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Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) Review

Social Dimensions of Education

Prof. Arthur S. Abulencia

Content Updates

ANTHROPOLOGY Derived from the Greek words anthrope which means man, and logos which means science Science that studies the origin and development of man

Science of man, his development, work and achievements Includes the study of physical, intellectual, moral, social and cultural development of man, including his customers mores, folkways and beliefs

Science of man and society Study of patterns of human behavior Study of groups and societies and how they affect the people

Importance of Sociology
To obtain factual information about
our society and the different aspects of our social life To enable us to see the connection between our own personal experiences and the social forces in the bigger social world which influence our life Auguste Comte French sociologist and the Father of Sociology

Sociological Perspectives

Structural Functionalism
Emphasizes the elements of cohesion shared
values, and social equilibrium as bases of social order The different parts of each society contribute positively to the operation or functioning of the system as a whole. Functionalism attempts to explain the relationship of different parts of the system to each other, and to the whole. These parts are usually work together in an orderly manner, without great conflict. The different parts are usually in equilibrium, or moving toward equilibrium, with consensus rather than conflict governing the inter-relationships of the various parts.

Views society as shaped by the interest of powerful and

Conflict Theory

dominant groups Antagonisms of opposing classes (capitalist vs. proletariat) in order to control the distribution of scare resources Conflict theorists see an arena in which groups fight for power Sees civil law as a way of defining and upholding a particular social order that benefits some at the expense of others Conflict theorists focus on the shifting balance of power among competing groups. Conflict theorists believe that educational system is an instrument for cultural reproduction

Symbolic Interactionist
Studies the smallest units of
social interactions Herbert Blumer, a student and interpreter of Mead, coined the term "symbolic interactionism" and put forward an influential summary of the perspective: people act toward
things based on the meaning those things have for them; and these meanings are derived from social interaction and modified through interpretation.

Evolutionist Theory

Society develops interdependent with

the environment Society evolves from simple to complex Example is from agricultural society to industrial to post-industrial society (information/knowledge society)

Social Exchange Theory

Rewards and cost of

exchange Social exchange theory views the exchange relationship between specific actors as actions contingent on rewarding reactions from others.

The shared products of human learning The complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, morals, customs and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society (Taylor)

A social heritage, transmitted to another and shared (Dressler) A fabric of ideas, beliefs, skills, tools, aesthetic objects, methods of thinking, customs and institutions into which each member of society is born (Smith, Stanley, Shores) The set of learned behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values, and ideals that are characteristics of a particular society or population

Culture socially learned and

transmitted behavior


Transferable Continuous Symbolic Dynamic

Shared Adaptive Learned Universal Borrowed

Language - an abstract system of
word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture; the foundation of culture; verbal and nonverbal Norms - are established standards of behavior maintained by a society; it must be shared and understood

Type of Norms
Formal Norms - rules that are written down; punishment is strictly implemented to violators e.g. laws, constitution Informal Norms - generally understood but are not precisely recorded e.g. rules of our parents


Mores - are norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of society because they embody the cherished principles of a people; violation of mores can lead to severe punishment Folkways norms governing our everyday behavior whose violation raises comparatively little concern; it is our customary way of doing things; habits


Sanctions - penalties or rewards for

conduct concerning social norms e.g. (positive sanctions) pay, promotion, medals, word of gratitude or (negative) fines, imprisonment, threats, stares, ostracism Values - are collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable and proper or bad, undesirable and improper in a particular culture; values are use to evaluate the behavior of others

Aspects of Cultural Variation

Subculture - segment of society which shares

a distinctive patterns of mores, folkways and values which differs from the pattern of the larger society e.g. celebration fiesta among Filipinos varies societal norms and values and seeks alternative lifestyles e.g. gay lingo

counterculture subculture that rejects

culture shock - when one person is

immersed in an unfamiliar culture, s/he may feel strangely disoriented, uncertain, out of place and even fearful e.g. when offered exotic food

