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EFFECTS OF CRYOGENIC TREATMENT ON CUTTING TOOL DURABILITY

Department of Mechanical Engineering LBS College Povval ROHIT KRISHNAN K.V


ROLL NO: 44 S8 ME
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OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVE EXPERIMENTAL SETUP PROCEDURE METHODOLOGY RESULTS CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES
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INTRODUCTION
Major needs are high material removal rate, good surface finish and low tool wear. Commonly used cutting tool is HSS. Machining of harder materials using existing conventional techniques is uneconomical. Cryogenic treatment is subzero thermal treatment for ferrous tool. Increases product life, Improves wear resistance of steel. Subjected to temp. below 196C for 20-60 hrs in well insulated chambers & liquid nitrogen. Tool life depends on cutting speed, feed , depth of cut
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OBJECTIVE
To compare the performance of cryogenically treated and that of untreated tool. To analyse the effectiveness of cryogenically treated cutting tool. To improve stress relief, toughness of tool.

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EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
Machine tool :- High power rigid lathe machine,
6.5 feet bed, 3-phase 2 HP MOTOR
Cutting tool :- Untreated HSS S-400 single point Cryogenically treated HSS S-400 Work material:- Mild steel
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PROCEDURE
Following are the procedures being adopted for cryogenic treatment of cutting tool. Ramp down Lowering temperature of part down to -300F for 6 to 10 hrs. Slow ramp down is to prevent temperature gradient Dipping in liquid nitrogen Prevents thermal shocking
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Soaking Holding temp. at -300F for some period of time. Reactions and changes are slow and need time to occur.
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Provides time for crystal structure to react to the low temp. Energy goes out of lattice and gives stronger crystal structure.

Ramp up Very important process & may take eight to twenty hours. Brings temp. back to room temperature.
Ramping up too fast can create problems
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Temper ramp up Ramps up to the predetermined level over a period of time by tempering. Convert all retained austenite in the part to martensite which is brittle. Tempering temperatures are from 300F to 1100F.

Temper hold Assures that entire part has had the benefit of tempering temperatures. It is about 3 hrs.

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Turning operation was done on rotating cylindrical workpiece. Cutting operation carried out using CT and UT HSS tool.

Increase in nose radius was measured for each CT and UT HSS tool.
Different experiments were performed by changing machining parameters.

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METHODOLOGY
In the metallurgical study mild steel was used as the work material. Have been obtained using a metallurgical microscope of magnification x100

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Nose radius of UT and CT HSS tools were measured after each experimental run. Was taken by universal measuring microscope.

Universal Measuring Microscope used to measure the nose radius


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RESULTS

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The application of cryogenic treatment is seen to be more effective at a higher cutting speed. Tool life at a higher depth of cut is substantially low compared to that at a low depth of cut. Tool life at a lower feed rate is much higher than that at a higher feed rate. Increase in nose radius is less value for CT tools compared to that of UT tools.
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Microstructure obtained for cryogenically treated and untreated cutting tool

Microstructure of CT HSS tool material


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Microstructure of UT HSS tool material


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CONCLUSIONS
Performance of CT tool has significantly enhanced & tool life is doubled. Microstructure of HSS gets refined and particles are uniformly distributed by CT. Cryogenic treatment provides less increase in nose radius thereby less tool wear. CT HSS tool represent positive scope of cryogenic treatment on tool & die materials.
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REFERENCES
1. Mohan Lal D, Renganarayanan S. and Kalanidhi A. (2001), Cryogenic treatment to augment wear resistance of tool and die steels, Cryogenics 41:149-155 doi:10.1016/S0011-2275(01)00065-0. 2. Cohen .P and Kamody D. (1998), Cryogenics goes deeper Cutting Tool Eng150(7): 46-50. 3. Sekhar Babu P, Rajendran P. and Rao K. N.(2005), Cryogenic treatment of M1,EN19 and H13 tool steels to improve wear resistance IE(I) Journal MM 86 : 64-66. 4. Flavio J, Sinesio D, Emmanuel O, Allisson R and Antonio M (2006),Performance of cryogenically treated HSS tools Wear 261: 674685. 5. Raghuwanshi B. S. (1990), A Course in Workshop Technology, Volume II(machine tools) New Delhi: Dhanpat Rai & Company Ltd. 23(5) : 309316.
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6. Bayhan Y. (2006), Reduction of Wear Via Hard Facing of Chisel Ploughshare Tribology International 39 :570-574, 2006. 7. Singh A. H. (2007), Effect of Cryogenic treatmenton machining characteristics of titanium alloy (Ti-6A1-4v) M.Tech. Thesis, Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. 8. Grewal J. (2007), Effect of cryogenic treatment of the wire on machining performance of Wire Cut Electric Discharge Machine M.Tech. Thesis, Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Punjab, India 9) Huang, J.T. and Lliao, Y.S. (2003), Optimization of machining parameters of wire EDM based on Grey relational and statistical analysis,International Journal of Production Resources, Vol.41, No.8, pp. 1707-1720. 10) Primero Limited (2005), User Manual-Cryo Processing System (Model No. CP 220 LH), Primero Enserve(I) Pvt. Ltd., Chennai, India. 11) Young, A. Y. L., Seah, K. H. W., Rahman, M. (2005) Performance of cryogenically treated carbide tools in milling operations International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, In Press.
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THANK YOU

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