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dr.

Afiana Rohmani
FK UNIMUS BLOK4, 2013

Menghasilkan

gamet (oosit) Menghasilkan hormon seksual Memelihara oosit bila dibuahi

Menarche

: Menopause :

Lapisan

Epitel germinativum Tunika albuginemia Korteks : folikel ovarium berkembang dengan oositnya. Medulla : vaskuler, ji

Intrauterin

: 7juta oogonia, berhenti pada tahap meiosis 2. (haploid) sebagian atresia. Pubertas : 300.000 oosit ovulasi, (siklus mens) Menopause : sisa 8000 oosit atresia

Folikel

ovarium = oosit dikelilingi sel-sel

folikel Perkembangan : 1. Fol primordial 2. Fol unilaminer 3. Fol multilaminer 4. Fol sekunder

Atas

rangsangan hrmn FSH Fol primer : Fol unilaminer :sel-sel folikel mitosis 1lapis Fol multilaminer : pmbntukan zona pelucida (glikoprotein) ,menglilingi oosit.

Fol

sekunder : sel-sel folikel tambah banyak /tebal. Muncul celah2 cairan , menyatu = antrum. Sel-sel folikel yg mngelilingi oosit = corona radiata Stroma d sekitar folikel mbntuk teka. Teka = pnghasil hormon steroid (androstenedion). Steroid estrogen, (ats pengaruh FSH)

sklus haid = 1 folikel matang, = folikel de graff. Yang lain atresia. Proses dr fol primordial mjd fol matang = 90hari.

- The hilus of the ovary is where all the nerves and vessels enter the organ. The medulla contains loose connective tissue, abundant blood vessels and lymphatics, and nerves. The numbers in the top left panel indicate the stages of follicular development. - The surface epithelium of the ovary (bottom left) is called the mesothelium, which sits on the tunica albuginea. Note the appearance of primordial follicles within the outer cortex. - The oocyte continues to grow at the same time follicular or granulosa epithelial cells continue to divide and form multiple layers (multilaminar), as shown in the bottom right).

- The top panel shows a primary follicle. The multilayered granulosa cells secrete a glycoprotein and proteoglycan rich fluid that accumulates in the spaces between the cells. - Note how the granulosa cells are separated by the surrounding stromal or thecae by a distinct basement membrane (arrows). - The oocyte is surrounded by a prominent glycoprotein coat called the zona pellucida (ZP).

- With further development, there is a single fluid-filled space called an antrum. This is characteristic of a secondary follicle (bottom panel). - The oocyte is supported by a mound of granulosa cells called the cumulus oophorus. The oocyte is still surrounded by the zona pellucida, and outside the zona pellucida are some granulosa cells that may accompany the oocyte when it is ovulated. This layer of granulosa cells outside the zona pellucida is known as the corona radiata. - The thecal cells also continue to differentiate into theca interna and externa cells with specialized functions, as shown in the next slide.

- The stromal theca interna cells (top left) lie immediately outside the granulosa cells, separated by the basement membrane. The theca interna cells are larger and paler staining than regular stromal cells or the surrounding theca externa cells. The interna cells produce steroid precursors that are converted to estrogen by the granulosa cells. - If the ovum is fertilized and implanted in the uterus, the mature follicle converts into the corpus luteum (bottom left; CL), or yellow body. It acts as an endocrine organ that secretes progesterone. Note the formation of inner granulosa lutein and outer theca lutein cells. - The bottom right panel compares the granulosa lutein cells (GLC) with the theca lutein cells (TLC).

- If the ovum is not fertilized, it is expelled from the uterus with menstruation. The corpus luteum degenerates and forms the corpus albicans (top panel), or white body. There are dense accumulations of collagen, which looks like a scar.

- The corpus albicans is also formed during the later half of pregnancy after the placenta takes over the role of steroid (progesterone) secretion from the corpus luteum.

Dinding

folikel matang oosit keluar. Oosit kluar dibungkus zona pelucida, corona radiata, sdikit cairan folikel. Mnetap di tuba uterina (24jam)

Setelah

ovulasi, sel-sel folikel dan teka membentuk kelenjar endokrin = corpus Luteum Msekresi progesteron &estrogen (atas pengeruh LH), slama +/- 10hari.

Jika

tdk hamil CL brdegenerasi, progesteron turun, mjadi corpus albicans. Estrogen turun FSH naik folikel brkembang lagi. Jika hamil HCG mngambil alih LH. Progesteron tetap nail

- In the following slides, we will conclude by looking at the ovary and going through the various stages of the development of the ovum and follicle. - Shown to the right is a schematic of the oval cycle. Unlike the male testis, the female ovary already contains all of its oocytes at birth. - Primordial follicles develop into primary follicles, followed by mature Graafian follicles. When the follicle ruptures, it releases the ovum to travel through the fallopian tubes to the uterus. The follicle continues to develop into the corpus luteum and corpus albicans.