Aspects of Cultural Variation

xenocentrism belief that the products, styles or ideas of ones society are inferior to those that originate elsewhere ethnocentrism tendency to assume that ones culture and way of life are superior to others

An organized group of population who interrelates and interacts with one another, with common shared attitudes, sentiments, aspirations and goals (Kessing) Composed of human beings and the institutions by which people live together in their culture (Linton)

A group of organized individuals who think of themselves as a distinct group, who have some things in common, a set of loyalties and sentiments, and a esprit de corps which make the individual under certain circumstances to sacrifice himself for the good of the group (Smith, Stanley and Shores) A social group that occupies territory, recruits its members by inter group sexual reproduction and has a shared comprehensive culture (Bectrand)


A unit of interacting personalities with an interdependence of roles and status existing between or among the members (Cole) A number of people who at a given time interrelate and interact with one another, with common shared attitudes, aspirations and goals

Types of Group
Primary Group refers to small group
characterized by intimate, face to face association and cooperation e.g. street gang, family Secondary Group refers to formal, impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding e.g. class, social clubs

Types of Group
In-groups any group to which
people feel they belong. Every member is regarded as We or us or tayo Out-group group to which people feel they dont belong. They or sila

Types of Group
Reference group - any group that
individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior. Dyad two-member group Triad three-member group Coalition - temporary or permanent alliance toward a common goal

Social Status

Refers to the position assigned by a person in a group or organization

Types of Status
Ascribed Status social position
assigned to a person without regard for the persons unique characteristics or talents Achieved Status - social position attained by a person largely through his or her own effort Master Status - status that dominates others and thereby determines a persons general position in society

Social Stratification
Refers to the classification of group members according to certain criteria which may differ according to the nature of the group structured ranking of people in society that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society Is influence by the economic status of an individual

Criteria of Stratification
Income/Wealth Power

Social Inequality

- describes a condition in which

members of a society have different amounts of wealth, prestige and power

The gap between the rich and the poor has reach a gigantic level. The net worth of the top 475 Billionaires of the world is equivalent to the income of more than half of the worlds population or 3 Billion People.

Billionaire William Gates III Warren Buffett Karl Albrecht

Age 48 73 84

Worth in Billion $ 46.6 42.9 23.0

Country of Origin United States United States Germany

The wealth 15 32 richest richest ofthe the people have richest more have 84assets assets individuals than worth exceeds the more GDP than the of According to United Nations World Development the South GDP total of Asia. China GDP of with sub-Saharan its 1.2 billion Africa. inhabitants. Report in 1998, the top three Billionaires of the world has Net Worth equivalent to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of 48 developing countries.

On the other hand, in the 4.4 billion people of the so called developing countries, 30% do not have safe drinking water, 25% have inadequate housing, 20% experiences insufficiency in food supply, and 20% are without adequate health services.
More than 1.3 billion people of the world are forced by poverty to live at an amount equivalent to $1 a day. According to the UN, in the 147 so called developing countries 100 are experiencing continuous decline in their economy in the past 30 yrs now.

Despite massive debt repayments, extracted at enormous social cost, the level of indebtedness continues to rise. In 1990, the stock of total debt owed by developing countries was $1.4 trillion; by 1997 it had risen to $2.17 trillion. In Africa, total debt was $370 for every person on the continent. In some countries the total level of debt was more than four times the GDP.

In 1998 Third World countries paid $717 million in debt service to the major banks and financial institutions every day.

Even if some evil spirit had decided to play a cruel joke upon humanity it surely could not have conjured up the situation now unfolding. As the new century begins, the triumph of the market takes the form of an ever-growing disaster.
In all corners of the world, social conditions are marked by deepening poverty and mounting inequality, resulting in the continuous eruption of human catastrophes.

Child labor is prevalent.

6 of the Worlds richest are Filipinos...

