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Has isolationism always existed? When and how did isolationism come about? - Has isolationism been the main reason for the difficulties of British integration into the EU?




Part I: The Historical Background

Chapter 1: The Original Links
i) Prehistory, the Celts and the Romans Neolithic period. Spread of agriculture from Near East, 8000-1800 B.C. Spread of settled farming communities Neolithic period in the Isles 4000-1800 B.C. : trade between Isles and Continent Common neolithic culture in Western Europe (e.g. megaliths: Stonehenge near Amesbury, Wiltshire )

The Celts Celtic migration from Central (Alpine) Europe to the Isles c. 500 to 300 B.C Not a nation but different peoples linked by - Language (Indo-European) - Religion. Paganism, Druids - Culture. Oral tradition. No written texts Celts reached Isles having passed through Gaul Different Celtic peoples in the Isles

The Romans

Final conquest of Albion, Brittania by the Romans 55 A.D. Trade between Celts and Romans Celtic resistance to Roman occupation. Did not conquer Caledonia or Hibernia The impact of the Roman invasion The importance of the legacy of Christianity. 391 sole religion of Empire. To Brittania 200 A.D. Church survived pagan Anglo-Saxons. Irish missionaries

The Roman invasion of Britain was arguably the most significant event ever to happen to the British Isles. It affected our language, our culture, our geography, our architecture and even the way we think. Our island has a Roman name, its capital is a Roman city and for centuries (even after the Norman Conquest) the language of our religion and administration was a Roman one.
(Dr Mike Ibeji )

ii) The Western Germanic Invasions and the Northmen

Invasion by the Saxons, Angles and Jutes Britons pushed back into Wales, Cornwall and, eventually, Brittany Development of Old English, the name Engla-land coined Creation of the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia and West Saxony Creation of a Celtic Fringe.

The Northmen Scandinavian invasion from Norway and Denmark. From 800 A.D. Some spoke Old Norse distinguishing them form Western Germanic tribes Took over large areas in the Isles and set up the Danelaw. Jorvic, York Resistance of Wessex. Battles for power between Vikings and Anglo-Saxons A Saxon King, Harold, takes the throne of England in 1066

iii) The Norman and Plantagenet dynasties

King of France grants Viking invaders the Dukedom of Normandy in 911. They rapidly adopt French culture. William the Conqueror takes the throne of England in 1066. Hastings. Replacement of Anglo-Saxon aristocracy Importance of Latin and French (language of Court, law) Romanticisation of Saxons Robin Hood. The Norman Yoke. The effects of the Norman connection: - strong centralised government. London - architecture international Romanesque (Norman), Gothic

Strong Norman, Plantagenet/Angevin links to French roots French- speaking Kings. Crusades 10951291 Apogee of power Henry II 1154-89 Capetian resistance. 13th century shift in balance of power, Normandy lost 1204. French move to retake Gascony. Edward III launched 100 Years War 1337-1453. Bordeaux falls in 1453

In virtually every respect England from the eleventh to the thirteenth century was a part of Europe, to an even greater extent than it was at the time of Roman Britain
(Krishan Kumar)

Chapter 2: The Schisms

i) Establishment of the Nation-State, the Break with

Rome and the Protestant Reformation Loss of influence in France leads to English introspection and isolation from mainland Europe Tudor and Stuart monarchies. Henry VII 1485-1509 Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther 1517. Growing anticlericalism 1534: Act of Supremacy formalises Englands break from Rome under Henry VIII (1509-47). Role of Parliament. Advance of Protestantism. Edward VI Reign of Queen Mary 1553-8. Return to Catholicism. Persecution of Protestants John Fox : Book of Martyrs 1563 Elizabeth I. Return of Protestantism. The Anglican Church. Defeat of the Spanish Armada 1588

Rise of extreme Protestantism on the Continent. Calvinism, Geneva Puritanism. Work ethic. Puritans dominate Parliament. Charles I. English civil war 1642-1651. Royalists against Parliamentarians. Cromwell. Onslaught in Ireland. Test Act 1673. Parliament 1685 James II. Catholic. Glorious Revolution Bill of Rights 1689. Important role of Parliament Battle of the Boyne 1690.

