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Engineering Ceramics

Definition Ceramics are inorganic, non-metallic materials processed or consolidated at high temperatures

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Microstructural Features Of A Crystalline Ceramic


Grain boundaries where 2 crystals meet Grains (crystals) of the ceramic

Pores left by processing (1 to 1000 m)

Microcracks caused by thermal or mechanical stress

Particles or grains of a second phase (in alloys) Revision 1: April 2011

General Properties Of Ceramics

High hardness.
- This is largely due to the operation of the strong covalent
bonds between atoms in their crystal structures

Low ductility. Low tensile strength.


- Due to the presence of micro-cracks.

High compressive strength. High brittleness. High abrasion resistance.


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General Properties Of Ceramics cont


Extremely stiff and rigid. High melting or degradation temperature. Low coefficient of expansion. Low electrical conductivity. High resistance to oxidation. High chemical (corrosion) resistance.

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General Properties Of Ceramics contd

Low density/high specific compressive strength even at elevated temperature (600oC 1600oC) with little creep.

For other temperatures, the following materials are more cost-effective: 22oC 300oC (Polymers) 22oC 600oC (Metals / alloys)

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Comparison Of The Hardness Of Ceramics To Other Materials

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Comparison Of Metals With Ceramic Materials


Metals Crystal structure Metallic bond Good electrical conductivity Opaque Uniform atoms High tensile strength Low shear strength Ceramics Crystal structure Ionic/covalent bond Poor conductivity Transparent (in thin sections) Different-sized atoms Poor tensile strength High shear strength
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Comparison Of Metals With Ceramic Materials contd


Metals Good ductility Plastic flow Impact strength Non porous Relatively high weight Moderate hardness High density None Poor impact strength Initial high porosity Lower weight Extreme hardness Initial low density
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Ceramics Poor ductility (brittle)

Applications Of Common Ceramics

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Cross section of assembled automotive spark plug showing position of ceramic insulator (in red)

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Typical Machine Applications Of Ceramics

Cemented Carbide Knives

Alumina Wear Tiles

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Typical Machine Applications Of Ceramics contd

Boron Carbide Abrasive Blasting Nozzle

Chromia Wire Guide

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Typical Machine Applications Of Ceramics contd

Cemented Carbide Die

Alumina Web Guide

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Typical Machine Applications Of Ceramics contd

Alumina Shaft Sleeve

Cemented Carbide Tool Insert

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Typical Machine Applications Of Ceramics contd

Chromium Oxide Slurry Pump Liner


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Properties And Applications Of Cermets


Cermets

- Cermets are combinations of metals and one or more ceramic phases. Thus, a useful combination of properties (metals and ceramics) is achieved.
Ceramics generally have high melting points,

reasonably strong at high temperature, rather brittle, poor resistance to thermal and mechanical shock. Metals are temperature- and shock-resistant, lack strength and rigidity at high temperature.
Produced by powder metallurgy method.

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Properties Of Cermets

Cermets have considerable rigidity, better compressive strength and creep resistance at high temperatures. However, they are relatively brittle: due high proportion of ceramic. Cermets have good tensile strength combined with stiffness and rigidity when reinforced with fibres or metal rods as in the case of reinforced concrete.

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Properties Of Ceramics contd

Cermets have good ductility and toughness at high temperatures but lack strength and creep resistance. Metal content is high (65 to 75%)

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Applications Of Cermets
Particle Material
Flake sliver or copper

Bond
Graphite

Structural Type
Laminated

Characteristic & Use


Current brushes low friction

Alumina (70%)

Chromium (30%)

Bonded particles

Very suitable for high temperature service. Good resistance to impact.


Applicable to stainless steel, alloy steel and inconel to raise the working temperature by about 80oC. 20

Magnesia

Nickel

Flame sprayed heat resistant coating

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Applications Of Cermets contd


Particle Material
Alumina (40% - 70%) Molybdenum boride

Bond
Iron (30 60%)

Structural Type
Bonded particles

Characteristic & Use


Turbine blades

Nickel

Bonded particles

Cutting tool for machining titanium.

Titanium carbide

Various alloys containing Mo, Al and Cr.

Bonded particles

In aircraft engines where refractoriness, thermal shockresistance and resistance to oxidation is necessary.
Cutting tools for materials including masonry, glass and metal forming 21 dies.

Tungsten or titanium carbide

Cobalt

Bonded particles

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Properties And Applications Of Industrial Diamonds

Properties

Diamond is the hardest ceramic material (Knoop = 7000) Modulus of elasticity is also the highest of the ceramic materials (E = 1000 GN/m2) and it is about 5 times that of most steels. Tensile strength of diamond is about 69 GN/m2 The melting temperature is 4350oC and is the highest of all the materials.
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Properties And Applications Of Industrial Diamonds contd

Applications:
Cutting Grinding Polishing Lapping
Diamond grinding wheel Diamond cutters

Lapping process

Diamond polishing

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