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Janet Roadway Product Manager, Power Breakers

Curva Tempo-Corrente FFF 1E4s

Discrimination of protection devices on installations

1E3s

100s

10s

1s

0.1s

1E-2s

0.1kA

1kA

10kA

Topics of Discussion

Explaining the terminology Degrees of discrimination

Different techniques to achieve discrimination


Backup protection Protection devices Any Questions?

Protection - Basics
Lets go back to basics Question: Why do we use protection devices???? Common Ans: To prevent Faults Wrong! Protection whether by fuse, circuit breaker or relay cannot prevent faults from happening. Only good design, high quality components, careful installation, preventative maintenance along with good working practices can prevent major faults However, protection devices can limit the damage and inconvenience caused if faults occur.

Protection - Overload

What do we mean by a fault? Overload Operating condition in an electrically undamaged circuit which causes an current to flow in excess of the full load current

Example: Starting condition during DOL start


If this type of fault continues indefinitely because of an anomolous operating condition., damage begins to occur creating.

Protection Short Circuit

What do we mean by a fault? Short Circuit

Operating condition in an electrically damaged circuit where there is an accidental or intentional connection by a relatively low resistance between two points of a circuit which are normally at different voltages

This type of fault can generate high current flows, arcing and fire if not cleared quickly

Discrimination
Coordinate devices to:

Guarantee safety for people and installations Identify and exclude only the zone affected by a problem Limiting the effects of a malfunction Reducing the stress on components in the affected zone Ensuring service continuity with good quality supply voltage Achieving a valid compromise between reliability, simplicity and cost effectiveness

Explaining the terminology

Discrimination or Selectivity

To make it possible to isolate a part of an installation involved in a fault condition from the overall system such that only the device located immediately on the supply side of the fault intervenes

Discrimination
Needs
Fast
Fast

Fault Detection
Fault Elimination Energy Reduction Fault Current Withstanding

Let-Through High

WAIT! CONTINUITY OF SERVICE

GO!

FAULT

FAULT DAMAGE

Explaining the terminology

X A
Fault occurs here

XB

XC

Degrees of discrimination

Total Discrimination

This means that the isolation described occurs for all fault levels possible at each point of the circuit

Degrees of discrimination

t B

Prospective Fault Current Icc

Degrees of discrimination

Partial Discrimination

This means that above certain current levels there is simultaneous operation of more than one protection device

Degrees of discrimination

t B

Prospective Fault Current Icc

Discrimination
Traditional solutions
Current
Time

discrimination
discrimination

discrimination (logical) discrimination

Energy Zone

Discrimination
Current discrimination

Discrimination among devices with different trip threshold setting in order to avoid overlapping areas. Setting different device trip thresholds for different hierarchical levels.

Discrimination
Current discrimination

An example:

Discrimination
Current discrimination

Applications:

final distribution network with low ACB chains

rated current and low short-circuit current

Fault area: short circuit and overload

Discrimination limit current: low


Discrimination levels: low Devices: ACBs, MCCBs and devices with time/current curves (contactors with thermal relays, fuses ) Feasibility & discrimination study: easy Customer cost: low

Discrimination
Time discrimination

Discrimination among devices with different trip time settings in order to avoid overlapping areas Setting different device trip delays for different hierarchical levels

Discrimination
Electronic release L (Long delay)
Setting: 0.9 Curve: B Setting: 1 Curve: A Setting: 1 Curve: A

S (Short delay)
Setting: 8 Curve: D Setting: 10 Curve: C

I (IST)
Off Off Setting: 10

Time discrimination

E4S 4000 PR111-LSI R4000 E3N 2500 PR111-LSI R2500 S7H 1600 PR211-LSI R1600

An example:

Discrimination
Time discrimination

Applications: low complexity plant


Fault area: short circuit and overload Discrimination limit current: low, depending on the Icw of the upstream device Discrimination levels: low, depending on the network Devices: ACBs, MCCBs and devices with adjustable time curves Feasibility & discrimination study: easy Customer cost: medium

Types of Discrimination

Energy Discrimination
Many Low Voltage protection devices such as Circuit breakers and Fuses have the ability to limit the peak of the current let through them to a value lower than the prospective short circuit peak. Any protective device which clears short circuits in less than 1/2 cycle of the sinusoidal wave (i.e 10mS for 50Hz) will current limit to a certain degree Energy based discrimination is the only way to determine true discrimination between current-limiting devices