The Reformation and its divisive effects -Bloody conflicts between Catholics and Protestants. Prebyterians. Guy Fawkes. The Gunpowder Plot 1605 -Catholic Ireland isolated from England and Scotland. -Spiritual isolationism -Religious divisions at the basis of future political alignments

ii) The Development of Political and Economic Liberalism, the Birth of Empire and the Industrial Revolution
Definition of liberalism a) The development of political liberalism Origins in Britain Magna Carta 1215. The barons. The rule of law Protestant challenge to established authority. The Divine Right of Kings. John Knox The rise and growing importance of Parliament - The Act of Supremacy 1534 - The Bill of Rights 1689

Power of Parliament : constitutional monarchy - Parliament : the House of Commons and the House of Lords - The doctrine of the sovereignty of Parliament - The power to raise taxes and mint money - The locus of sovereignty is Parliament. Sovereignty associated to traditions of Parliament. locus of sovereignty in France linked to State or nation - Threat from EC. Hugh Gaitskill 1962

The British Constitution. Link to political liberalism Unwritten. Common law origins. Precedent and case law Edmund Burke 1729-1793. Incremental, pragmatic evolution placed a just correspondence and symmetry with the order of the world, preserving the past and assuring a smooth and continuous future . Suspicion of eternal rules which purport to find solutions for all forms of society British political culture adversarial. Whigs and Tories. Two-party system. Layout of Commons. Legal system adversarial not inquisitorial. Problems with multidimensional European institutions

b) The development of economic liberalism Early 1700s. commercial, financial and colonial power laid foundations for British Empire Mercantilism gives way to liberalism. The importance of British capitalists. Laissez-les-faire John Locke. The Second Treatise on Government 1690. Lockes social contract. Political and economic liberalism. Adam Smith (1723-1790). The Wealth of Nations - Value : work and remuneration. Supply and demand. Market price : natural price. The hidden hand of the market David Ricardo. Political economy. Cheap foodstuffs for industrial goods. Worker: cog in the capitalist machine. No labour law. Developement of the British Empire. Not conscious government policy, but developed in pursuit of free trade. East India Company 1600. - 7 Years War 1756-63. Canada and India. 1786 American loss

French colonies : extensive structural and economic development British colonies : own resources and principles of free trade South America : acceptance of British hegemony, domination London as hub between the North and the South. Would become The City The Industrial Revolution. Late 18th century Britain as birthplace: Infrastructures, commercial outlets, technological breakthroughs (steam engines), entrepreneurs self made man. By 1800 Britain well ahead in march towards commercial and industrial society Continental blockade 1806-10. Napoleon. Atlantic society (both sides of ocean) Traditional British foreign policy - Not attempting to dominate Continental Europe - Divide and rule. Containment 1860 : 2% world population Britain produces 40-45% industrial output

Internationalist approach : You can be sure General, that if ever we have to choose between Europe and the open seas, it is the open seas we would choose Continental ideas less successful. Failure of French revolution to take hold. Economic liberalism, Anglo-Saxon world. Linked to Protestant ideas, 16th century onwards. Business as usual . Social democracy after WW2, Thatcherism late 1970s. - Anglo Saxon world - Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905) - Business as usual , commercial society - Social democracy after WW2, Thatcherism late1970s Models : - Britain neo-liberal. - Continent conservative corporate. - Scandinavia : very high income tax

Part II: From Past to Present Chapter 3: The Impact of Britains Past on Relations with the European Community i) History of British involvement in Europe from
1945 to the present day

1945, initial enthusiasm for European integration from both Labour and the Conservatives party We should do all we can to foster both the spirit and the machinery of cooperation Britain cannot stand outside of Europe and regard her problems as quite separate from those of her European neighbours. Speech by Ernest Bevin, Foreign Secretary (19451951), to the House of Commons, 22 January 1948

