechanical Hazards

Work Equipment
Machinery maintenance Control Measures:

Isolation Mechanical and Electrical Allow hot machinery to cool Ventilate work area Provide adequate lighting Means of access and egress Provide appropriate barriers Release stored energy Release residual pressure Plan safe system of work Ensure safe working environment Competent person

Work Equipment
Machinery maintenance Control Measures:

Adequate resources Make sure the availability of suitable safety equipments Appropriate PPE/RPE Information, Instruction, Training and Supervision

Biological & Chemical Health Hazards and Risk control

Biological
Forms of Biological Agents:

Bacteria Viruses Fungi

Biological
Diseases caused by Biological Agents:

Rabies by bite of a Wild infected Animal Anthrax - disease caused by the bacteria found in animals Legionnaires disease - a type of pneumonia or lung infection Weils disease - fatal infection transmitted through urine from
infected rats (due to Leptospira bacteria)

Hepatitis - Inflation of Liver caused by virus AIDS

Biological Hazards
Biological Hazards Control Measure:

Cleaning and Disinfecting Water treatment programmes Vermin control - (pest control) Personal hygiene Immunisation Health surveillance Specific training Appropriate PPE/RPE

Chemical Hazards
Forms of Chemical Agents and Routes of Entry:

Gases Vapour Mists Aerosols Smoke Fumes Dusts Liquids Solids

Routes of Entry:

Inhalation Ingestion Absorption Injection

Chemical Hazards
Chemical Hazards: Skin Contact Irritation, Dermatitis, Burns Damage to Organs or System Inhalation Ingestion Skin Contact Acute or Chronic Effect Fire and Explosion Environmental Issues

Chemical Hazards Control Measures Labeling MSDS Safe Storage Safe Use

Chemical Hazards Control Measures


LEV Local Exhaust Ventilation: (Workplace Control)
Discharge to atmosphere

Hood

Ducting

Filter

Fan

Chemical Hazards Control Measures


Provide IITS (Information, Instruction, Training & supervision)

Provide PPE / RPE Health surveillance and Vaccination Responsible Disposal of waste

Chemical Hazards Control Measures


Long term exposure limit (LTEL):

This is an amount time weighted average, you can safely breath, based on an eight-hour day over a period of 5 days.

Short term exposure limit (STEL):

This is an amount maximum average, you can safely be exposed to 15 minute period.

Chemical Hazards Control Measures


Personal Hygiene and Protection regimes:

Use of PPE Check the PPE often for excessive contamination, wear, tears, cuts, or pinholes. Cleaning and decontamination. Basic hand washing and skin care

Electrical Safety

Electrical Safety
Electrical Hazards:

Electrical Burns Electrical Shock Arcing Fire of electrical origin Explosion of electrical origin Secondary Effects

Remember

B SAFE

with Electricity

Electrical Safety
Factors affecting the severity of harm:

o o o o

Voltage and current Route taken through the body Length of contact time Health & age of the person

Size of current passing through the body depends on: Dryness of the skin, Natural body resistance, Ground conditions, & Type of footwear. The frequency

Electrical Safety
Effects of electricity on human body:

Muscular Contraction Tissue burns at entry and exit Fibrillation Irregular heart beat Cardiac arrest Respiratory paralysis Asphyxiation Physical trauma

Electrical Safety
Electrical Fire: Causes

Overloading Incorrect fuses Poor insulation and wiring Loose connections Misuse of equipments Unsuitable equipment Inadequate maintenance Use of defective equipments Overheating of cables and electrical junctions Overheating due to thermal insulation and lack of ventilation Flammable material too close to electrical equipments Flammable atmosphere

Electrical Safety
Secondary Effects of Electricity:

Fall from height Sudden movement of body- Throw off Dislocation and amputation Impact with surrounding objects Unintentional movement of machinery Failure of control measures and security systems Loss of information and properties Loss of reputation

Electrical Safety
Isolation:

Shutting off the electricity supply Ensure that it cannot be re energised by applying some form of lock (Lock out or tag out) Effectiveness of isolation PTW system Should be clearly labelled

Electrical Safety
Earthing:

Electricity will always try to reach earth and earthing means providing a low resistance path to earth Specialist testing and maintenance Professional installation

Electrical Safety
Fuse:

A specially designed weak link which is designed to melt at a predetermined value of current Protects equipment Will not protect individuals Easy to override Unsuitable or wrong fuse may be used

Electrical Safety
Circuit Breakers:

Electromagnetic devices which perform the same function as fuses but operate faster Automatically switch or trip under fault conditions Does not protect the individual

Electrical Safety
Residual Current Devices(RCD/ELCB):

Compares the electricity flow to the equipment with the return flow and if a difference is detected the equipment is isolated Very sensitive 2 mA Very fast 2 ms Rapid and sensitive Easy to use, test and reset Cannot be reset with a fault on the circuit Mechanical device which could fail Only protects against earth leakage faults

Electrical Safety
Reduced Voltage System:

Reducing voltage by step down transformer - 110volts or 55 volts - Centre tap to earth 55 volts shock Reduce the effect of electric shock

Colour coded yellow for 110V and Blue for 240V


Special equipment required for 110 V

Electrical Safety
Double Insulation:

Two separate layers of insulation are provided which allows for fault detection where one layer has failed the other still provides protection Not normally used with earth Physical damage may failed to protect

Electrical Safety
Portable Electrical Equipment Conditions and practice leads to accidents:

Using unsuitable apparatus Inadequate maintenance or misuse Using defective apparatus Modifications by unauthorised personnel Modifications whilst the appliance is live Using equipment in unsuitable environments No system of inspection No removal of damaged equipment

Fire Safety

Copyright NIST Institute Private Limited - v.1.0 , May11

Fire Safety
FIRE: Is a chemical Chain reaction, in which Oxygen
combines with heat in the presence of required heat.