The WTO policies has been propping up foreign and local capitalist. while, 8 out of 10 Filipinos or almost 70 million citizen are not able to eat 3 square meals a day or doesnt have anything to eat at all.

Ang pagkakasadlak sa Consumer Goods Economy walang ng Pilipinas malinaw na Sapagkat sariling ay Capital Goods ipinakikita kayat ng mga mauunlad na Consumer Kapitalista Industry nahihirati sa sa Pilipinas. walang Lahat sila ay nasa linya ng Economy, matinong national Consumerplan Goods Industry. economic ang Pilipinas. Nakaasa ito sa Ekonomya ng ibang bansa. Magkaroon man ng maunlad na lokal na industriya hindi ito magpapailalim sa Estado sa ngalan ng Malayang Kalakalan at sa bisa nang Kapangyarihan ng Kapital.

Social Mobility

Refers to movement of

individuals or groups from one position of a societys stratification to another

Types of Social Mobility

Horizontal Mobility - movement of a

person from one social position to another of the same rank e.g. electrician who becomes a funeral director

Vertical Mobility movement of a person from one social position to another of a different rank e.g. electrician who becomes a lawyer or doctor

Types of Social Mobility

Intergenerational Mobility - involves
changes in the social position of children relative to their parents e.g. parents who are rich but their children become poor Intragenerational Mobility involves changes in a persons social position within his/her adult life e.g a poor boy who struggle to become a successful entrepreneur

Social Process
Refers to the patterned and recurrent form of social interaction (reciprocal action or effect) May come in the form of competition, conflict, cooperation, accommodation, assimilation or acculturation

A process of adapting or conforming to the common needs and interests of a social group The process of entering the human groups, of being included into the secrets of society

A process whereby people learn the attitudes, values and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular society A process where a member of a group learns and internalizes the norms and standards of the other member among whom she/he lives

Agents of Socialization
Family smallest social institution whose members are
united by blood, marriage or adoption, constituting a household and carrying a common culture whose functions include transmission of culture and providing opportunities for growth and development School (Education) established by society for the basic enculturation of the group and an agency which makes student learn how to value oneself and eventually others. It is also an agency organized by society for the basic function of teaching and learning.

Agents of Socialization
Church, government, mass media,
workplace, economy, nongovernment agencies and other institutions wherein an individual is a part of.

Social Change
An enduring force in history, is inevitable as this takes place from time to time The adjustment of persons or group to achieve relative harmony Is persuasive and is taking place in culture, society and personality

Forms of Change
Cultural change refers to all alteration affecting new trait or trait complexes to change the cultures content and structures Technological change revision that occur in mans application of his technical knowledge and skills and he adopts himself to environment Social change refers to the variation or modifications in the patterns of social organization, of such groups within a society or of the entire society

Cultural Lag

- Occurs when society cannot adjust to

changes for quite a time When the old institutions of society are no longer capable of responding to the needs of an emerging society yet new institutions are not totally emerged

Mechanisms of Change
A.1 Innovation any new idea, method, device
that gains widespread acceptance in society.
Primary innovation creation, invention or chance discovery of a completely new idea Secondary innovation new and deliberate application or medication of an existing new idea

A.2 Diffusion - spread of certain ideas, customs

or practices from one culture to another A.3 Cultural Loss (obsolescence) abandonment of an existing practice or trait. Ex. cart and chariot gave way to camels (camels are better means of transport)

Repressive Change
B.1 Acculturation massive culture changes that people
are forced to make as a consequence of an intensive firsthand contact between their own group and another, often more powerful, society B.2 Ethnocide - the violent eradication of an ethnic groups collective identity as a distinctive nation. Ex. criminalizing ones language, destroying ones religion B.3 Genocide physical extermination of one people by another, often in the name of progress, either as a deliberate act or an accidental outcome of activities carried out by one people with little regard for their impact on others B.4 Directed Change bringing people in one reservation

