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• Contamination cannot detected by touch, sight or smell

• Keeping hyd system clean and well maintained can cut
maintenance costs by more than 50%
• 80% of hyd maintenance costs are caused by
contamination,leakage and use of wrong fluid
• Contamination can be solid, liquid, metallic, fibrous,
oxidation ,sludge or water
• If you can feel, see or smell anything in drained oil, the
system may already be ruined
Contamination causes hyd system
to fail in 2 ways
• Slow way: Degradation failure. It
is gradual wear of parts in system
which again become contaminants.
• Fast Way: Catastrophic failure.
Total break down of the system
Contamination comes in 5 sources
• Built into the system
• System generated
• Externally infiltrated
• Induced
• Escaped.
Built in contaminants:
• Weld splatter
• Core sand
• Paint flakes
• Metal from installed fittings
• Plus other items that get into the
system during manufacturing
System generated contaminants :
• Metal scrapings from the friction
of moving surfaces in
pumps,motors, valves ,fibre
particles from filters,carbon &
varnish from overheated oil.
These contaminants lead to
degradation failure.
Externally infiltrated
• Dust, grease & other matter that
get into the system past the rod
seals,valve stems,pump or motor
shaft seals
• Dust carried by air into the
reservoir vented to the atmosphere
Induced contaminants
• Microscopic bits of metal when fittings
are tightened or loosened
• Rags, lints or threads left behind
• Teflon tape if used in excess
• New oil from barrel
Induced contamination can be
reduced to a minimum with utmost
care during servicing
Escaped contaminants
• Trapped contaminants in poor
quality filters released into the
• Most harmful contaminants are normally
between 5 microns & 15 microns
• ISO code is the preferred method of
reporting quantity of contaminants.
• ISO code number corresponds to
contamination level pertaining to two sizes.
• The first scale number refers to larger than 5
microns and the second number larger than
15 microns particle.
ISO 4406 contaminant code
Number of particles per 100 mls Number of particles per 100 mls
Range More than Upto and including Range More than Upto and including
number number
12 2000 4000 24 8000000 16000000
11 1000 2000 23 4000000 8000000
10 500 1000 22 2000000 4000000
9 250 500 21 1000000 2000000
8 130 250 20 500000 1000000
7 64 130 19 250000 500000
6 32 64 18 130000 250000
5 16 32 17 64000 130000
4 8 16 16 32000 64000
3 4 8 15 16000 32000
2 2 4 14 8000 16000
1 1 2 13 4000 8000
ISO code 15/12 NAS-6
ISO / NAS comparison chart
BIS 5540/4 NAS 1638 Class
ISO/DIS 4406 Code
*11/8 2
*12/9 3
*13/10 4
*14/11 5
*15/12 6
*16/13 7
*17/14 8
*18/15 9
*19/16 10
*20/17 11
*23/17 12
Suggested acceptable contamination level : NAS-6 , ISO-16/13
• Flow meter Tools
• Temperature gun
• Temperature stickers
• Tachometer
• Pressure test kit
• Contaminant testing equipment
• Sampling bottles
• Flushing unit
• Caps and plugs

Hydraulic components are precision devices. Careless

handling of them or other parts of the system can result in
malfunctioning or failure. To avoid creating problems when
installing or repairing hydraulic components,follow these


1.Clean away the dirt in and around the equipment

before removing the hydraulic components.
2.Cap off all disconnected lines and open ports of
pumps,motors & valves.
3..Protect the working area from grinding dust ,machining
chips & wind driven dusts.
4.Work only on metal or hard finished bench tops which are
easy to clean.
5.Handle parts carefully to avoid nicks & burrs.
6.Use lint free cloths to wipe parts.
7.Use smooth burr less tools especially when working with
8.Lubricate all sliding parts during assembly.
8.Cover sharp grooves and threads when installing ‘O’ rings &
other seals.
9.Discard all used ‘O’ rings & other seals to avoid reuse.
10.Make sure that the seals are correct size.
11.Examine all prematurely worn-out/failed parts for clues as
to the cause of failure.
12.Test the overhauled devices before fitment.
13.Use only the genuine parts.
14.Keep all the levers in neutral before starting the machine.
15.Change the filter elements as soon as the clog indicator
indicates clogging or the recommended hours are elapsed.
17.Always fill hydraulic oil through a filter.
18.Whenever a pump/motor is replaced or oil is changed,
fill the case of the pump/motor with clean oil.
19.Ensure that the reservoir is cleaned before filling the oil.
20.Use correct grade of oils as recommended in the
21.When draining the oil,drain oil from the oil
cooler,suction manifold & supercharge manifold.
22.Whenever a electrically operated machine shifted from
one bench to another,before starting the machine,ensure the
correct phase sequence. Reverse rotation can cause pump
23.Please keep the machine neat and tidy.