Fire Triangle Graphical representation of elements(Oxygen, Heat and Fuel) are combined together.

Smothering

Cooling

Starving
Copyright NIST Institute Private Limited - v.1.0 , May11

Fire Safety
Sources of Ignition

Naked flames Electricity (Overheating/Arcing) Smoking materials Hot work (Welding, burning) Chemical reactions (Giving off heat) Heating appliances (Hot surfaces) Friction (Inadequate lubrication) Static electricity Lightning Unsafe use and handling of flammable liquids, gases and materials
Copyright NIST Institute Private Limited - v.1.0 , May11

Fire Safety
Classification of Fires

Class A: Combustible solids e.g. Paper, Wood and Plastics Class B: Flammable liquids & liquefied solids e.g. Oil, Grease

Class C: Flammable gases e.g. Propane, H2S Class D: Flammable metals e.g. sodium, magnesium Class F or K: C cooking media e.g. Cooking oils and fats

Fire involving energized electrical equipment

Fire Safety
Method of Heat Transfer

Conduction Convection Radiation Direct Burning

Copyright NIST Institute Private Limited - v.1.0 , May11

Fire Safety
Common causes of fire

Smokers materials Faulty or misused electrical equipments Deliberate Arson Loss of control burning rubbish Heating Equipments Hot work Welding, Cutting etc., Mechanical Heating Friction Unsafe use of flammable liquids and gases Unsafe storage of flammable materials

Copyright NIST Institute Private Limited - v.1.0 , May11

Fire Safety

Copyright NIST Institute Private Limited - v.1.0 , May11

Fire Safety

Copyright NIST Institute Private Limited - v.1.0 , May11

Fire Safety
Fire Prevention

Design and maintenance of electrical equipments Lubrication of machinery to prevent friction Control of portable heaters Control of ignition sources Control of smoking Control of oxygen Control of hot work Eliminate or reduce the storage of flammable materials Site security Good Housekeeping Information, Instruction, Training and supervision
Copyright NIST Institute Private Limited - v.1.0 , May11

Fire Safety
Fire Protection

Compartmentation - Splitting a building into separate sealed areas made of fire-resisting materials Restricts the spread of fire and smoke within a building Structural fire protection Main fabric of building and internal partition Thermal upgrades Bricks, Concrete and structural steels Fire stopping, cavity barriers and fire doors

Fire Safety
Fire Precaution

Means of detection and warning Fire/Flame/Smoke detectors and fire alarms Means of escape

Means of fighting the fire


Emergency evacuation procedures Information, Instruction, Training and supervision

Fire Safety
Means of detecting fire

Smoke detection Flame detection Flammable gas detection Heat detection

Fire Safety

Fire Safety
Means of Fire Alarms

An audible means of sounding the alarm Shouting, Gongs, Bells, etc., Break glass manual call points on exit routes and adjacent to the final exit Automatic systems Continuous detection alarm sounding

Fire Safety
Types of extinguishers

Water Foam Dry powder Carbon dioxide Wet Chemical foam

Fire Safety
Types of extinguishers - Water

Colour code Fire class A Method Remove Heat Action Cool the fuel and surroundings

Fire Safety
Types of extinguishers - Foam

Colour code Fire class B & A Method Blanketting Action Barrier between the fuel and oxygen

Fire Safety
Types of extinguishers Dry powder

Colour code Fire class A, B, C & E Method Remove oxygen Action Functions by reacting chemically with constituents of fire

Fire Safety
Types of extinguishers Carbon dioxide

Colour code

Black

Fire class B & E Method Remove oxygen Action Cools and excludes oxygen

Fire Safety
Types of extinguishers Wet chemical foam

Colour code Fire class F or K Method Remove oxygen Action Cools and excludes oxygen

Fire Safety
Fixed Installations

Fire hose reels Sprinkler systems Flood systems

Fire Safety

Fire Safety

Fire Safety

Fire Safety
Siting of extinguishers

According to the specification of fire certificate / Fire Plan 30m max travel distance Minimum of 1 extinguisher per 200 Sq. m. Noticeable and accessible Handle not over 1.1m above floor In corridors, inside door ways or at a point of specific use Suitable type

Protection against damage and weather

Fire Safety

Fire Safety
Maintenance of Fire Arrangements

Fire extinguishers Escape routes Emergency lighting Fire detection equipments and alarms Daily checks Weekly Inspection Annually serviced by third party Five yearly extended service/discharge Twenty yearly replacement Evacuation procedures and maintenance of records

Fire Safety
Emergency Evacuation Procedure

Means of raising the alarm Close all windows and doors Leave the building by the nearest available exit and report to the assembly point Contacting the emergency services Fire evacuation routes Fire evacuation signs Who are and the role of fire marshals Assembly points/place of safety/roll call When not to tackle a fire Do not attempt to fight a major fire Do not take risks Do not stop to collect your personal belonging