Reaction to Repressive Change

Revitalization of Movements - efforts
toward radical cultural reforms in response to widespread social disruption and collective feelings of anxiety and despair

Roles of the school

Roles of the school: school as an agent of socialization

More and more responsibilities that used
to belong to the family are now placed on the school especially socialization Social development of the individual is fully developed in school although has been started at home

Roles of the school: school as an agent of socialization

Children learn how to go along

with other students in the school Social ethics is easier to teach in school than in any other places

School as an agent of socialization The well organized and systematized

curricula of the school always have objectives directed to social development of students The well prepared activities offered by the school make students aware of their responsibilities to the state and fellowmen

School as an agent of socialization

The students government trains the
students to become good leaders and followers, observes the policies and by law of the school and the students organization The school prepares the individual to become a worthy member of society.

School as an agent of cultural transmission

The classroom is one of the best venues for transmitting

culture, whether individually or in groups There are two major processes through which culture is transferred: Enculturation the process of handling down of culture from one generation to the succeeding ones the passing on of groups custom, beliefs and traditions to the next generation Acculturation the process of passing of culture from one who knows to somebody who does not know the passing of customs, beliefs and tradition through interaction/reading/inter marriages, etc.

School as an agent of cultural transmission

The good lessons in life such as values and

attitudes formation are easily handed down to the new generation through well prepared lessons provided by the teachers (enculturation) Emerging strategies and techniques used in teaching such as field trips, experiential learning, experimentation and laboratory and integrated, group dynamics, cooperative learning, peer learning, role playing and socio drama used in school all lead to the inevitable cultural transmission

School as an agent of cultural transmission

Knowledge about the latest

development in technology and science and knowledge about the nations and people of the world can be acquired through well planned learning activities (acculturation)

School as agent of cultural change

School is the social institution utilized by

the state to effect changes When an individual or a group adopts the cultures of others, practice them and becomes habitual, this is cultural change. Cultural changes are best discussed in the school. Technical and social changes are but specific facts of cultural change

School as agent of cultural change

Certainly the school can work out some
programs of social and cultural changes only in cooperation with or with the assistance of government, the business sector, the church and the family Some have pointed out that social and cultural change is too big a task for a single institution such as the school to undertake The difficulty is getting teachers who are competent in developing and implementing programs for social reconstruction

School as agent of modernization

In this transforming world, educational systems
are often charged with the responsibility of - Bringing about the change in the culture - Being agent of modernization - Being intentional agent of discontinuity - Being future oriented, developing and using curricula that suit the present as well as the future needs of the students

School as agent of modernization All the changes are mostly attempts to

modernization which are being discussed in the school Modernization includes the effects brought abut by social and technological changes

The elements of cultural change which lead to modernization are:

Development of oral and written communication Development of modern means of
communication Modification of technology in all fields Shifts in economic principles Evolution of religious thoughts and political ideologies Transition in scientific theses Alteration in the forms and rules of social interaction

These evidences of modernization are:

The increasing differentiation in the

forms of tools and implements used by man The constant addition to invention The deletion from the range of invention

The examples of technological change in the Philippines are:

Introduction of new methods of learning Additional of vocational education and practical

arts to the curriculum Addition of computer education to the curriculum Inclusion of information technology for factory production Addition of science and technology to train the Filipino to control and manipulate his environment

The examples of social changes in the Philippines

Changed norm of landlord tenant

relationship Land Reform Law Revival of nationalism themes in literature, music and arts etc.

What educational program can be used to assume social and cultural change?

The education program must emphasize

not only intellectual training Education must be based on the motive of social service The school is expected to develop intellectual thinking citizens

What educational program can be used to assume social and cultural change?

The emphasis is upon the teaching of

controversial issues The students should be given extensive first hand experiences and direct observation and participation in all activities

What educational program can be used to assume social and cultural change?