We must build a kind of United States of Europe. [] The first step is to form a Council of Europe. If at first all the States of Europe are not willing or able to join the Union, we must nevertheless proceed to assemble and combine those who will and those who can [] Let Europe arise! Winston Churchill, Zurich speech, 19 September 1946 Labour in power: 1945 Council of Europe, Strasbourg 1949. Britains post-war foreign policy perspectives - Concerned about breaking ties with the Commonwealth and the USA. Three circles configuration. - Priority of defence: US link against the Soviets. NATO 1949. Trade weak links with Europe at this time UK deeply suspicious of federalism : two centres of power

May 1950. Schuman Plan. Pooling of coal and steel resources. European Coal and Steel Community 1951. Supranational characteristics. British rejection. Churchill returned as Prime Minister 1951. Anthony Eden, Foreign Secretary, anti-European. Like labour, support for European projects but no real participation (sovereignty). I never thought that Britain or the British Commonwealth should, either individually or collectively, become an integral part of a European Federation, and I have never given the slightest support to the idea our first objective is the unity and the consolidation of the British Commonwealth and what is left of the former British Empire. Our second, the fraternal association of the English-speaking world; and third, United Europe, to which we are a separate closely-and spacially-related ally and friend . Winston Churchill, November 1951

British rejection of European Defence Community 1950. Federal project : problem of sovereignty. US wanted to rearm Germany. Jean Monnets plan. 1954-58 : recognition of importance of Western Europe as a market for British manufacturers. But problem of customs union, with common external tariff. Commonwealth goods. 2/3 British trade still outside Europe. Suggestion of free trade zone (EFTA). EFTA rejected and Treaty of Rome signed in 1957 by The Six (ECSC: Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg, France, Italy, Germany) British fear of exclusion. American pressure for British to integrate. US partnership priority for British. Britains dilemma. If, of course, the Six developed into a Federal State it would become an important country and the danger might be that the Americans would pay considerably more regard to the United States of Europe than to the UK [] Our links with the United States are more important than any other links that we might or might not have under consideration. Selwyn Lloyd, British conservative Foreign Secretary (19551960), November 1959

1961: First British application to join EEC. Harold Macmillan. US relationship, Trente glorieuses , Commonwealth fading, peace in Europe. But rejection by De Gaulle on Trojan Horse grounds. 1967 : Harold Wilson, labour, second rejection from De Gaulle. Acceptance in 1973 with Edward Heath. Conservative, not very keen on special relationship. Reasons for third application :

1. Economic advantages : The Government is confident that membership of the enlarged Community will lead to much improved efficiency and productivity in British industry, with a higher rate of investment and faster growth of real wages A more efficient United Kingdom industry will be more competitive not only within the enlarged Community but also in world markets generally. Edward Heath, Cm 4715, The United Kingdom and the European Communities, London, 1971

BUT Britains first application for community membership vetoed by De Gaulle

2. Cultural and political advantages:

[European Integration] is by no means a selfish objective It is a noble ideal, long established in the traditions of European thought and well worthy of the aspirations of our generation. When we achieve our ambitions then history will indeed know that the spirit of man has at last triumphed over the divisions and dissensions, the hatred and the strife that plagued our continent for a thousand years. Humanity will be grateful that our European civilisation, to which it already owes so much, will be able to flower afresh in unity and concord. Edward Heath, Conservative Prime Minister, 1970-74, The Times, 29 April 1971

3. Edward Heath: Belief that British sovereignty would not be threatened:

We shall have full opportunity to make our views heard and our influence felt in the councils of the Community. The Community is no federation of provinces or counties. It constitutes a Community of great and established nations, each with its own personality and traditions. The practical working of the Community accordingly reflects the reality that sovereign Governments are represented round the table. On a question where a Government considers that vital national interests are involved, it is established that the decision should be unanimous. Like any other treaty, the Treaty of Rome commits its signatories to support agreed aims; but the commitment represents the voluntary undertaking of a sovereign state to observe policies which it has helped to form. There is no question of any erosion of essential national sovereignty; (my italics) what is proposed is a sharing and an enlargement of individual national sovereignties in the general interest
Edward Heath, Cm 4715, The United Kingdom and the European Communities, London, 1971.