1.Do not mix two different grade of oil.

2.Do not mix two different brands of oil even though their
grades are same.
3.Do not clean & reuse the hydraulic oil filters.
4.Do not alter the relief valve settings.
5.Do not use cotton waste for cleaning.
6.Do not keep the machine idle for long periods.This will
make the hydraulic valves sticky.
7.Do not tow the machine without ensuring the propel motors
are disengaged or looped.
Hydraulic system

1.Before working on the hydraulic or pneumatic system,stop the

machine . Allow the pressure to equalize or went it to final level.
2.Learn the flow diagrams to assist you in diagnosing problem.
3.Read the gauges in the control panel & readings to be
noted,especially when trouble occurs.
4.If any hydraulic internal components fails ,the entire system to
be checked for debris at low points,check points,check valves &
flow restriction points.
1. Noisy pump operation

Where to start:

1.Check reservoir oil level.

2.Check pumps inlet pressure.
3.Check pump suction line for leaks.
4.Check pumps suction line for obstruction of flow.
5. Check oil viscosity.
6.Remove pump & look for debris or pump damage.
7.Verify pump alignment
2.Hydraulic system overheating

Where to start:

1.Check for obstructions and hot spots or pressure lines,especially relief

valves,check valves,junctions & filters.
2. Check oil viscosity & lubricity.
3.Check oil level.
4.Check pumps & motors for overheating.
3. Pump not pumping oil.

Where to start:

1.Check pump rotation.( Rotates or not & direction of rotation)

2.Check inlet & discharge lines for obstruction or air leaks.
3. Check oil viscosity( May be too thick)
4.Inspect pump & drive shaft, including coupling for mechanical failures.
4.Hydraulic system pressure is low.

Where to start:

1.Check for leaks in the system.

2.Use a gauge to isolate the problem circuit,then check for the relief valve
setting or stuck open.( May be due to dirt )
3.Check for pump damage or improper operation.
4.Check control & flow valves for internal leakage or bypassing.
5.Erratic action of feed & rotation.

Where to start:

1.Check gauges to see if the hydraulic system is malfunctioning.

2.Check out relief valves.
3.One or more pumps may be malfunctioning.
4.Do not simultaneously use two valves of the same control valve bank.
5.Metal particles may be in the system.
6.Seal on rotary head motor may have failed. Check for oil spilling down
side of seal & replace seal.
7.Check for air in the system.
6. No feed or rotation

Where to start:

1.Check to see if the motor is getting oil.

2.Check to see if the motor is rotating.
3.Check out flow circuit,especially if repairs have just been done.
External Leakage

• Seal failure • Replace seal

• Damaged casting • Replace casting.
• Damaged or defective • Replace seal.
seal between housing
& mounting cap or
end cap.
Leakage at fittings

• Cracked or damaged • Replace fittings

fittings • Replace flanges.
• Damaged or defective • Replace ‘O’ ring seal.
flange threads.
• Damaged or defective
‘O’ ring seal
Loss in pump RPM under load

• Power source too • Provide larger power

small for pump being source.
Pump not delivering oil
• Pump does not prime. • Bleed air from system.
• Wrong direction of shaft • Convert to correct direction of rotation.
• Add fluid to maintain level.
• Clean strainer.Capacity to be double size
• Tank oil level too low. of pump volume.
• Fluid inlet line or suction
strainer clogged or • Arrest air leakage.
undersized. • Use recommended grade of oil.
• Air leak in suction line. • Replace damaged parts as per overhaul
• Fluid viscosity too heavy to
pick up prime.
• Brocken pump shaft or
internal parts.
Pump not developing pressure

• Relief valve setting • Re-set relief valve.

too low. • Check for defective or
• Relief valve sticking malfunctioning valve.
open. • Check directional
• Free recirculation of control valve for open
fluid to tank being center or neutral
allowed. position.Check for
open bypass.
Noisy or erratic operation