Extra curricular activities offer such opportunities

in the total educational program Require all the teachers to have a broad background of social information The free public school system should not give education to the children and youth only but should also be extended to include the general education of adults and out of school youth

What features of society challenge the schools?

The complexity of society Modern mass society in participant society Enculturation, acculturation and

perpetuation of cultures becoming difficult Increasing number of working mothers

What are other functions of the schools?

Serves as a multi-purpose institution Provides training of the mind Teaches the basics Develops problem solving and critical thinking Serves as agent of social change Promotes social integration Promotes enculturation and cultural
perception Accelerates adjustment of society

Gender and Development

Sex biological distinction between females and

males. Sexual orientation an individuals preference in terms of sexual partners: same sex, neither sex.
Homosexuality Heterosexuality Bisexuality (attraction to both sexes) Asexuality (attraction to neither sex)

Gender and Development

Gender the significance that members
of a society attach to being female or male
Thru gender, a society guides how we think about ourselves and how we interact with others

Patriarchy and Sexism

Patriarchy form of social organization
in which males dominate females Matriarchy form of social organization in which females dominate males Sexism the beliefs that one sex is innately superior to the other. E.g. most women are highly concentrated in lowpaying job
Sexism stunts talents and limits the ambitions of women

Gender and Family

Gender is at work even before the child is
born since most parents generally hope to have a boy rather than girl Baby girls are ushered in pink world while baby boy are in blue world In school, female child are tenderly handled with more hugs and kisses while male child is treated more aggressively

Gender and Peer Group

Boys favor team sports with complex rules
and clear objectives which reinforce masculine traits of aggression and control Girls play jump rope, simply talk, sing and dance. Instead of teaching them competitiveness, female peer groups promote interpersonal skills of communication and cooperation

Gender and Schooling

In school, more girls learn secretarial
schooling and home-based duties nutrition or sewing Classes for boys are into woodworking, auto mechanic, gardening

Gender, Income and Wealth

For every peso earned by men, women
earned about 75 cents.
Because the kind of work women do: largely secretarial and service jobs Because parenting as womans responsibility

Gender and Education

More and more women are earning
bachelors degree Women earned majority of postgraduate degrees, often their springboard to highprestige jobs Although some professional field are still predominantly male. E.g. military, law

Gender and Politics

Until 1935, women were not given the
rights and opportunity to vote Today, there is an increasing number of women who serve as mayors, reps across the country We have already two women who serve as heads of the government

What is Globalization?

-is a historical process, the result of human innovation and technological progress. refers to the increasing integration of economies around the world, particularly through trade and financial flows. refers to the movement of people (labor) and knowledge (technology) across international borders.

Globalization is connectivity in economic
and cultural life across the world for centuries. Globalization involves the diffusion of ideas, practices and technologies.

Common themes of Globalization Literature

de-localization (many of the activities
that previously involved face-to-face interaction, or that were local, are now conducted across great distances) supraterritoriality (decline in power of national governments; emergence of institutions such as the World Bank, the European Union and the European Central Bank, involve new constraints and imperatives );

Common themes of Globalization Literature

the speed and power of technological
innovation and the associated growth of risk

Common themes of Globalization Literature

the rise of multinational corporations
The global corporations cut across the international boundaries between states, thus they are a force for worldwide integration These global corporations has tremendous power to the extent that they thwart the wishes of national governments or international organizations They even influence the foreign policies of countries Multinational companies are constantly in search of cheap labor The power of these mega corporations has become all greater thru control of mass media [use for marketing. E.g. CNN, Forbes, Asiaweek]

Common themes of Globalization Literature

the extent to which the
moves towards the creation of (global) free markets to leads to instability and division.

Positive Aspects of Globalization

As more money is poured in to developing

countries, there is a greater chance for the people in those countries to economically succeed and increase their standard of living. Global competition encourages creativity and innovation and keeps prices for commodities/services in check. Developing countries are able to reap the benefits of current technology without undergoing many of the growing pains associated with development of these technologies.