Discrimination
Energy discrimination

Discrimination among devices with different mechanical and electrical behaviour depending on energy level It is necessary to verify that the let-through energy of the circuitbreaker upstream is lower than the energy value needed to complete the opening of the CB downstream

Discrimination
Energy discrimination

An example:

Time-currents Curve

Energy discrimination up to 24 kA

Discrimination
Energy discrimination

Applications: medium complexity networks


Fault area: Short circuit only Discrimination limit current: medium/high Discrimination levels: medium, CBs size dependent Devices: ACBs, MCCBs, MCBs & Fuses Feasibility & discrimination study: medium complexity Customer cost: medium

Discrimination
Zone discrimination

Discrimination among devices in order to isolate the fault zone keeping unchanged feeding conditions of maximum number of devices Zone discrimination is implemented by means of an electrical interlock between devices

Zone 3

Zone 2

Zone 1

Discrimination Zone discrimination


Applications: high complexity plant Fault area: short circuit, overload, ground fault Discrimination limit current: medium, depending on Icw Discrimination levels: high Devices: ACBs, MCCBs with dialogue and control features Feasibility & discrimination study: complex Customer cost: high

Explaining the terminology Cascading or Backup protection

Uses supply circuit breakers or fuses with current limitation effects to protect downstream devices from damage The amount of energy let through (i2t) by the supply device needs to be lower than that which can be withstood without damage by the device on the load side By using this effect it is possible to install devices downstream that have short circuit breaking capacities lower than the prospective short circuit current

Back-up protection/Cascading

Back-up protection or Cascading is recognised and permitted by the 16th Edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations 434-03-01 and is covered by IEC 364-4-437 standard

Why Use Back-up Protection?

Substantial savings can be made on downstream switchgear and enclosures by using lower short circuit ratings Substantial reductions in switchgear volumes can also result

What about Discrimination?


Backup protection should not be confused with discrimination.

Backup protection does not infer discrimination can be achieved but in practice, discrimination is normally achieved up to the maximum breaking capacity of the downstream device
Discrimination
WAIT! CONTINUITY OF SERVICE

BACKUP
GO!

FAULT

FAULT DAMAGE

Practical Example

Problem:

Installation requires the use of Busbar rather than cable to distribute electrical power. Fault level calculations reveal 25kA prospective fault level at the point of installation of standard MCB distribution board

Practical Example

Solution Using a standard Isolator as the distribution board incoming device - all the MCBs would need to be 25kA or above Using an MCCB as the incoming device such as an ABB Tmax T3N250TMD100, 6kA S200 MCBs could be safely used

A word of caution ...

Back-up protection can only be checked by laboratory tests and so only device combinations specified by the manufacturer can be guaranteed to provide coordination of this type.

Types of protection available


Fuses Miniature Circuit Breakers Moulded Case Circuit breakers Air Circuit breakers

Typical fuse
Ultra

Reliable Characteristic

Standard
Time (s)

High

current limitation

effects
High

threshold on low overloads ( clears overloads at approx 1.45x rated FLC)

Current (A)

Fuseless technology

Two main types:Thermomagnetic protectionMCB and lower rated MCCB plus older type protection relays Electronic protection Microprocessor based relays fed from CTs either external to switches or integral within a circuit breaker

Thermomagnetic
Offer

Time (s)

thermal longtime overcurrent protection using Bimetal technology ( operates at 1.3x FLC)
Thermal curve

Uses

the magnetic effect of short circuit currents to offer shorttime short circuit protection

Magnetic curve

Current (A)

Electronic Relays

Overcurrent functions such as:Long

time overcurrent

Time (s)

Short

time instantaneous protection


Short

time time delayed protection


Ground

fault or Earth fault protection

Current (A)

Electronic Relays

Overcurrent functions such as:Long

time overcurrent

Time (s)

Short

time instantaneous protection


Short

time time delayed protection


Ground

fault or Earth fault protection

Current (A)

Protection releases: general features

Complete set of standard protection functions

MORE

Rc OT

D UV

U OV

RV RP

Complete set of advanced protection functions

MORE

A W

V VA

Hz VAR

Complete set of measurements functions


E THD
MORE

Data logger: a professional built-in fault recorder.