Mukosa = lipatan2 panjang, terut ampula. Epitel kolumner bersilia sekretorik 2. Muskular tebal 3. Serosa = peritoneum viseral
1.

- The uterine or fallopian tubes, or oviduct, contain complex mucosal folds with distinct ciliated columnar epithelium. The ampulla (top left) shows the oviduct in low power. In the inset, small arrows point to ciliated cells, while arrowheads point to bulging, non-ciliated secretory (peg) cells. - The funnel-shaped opening called the infundibulum contains many finger-like projections called fimbriae (bottom left). During ovulation, the fimbriae get close to the ovary and help to sweep the ovum that is released into the abdominal cavity. - As the oviduct approaches the uterus, the mucosal folds become less complex. The uterine or interstitial portion (bottom right) contains a relatively simple lumen and columnar epithelium.

3
1. 2. 3.

lapisan : Endometrium : lap mukosa Miometrium : lap otot tebal Perimetrium : lap serosa /ji

Lamina

propria yg mngandung kelenjar

tubuler. Epitel sekretorik = epitel pelapisnya 2 lapisan : 1. Lapisan basal = di bawahnya lap fungsional , relatif stabil 2. Lapisan fungsional = lap yg mngalami perub siklus haid.

Ats

pengaruh hormon estrogen. Kelenjar brbentuk tabung lurus, dengan lumen sempit. Akhir fase : tebal endometrium 2-3mm.

- The uterus is divided into endometrial (E), myometrial (M), and perimetrial (P) layers (top left). The endometrium prepares for implantation of an ovum by cycling through proliferative and secretory phases. It can be divided into the basal and functional layers. The basal layer remains relatively unchanged through the cycles. - The proliferative phase (bottom) is characterized by long, relatively straight endometrial glands, as indicated by the arrows. -

Dmulai

setelah ovulasi. Ats pngaruh hormon progesteron dr CL. Kelenjar brkelok-kelok, timbunan glikogen di bawah epitel kelenjar. Tebal endometrium 5mm. Akumulasi sekret.

- The most characteristic change in the secretory phase of the endometrium is the saw-tooth or serrated appearance of the glands (top left). - The serrated endometrial glands are magnified . Note the abundance of coiled or spiral arteries that supply the entire functional endometrium. The secretory cells are also shorter with rounder nuclei than those during the proliferative phase. - During menstruation, the endometrial surface epithelium undergoes ischemia, which weakens the vascular walls resulting in hemorrhage.

Lapisan

fungsional nekrosis, terlepas, sisa endometrium mengkerut.

- The cervix uteri is shown in three different magnifications in the top panel. The red arrows point to the junction and change in epithelium, from the columnar epithelium of the cervical canal to the stratified squamous epithelium of the vagina.

- This is known as the strato-columnar junction, and earliest signs indicative of cervical cancer occur at this junction.

- The cervical canal contains complex folds that resemble glands. The epithelium contains simple, tall columnar mucussecreting epithelial cells.

- The cervix also contains much smooth muscle and dense connective tissue.

Lapisan
1. 2. 3.

Mukosa Muskularis Adventitia

Mukosa

epitel squamus komplek 150 m(tebal) Sintesis glikogen (atas pengaruh estrogen) Bakteri mrubah glikogen mjd asam laktat (pH rendah)

Lap.

Muskularis:
Adventitia :

Lapisan longitudinal +sirkuler Ji padat , kaya serat elastin tebal.

Lap.

- The vagina wall contains abundant connective tissue with large amounts of elastin. There is also a thick muscular layer (bracket in top panel). The inset shows the muscular layer in more detail, with longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers.

- The adventitia contains large nerves and arteries that blend with the connective tissue of the pelvis.

- The vaginal epithelium (bottom panel) is covered with non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that contain abundant glycogen in the cytoplasm. The glycogen is released into the vaginal lumen, where bacterial action produces lactic acid to acidify the mucosa and protect it.

- The arrows indicate surface cells that can be collected for Pap smears to provide information on hormonal status and any abnormalities.

Lobus-lobus

kelenjar tubuloalveolar Tiap lobus dipisahkan ji &jar lemak. Lobus duktus interlobularis duktus laktiferus sinus laktiferus Muara papilla mammae. Masa ovulasi =estrogen mningkat proliferasi sel duktus mammae kencang.

Proliferasi

alveoli di ujung duktus. Alveoli = sel-sel epitel kelenjar, ada mioepitel di skitarnya. Masa laktasi :

Susu diproduksi sel epitel alveoli, ngumpul di dalam lumennya dan di dalam duktus.

Ji

skeliling alveoli banyak sel limfosit dan sel plasma msekresi IgA.

Mammae laktasi

Smoga sukses