Positive Aspects of Globalization

Governments are able to better work
together towards common goals now that there is an advantage in cooperation, an improved ability to interact and coordinate, and a global awareness of issues. There is a greater access to foreign culture in the form of movies, music, food, clothing, and more. In short, the world has more choices.

Negative Aspects of Globalization

Outsourcing, while it provides jobs to a
population in one country, takes away those jobs from another country, leaving many without opportunities. Although different cultures from around the world are able to interact, they begin to meld, and the contours and individuality of each begin to fade. (homogenization of culture) There may be a greater chance of disease spreading worldwide, as well as invasive species that could prove devastating in non-native ecosystems. (destruction of biodiversity)

Negative Aspects of Globalization

There is little international
regulation, an unfortunate fact that could have dire consequences for the safety of people and the environment. Large Western-driven organizations such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank make it easy for a developing country to obtain a loan. However, a Western-focus is often applied to a non-Western situation, resulting in failed progress. (imposition of Western model of development)

Globalization and Education

Commodification and the corporate
takeover of education. The threat to the autonomy of national educational systems by globalization. De-localization and changing technologies and orientations in education. Branding, globalization and learning to be consumers.

Education takes place in society. Education is essentially a social process. Social environment educates the child. Education has a social role to play. Education is a lifelong process. Education is not only schooling.

Education is formal, nonformal and informal. Beside schools, there are many education
institutions. Economic and political factors of society play a dominant role in educational reforms. Education must be social in nature, and develop democratic skills and values in students.

Anthropological-Sociological Educational Implications

In as much as the school is an important social

institution, the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Department of Education (DepEd) should examine very closely the curricular program of learning institutions The government should give more incentives to the teachers not only in terms of salaries but also other fringe benefits The school must be made attractive to both teachers and students The school and community should work together very closely to produce the kind of graduates the community needs

Anthropological-Sociological Educational Implications

A survey of the community should be

conducted more often by the schools, to produce the needed man power that matches the demands and needs of the community There must be a clear support system existing between the school and community The school should involve parents in the school projects, and if possible, should do best in enculturation and socialization processes

Anthropological-Sociological Educational Implications

The government should lesson the

teachers involvement in the implementation of the programs and devote time in teaching Since the teachers play a key role in the society, all Teachers Training Institution (TEIs) should be strict with their policies on admission, selection and retention of would be teachers.

Why are You Still Teaching?

Claire Macdonald Senator Patrick Burns Junior High

Im often Overwhelmed Exhausted Frustrated Angered Unappreciated Overworked As a teacher

However Im still here Still teaching-Why?

Im often energized Excited Amazed Amused Enthused By my students And colleagues

Occasionally Im Thanked Appreciated Praised Listened to Validated By students from my past And from my present

Im still here because I still care For my Students Who make me laugh every day I learn something new every day I know I am making a difference. Thats why.

Whenever I begin to question Just why am I still here? Still teaching? Still doing more and more With less and less

What Makes A Good Teacher?

By: Michelle, ASP student

A good teacher is like an angel who is sent by the Father above She is caring and watchful and she guides children to the right path She watches her pupils grow to become good, gentle and true.

What Makes A Good Teacher?

By: Michelle, ASP student

A good teacher is like a magician who can perform many tricks. She is witty and intelligent and she knows how to teach. She can make magic inside the classroom that can captured our attention.

What Makes A Good Teacher?

By: Michelle, ASP student

A good teacher is like a good mother who knows whats the best for her children. She is patient, kind, loving and understanding. She makes her lessons interesting, telling us enjoyable stories that help us become good children.

What Makes A Good Teacher?

By: Michelle, ASP student

A good teacher is Gods gift to children. She radiates truth, goodness and love so that children will follow her example. She prepares pupils to become good citizens not only here on earth but also in heaven. Thank God there are many good teachers!

THANK YOU!!!!!!!