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High Voltage Power Cables

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

Cable used beneath the surface of ground Wire covered with insulation Costlier than overhead lines General construction of underground cable) consist of:
Cores or conductor Insulation Metallic sheath Bedding Armouring serving

power

cable(

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

Core A cable may have one or more than one core depending upon the type of service for which it is intended Each core has many stranded conductors Stranding increases flexibility as well as current carrying capacity of the cable
Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

Insulation
Each core or conductor is provided with suitable thickness of insulation The thickness of the layer depends upon the voltage to be withstand by the cable Commonly used insulating materials are:
Rubber Vulcanized Indian rubber Polythene PVC Paper

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

The insulating material should have the following properties;


High insulation resistance against leakage current Mechanical strength to withstand rough use Not be hygroscopic Remain unaffected by acid, alkalis, chemicals, salts etc.

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

Sheath
Over a core a sheath is provided This protects the cable from water, gases, acids and alkalis

Bedding
Over the sheath , a layer of some fibrous material (jute) is applied This protects the cable from corrosion and mechanical injury due to armouring

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

Armouring
Over the bedding, the cable is given one or two layers of steel wire Its purpose is to protect the cable from any mechanical damage during its laying into trenches This layer is known as Armouring

Serving
Above all, layer of jute or hessian table is provided as protection against atmospheric troubles

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

A cable may or may not have all these insulating layers The number of layers depends upon the voltage of the cable and place of its use

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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The factor which ultimately limits the current carrying capacity is the maximum operating temperature which may be sustained by the cable throughout its life without risk of damage or deterioration Heat generated in the cable is due to (a) ohmic loss in the conductor, (b) the dielectric loss in the insulating medium and (c) the sheath and intersheath losses. The heat so generated is radiated to the surroundings The current that can be carried depends on the conductivity of the surrounding medium as well, so that the same cable would have different ratings depending on whether the cable is buried or not.

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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Under ground cable can be classified in following ways:


According to According to According to According to the the the the voltage no. of cores shape of the core insulating medium

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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Low tension (L.T.) cable upto 1 kV High tension (H.T.) cable upto 11 kV Super tension (S.T.) cable upto 33 kV Extra high tension(EHT) cable from 33 kV to 66 kV Extra super voltage cable beyond 132 k v

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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Classification based on number of cores


Single core cable Multicore cable

Classification based on the shape of the core


Circular shape Oval shape Sector shape

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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Used for low voltage upto 1000 v Simple in construction Doesnt have Armouring and bedding Less no of insulation layers

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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used upto 11 kv In special cases use can be extended upto 22 kV

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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Suitable upto 33 kV but may be extended upto 66 kV Two types:


H type cable S.L type cable

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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each core is screened and then individually sheathed with lead These do not have an overall lead sheath

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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For voltage beyond 66 kV pressure cable instead of solid insulated cable Two types
Oil filled pressure cable Gas filled pressure cable

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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Pressurized oil is used Supplied from reservoir at fixed location Two types:
Single core conductor channel Oil duct located in the filler spaces

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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The reliability of underground cable network depends to a considerable extent upon proper laying and attachment of fittings There are three methods of laying of underground cable commonly used in practice:
Direct laying Draw in system Solid laying

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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This is the simplest and cheap method A trench of 1.5m deep and 1 m wide is dug Over it, a layer of sand of suitable thickness is laid The sand doesnt allow dampness or moisture to destroy the cable insulation After this, the trench is covered with a brick masonry or concrete If two or more cables are laid in the same trench, sufficient space should be provided between them to avoid mutual heating and transfer of fault from one cable to other
Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University 26

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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In congested areas, the direct laying system cannot be employed and the draw-in system is more suitable and practical In this system , a line of underground ducts or pipes is laid and cable is draw-in or pulled through manholes, made at regular distances on the route Thus repair and extension become easy and can be done without opening the ground

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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In this method, the cable is laid in open pipes or trough dug out in earth along the cable route After cable is laid in position, the troughing is filled with a bituminous(impure mixtures of hydrocarbons) or asphaltic(Mixed asphalt and crushed gravel or sand) and covered over Good mechanical strength Repairing is very difficult Costly

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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Responsible factors:
Rough handling during laying of cables Chemical reaction of the soil with the insulation Overheating of cable

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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Open circuit fault


When the conductor of the cable is broken or a joint is pulled out and there is no current in the cable, such faults are known as open circuit faults

Breakdown of cable insulation


When the insulation of the cable gets damaged the current starts flowing from the core to earth of the cable sheath Such faults are known as ground or earth fault

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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Cross or short circuit fault


When the insulation between two cables or two cores of multi core cable gets damaged the current starts flowing from one cable to another cable or from one core to another core of a multi core cable directly Such faults are known as short circuit faults

Er. Amrit Paudel/Lecturer/Pokhara University

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