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Mechanical Energy Storage

Created by Nick Stroud

Three Types of Storage


Pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS) Compressed air energy storage (CAES) Flywheels

Pumped Hydroelectric Storage (PHS)


Used for load balancing of energy Water is pumped up in elevation during time of low demand Water flows back down during times of high demand Turbines recapture the energy.

Pumped Hydroelectric Storage (PHS)


70-85% of electrical energy is recovered Energy loss due to evaporation and Pump/generator inefficiency Currently the most cost effective way to store large amounts of electricity Low energy density calls for large bodies of water Never used in portable technology
1000 kg at 100 ft = .272 kWh

Pumps: On the Grid


The Us has 19.5 gigawatts capacity 2.5% of baseload Technology is in use world wide Hundreds of plants around the world Man made reservoirs as well as natural reservoirs

Future Of PHS
This energy storage can be used to level the grid for renewable energy Wind power and solar power are not constantly on Using salt mines to increase energy density

Compressed air energy storage (CAES)


Large tank is buried underground During times of low demand electricity compresses air During times of peak demand compressed air is heated and released

http://www.sandia.gov/media/NewsRel/NR2001/norton.htm

Types Of CAES
Adiabatic storage
Heat from compression is captured and stored in a solid or liquid Hot Oil 3000C Molten Salt 6000C Heat is reincorporated during release Close to 100% efficiency No utility scale plants

Diabatic storage
Heat is lost through cooling Natural gas is burned to reheat compressed air Very inefficient 38-68% Uses 1/2 gas of an all gas plant

More about CAES


Can use sandstone layer to hold compressed air USA has good ground for this type of storage Can be used to level load from wind and solar 200-300 MW Plants

Compressed air in Cars


Zero pollution Motors Stores air at around 300atm Under 35 mph it is zero emissions Over 35 mph uses combustion engine to compress air Runs on many different types of fuel
1 air tank + 8 gal gas= 848 miles

Fueling/Refueling
Flex engine runs off of gas, diesel, alcohol, possibly even vegetable oil Refueling air tank at refuel station about 3 minutes Home refuel unit takes 4 hours, electrical cost $2 3 cents per mile

FlowAir
After 35 mph only 1/2 the CO2 emissions of Prius Takes advantage of light engine and light frame to be efficient Uses fiberglass frame filled with foam May lose efficiency in cold weather

Future of Air Vehicles


Flowair- release in 2010 First needs to pass US safety ratings 6 seats 106 mpg 800-1000 mile range Top speed 96 mph $17500

Flywheels
Captures energy in a rotating Mass Flywheel is charged using electric motor Electric generator extracts energy

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:G2_front2.jpg#filehistory

Operation Of Flywheel
Energy held in Spinning Rotor (Steel or Carbon composite) Steel rotors can spin at several thousand rpm Carbon composite spin up to 60k rpm Kinetic Energy 1/2mv2
http://www.aretepower.us/images/Composite%20Flywheel%20Rotor.jpg

Bearings
Mechanical bearings not practical
Friction is directly proportional to speed

Magnetic bearings used to minimize friction Rotor is suspendedstate of levitation Operates in a Vacuum

Superconductors
New technology uses high temperature superconductors (HTSC) HTSC operate at -1960C or -3210F Diamagnetism- creates a field of opposition to a magnetic field Hybrid systems use conventional magnets to levitate and superconductors to stabilize

Flywheels Vs. Batteries


Pros
Not effected by temperature changes No Memory Effect Made more environmentally friendly Easy energy content identification

Cons
Shattering due to overload Safety devices add lots of mass Gyroscope (duel FES systems)

Energy Stats
Composite Flywheel Cycles Energy Density Capacity 100,000 to 10 million 130 Wh/kg Range from 3 kWh to Max of 133 KWh Li-ion Battery Around 1200 160 Wh/kg Equal to 13,825 18650 Li-ion Over 4 times what is used to power the Tesla Several Hours Limited by chemical process

Charge Time Energy Exchange

15 min Limited by generator

Self discharge time 0 run down time- Years 10-20 months

Flywheels have High volumetric density

Flywheel Projects
Gyrobuses- used in 1950s in Switzerland Buses run off of Flywheels Never gained economic foothold Low fuel costs compared to electricity

Flywheel Projects
Flywheels used in electric trains to carry over gaps and regenerative breaking Some car models tried (Rosen Motors) Formula 1 competition Used on systems that need Uninterrupted power supply. (maintenance 1/2 cost of battery) Testing of fuses

Sources
http://photo.proaktiva.eu/digest/2008_gyrobus.html http://eco-energy.info/asp/index.asp?uc=&k=3165 http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/fta_flywheel.pdf http://www.vyconenergy.com/pages/flywheeltech.htm http://www.isepa.com/about_isep.asp http://finance.yahoo.com/family-home/article/106040/Air-Cars:A-New-Wind-for-America's-Roads http://gas2.org/2008/07/15/an-air-car-you-could-see-in-2009zpms-106-mpg-compressed-air-hybrid/

http://zeropollutionmotors.us/