500 400 300 200 100 0 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500 Voltage L1-L2 Neutral Current phase 1 Current phase 2 Current phase 3

Data logger: a professional built-in fault recorder. Standard in PR122 and PR123 Recording of 8 measurements (currents and voltages); Configurable trigger (i.e. During a fault); Sampling frequency up to 4.800kHz; Sampling time up to 27s; Output data through SD-Pocket or TestBus2. Exclusive from ABB SACE.
BACK

time

Conclusion

So what is the secret to achieving a successful discrimination study

The secret is to be aware of the capability of the technology you are using and to design your installation within the limits of the protection you have chosen

Protection releases: news on standard protection functions

Double S*

Used to obtain discrimination in critical conditions


MORE

Double G*

Two different protection curves, one with the signal coming from internal CTs and the other from an external toroid
MORE

Dual Setting*

Two different set of protection parameters in order to protect in the best way, two different network configurations (e.g. normal supply and emergency supply)
MORE

BACK

* = These features are available on PR123/P

Protection releases: news on standard protection functions

Double S

low setting on S protection function due to the settings on MV circuit-breaker The circuit-breaker on LV side of the LV-LV trafo needs high settings due to the inrush current

Protection releases: news on standard protection functions

Without double S

Protection releases: news on standard protection functions

BACK

With double S

Protection releases: news on standard protection functions

Double G

Its possible to protect the network, with the same protection release, against earth fault both upstream and downstream the circuit-breaker Restricted Earth Fault: the fault is upstream the LV circuitbreaker

MV

LV

Restricted Earth Fault

Protection releases: news on standard protection functions

Double G

Its possible to protect the network, with the same protection release, against earth fault both upstream and downstream the circuit-breaker Restricted Earth Fault: the fault is upstream the LV circuitbreaker Unrestricted Earth Fault: the fault is downstream the LV circuitbreaker
MV LV

Unrestricted Earth Fault

Protection releases: news on standard protection functions

Double G

The combination of both Unrestricted and Restricted Earth Fault protection is named Source Ground Return. The new PR123/P is able to detect and to discriminate both earth faults

If the fault is downstream the LV circuit-breaker the PR123/P will trip Emax circuit-breaker
L1

Trafo secondary windings

Emax internal CTs

L2

L3
External toroid

N PE

Protection releases: news on standard protection functions

Double G

The combination of both Unrestricted and Restricted Earth Fault protection is named Source Ground Return. The new PR123/P is able to detect and to discriminate both earth faults

If the fault is downstream the LV circuit-breaker the PR123/P will trip Emax circuit-breaker If the fault is upstream the LV circuit-breaker the PR123/P will trip the MV circuit-breaker
L1
Trafo secondary windings
Emax internal CTs

L2

L3
BACK

External toroid

N PE

Protection releases: news on standard protection functions

Dual setting

It allows to program two different protection parameter sets in order to adapt them to the different network configurations The most representative example is a network with supply by the utility and by emergency generator

With dual setting the discrimination between CBs is guaranteed in both network conditions

Protection releases: news on standard protection functions

Dual setting

Normal network condition


CB A >>> closed CB B >>> open

Discrimination is guaranteed between A and C

Protection releases: news on standard protection functions

Dual setting

Emergency network condition


CB A >>> open CB B >>> closed

Discrimination is not guaranteed between B and C, due to the low settings (protection of the generator) of C protection functions

Protection releases: news on standard protection functions

Dual setting

Emergency network condition


CB A >>> open CB B >>> closed

Discrimination is guaranteed between B and C thanks to the second set of protection parameters

BACK

Protection releases: advanced protection functions


RC
D U OT UV OV RV RP M UF OF Residual current Protection against directional short-circuit with adjustable time-delay Protection against phase unbalance Protection against overtemperature (check) Protection against undervoltage Protection against overvoltage Protection against residual voltage Protection against reverse active power Thermal memory for functions L and S Underfrequency Overfrequency

BACK

Protection releases: measurements functions

Current (phases, neutral, earth fault). Voltage (phase-phase, phase-neutral, residual). Power (active, reactive, apparent) Power factor Frequency and peak factor Energy (active, reactive, apparent, meter)

Accuracy: 1,5% Accuracy: 1% Accuracy: 2,5% Accuracy: 2,5% Accuracy: 0,1Hz Accuracy: 2,5%

Harmonics calculation (display of waveforms and RMS spectrum up to 40th @50Hz)

BACK

Protection releases: measurements functions

Current (phases, neutral, earth fault). Voltage (phase-phase, phase-neutral, residual). Power (active, reactive, apparent) Power factor Frequency and peak factor Energy (active, reactive, apparent, meter)

Accuracy: 1,5% Accuracy: 1% Accuracy: 2,5% Accuracy: 2,5% Accuracy: 0,1Hz Accuracy: 2,5%

Harmonics calculation (display of waveforms and RMS spectrum up to 40th @50Hz)

BACK