• Air leak thro inlet or • Check air leak by pouring

suction line. oil & listen for noise
• Housing & mounting cap change.
separation • Check bolts for proper
• Restricted or clogged inlet torque.
line. • Clean inlet line.
• Excessive pump RPM. • Provide correct power
• Worn vanes,cam rings,or source.
port plates • Replace worn-out parts.
• Worn bearings. • Replace worn out bearings
Control valve trouble shooting
Sticking spool

• Excessive high oil • Eliminate any restriction in

temperature. pipe line or filter system.
• Dirt in oil. • Change oil & flush system.
• Pipe fitting too tight.
• Check torque .
• Valve warped from mounting.
• Loosen valve & check.
• Excessive high pressure in
• Handle or linkage binding. • Check pressure at inlet &
working point.
• Free the linkage.

Control valve
Sticking spool

• Spacer bent. • Replace valve.

• Return spring • Replace faulty parts.
• Spring or valve cap • Loosen cap,recenter &
binding. retighten.
• Valve thoroughly not • Allow time for system
warmed up. warm up.

Control Valve
Leaking seals

• Paint on or under the • Remove & clean as

seal. necessary.
• Excessive back • Open or enlarge line to
pressure. reservoir.
• Dirt under seal. • Remove & clean.
• Replace valve.
• Scored spools.
• Clean & tighten plates
• Loose seal plates.
• Replace faulty parts.
• Cut or scored seal.

Control valve
Unable to move spool in or out

• Dirt in valve. • Clean & flush out

valve assembly.
• Spool cap full of oil. • Replace seals.
• Bind in linkage • Free the linkage.
Control Valve
Load drops when spool moves from
• Dirt in check valve. • Disassemble and clean
check valve.
• Scored check • Replace poppet or lap
valvepoppet or seat. poppet to seat.
Control valve
Poor hydraulic system performance or
• Damaged pump. • Check pressure & replace pump.
• Dirt in relief valve. • Clean relief valve.
• Relief valve damaged. • Replace relief valve.
• • Repair or replace damaged
Worn cylinders or motors.
• Load too heavy. • Reduce load.
• Internal valve crack,spool • Replace valve.Check movement &
not at full stroke. linkages.
• Low oil in reservoir. • Add oil to level.
• System filter clogged. • Replace filer elements.
• Line restricted. • Check lines,clean or repair
Solenoid valve
Sticking spool
• Dirt in system. • Change oil & flush
• Distortion caused by system.
the bolts being over • Retorque tie bolts.
torque. • Limit flow through valve
• Flow in excess of to the recommended.
valve rating. • Check relief valve setting.
• Pressure in excess of • Check wiring and
valve rating. solinoid.
• Electrical failure..
Solenoid valve
External leakage

• Damaged ‘O ‘ rings or • Check for chipped

quad rings. packing and replace
• Loose the tie bolts • Re-torque tie bolts
• Damaged solenoid. • Replace damaged
Solenoid valve
Solenoid failure

• No current. • .Check power source of at

• Damaged solenoid least 85% of coil rating.
assembly • Replace solenoid.
• Short in solenoid. • Replace coil.
• Loss of solenoid • Decrease time of
force.. solenoid
cycle rate.
Jack cylinder
Jack cylinder slow or erratic
• Low hydraulic oil level. • Maintain proper level.
• Damaged main relief valve. • Repair or replace valve.
• Damaged holding valve
seals. • Replace holding valve seal.
• Bent cylinder rod.Sticking
solenoid valve spool. • Replace cylinder rod & seal
• Damaged wiring to solenoid. • Repair or replace wiring.
• D.C.Valve switch sticking
• Main hyd. Pump cavitation. • Clean or replace switch.

• Replace or tighten hose fittings.

Jack cylinder
Jack cylinder retracts under load.
• Damaged piston seals. • Replace cylinder seal kit.
• Damaged holding valve • Replace seals.
seals • Replace valve assembly.
• Repair or replace cylinder
• Damaged holding valve.
• Repair or replace valve assembly.
• Scored cylinder barrel.
• Replace piston & all seals.
• Cracked or damaged • Replace seals & tighten locknuts.
piston • Replace all cylinder seals.
• Piston loose on piston rod
• Damaged piston seals
Jack cylinder
Jack cylinder extends while machine is
• Scored cylinder bore. • Replace jack cylinder.
• Cracked or damaged • Replace piston & seals
• Holding valve • Replace holding valve
• Piston seal damage. • Replace all seals.