1979. Jim Callaghan, labour Prime Minister, accepted idea of European Monetary System (EMS). Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) to ensure stable exchange rates between MS currencies and ECU (common currency) and between MS currencies themselves. - improve trade and set up Single Market - pathway to EMU (European Monetary Union) and single currency

Growing Euroscepticism: reached its height with Mrs Thatcher, conservative, into power in 1979. The British Budget Question. 1979-84. Long-standing grievance. EC budget raised from customs duties on goods and agricultural products (levies) and 1% of MS VAT receipts. (NB. EU is a customs union with a common external tariff) UK : - Relied more on imports than other MS. Continued to import foodstuffs from the Commonwealth after 1973.Thus UK paid high agricultural levies to EU - Small British return on CAP (Common Agricultural Policy). Small and efficient agricultural sector. Early industrial revolution - Was a contributor with a weak economy - Strasbourg summit 1979 : I want my money back . Unpopularity with other MS: Failure to respect acquis communautaire. Fontainbleau summit 1984. Agreement of rebate worth 3 billion

1986: Single European Act (SEA). Single European market. Thatchers support, creation of a common market. Need for Qualified Majority Voting to speed up process. QMV // unanimity. QMV extended to whole Single Market programme. - 1992 Treaty of Maastricht, QMV for education, health, the environment, economic and monetary policy and certain decisions on home affairs. - Treaty of Amsterdam 1997. QMV for employment, equal opportunities, social policy and some areas of foreign policy. - Lisbon Treaty 2007. Extension of QMV into 44 new areas. More foreign policy and Justice and Home Affairs matters, such as asylum, immigration, criminal law, border controls and police cooperation, covered by QMV. - QMV : Erosion of the sovereignty of the nation state, which Thatcher had hoped to protect

The SEA set a deadline of 1992 for four freedoms to be guaranteed: free movement of goods, people, services and capital However, fear that Single Market would mean a Fortress Europe , infringing GATT principles. Getting rid of barriers inside the EC would lead to creation of external tariff walls (protectionism). In reality, few restrictions by EU on imports and services, but criticism of Common Agriculture Policy on grounds of protectionism. British and American criticism of protectionist EU tendencies.

Thatchers promise to roll back the frontiers of the state. Friedrich Von Hayek. The Road to Serfdom 1944. Milton Friedman. Monetarism. Tight government control of the money supply. Opposition to Keynesianism. John Maynard Keynes. Neo-liberalism. Thatcherism. Deregulation, privatisation, government cuts in borrowing and welfare sector. Direct taxes reduced. Reduced power of the unions (miners strike) Thatchers belief that EC policy at odds with her own. Thatchers opposition to EC, Bruges Speech.

Thatcher did concede the close historical relationship Britain enjoyed with Europe:
Europe is not the creation of the Treaty of Rome. Nor is the

European idea the property of any group or institution. We British are as much heirs to the legacy of European culture as any other nation. Our links to the rest of Europe, the continent of Europe, have been the dominant factor in our history. For three hundred years we were part of the Roman Empire and our maps still trace the straight lines of the roads the Romans built. Our ancestors - Celts, Saxons and Danes - came from the continent. Our nation was - in that favourite Community word "restructured" under Norman and Angevin rule in the eleventh and twelfth centuries [] Visit the great Churches and Cathedrals of Britain, read our literature and listen to our language: all bear witness to the cultural riches which we have drawn from Europe - and other Europeans from us. [] we know that without the European legacy of political ideas we could not have achieved as much as we did.

Yet she also pointed to a number of problems with Community policy:

- Europe is not competitive enough and fails to encourage enterprise: Europe has to be ready both to contribute in full measure to its own security and to compete commercially and industrially, in a world in which success goes to the countries which encourage individual initiative and enterprise, rather than to those which attempt to diminish them. My third guiding principle is the need for Community policies which encourage enterprise. If Europe is to flourish and create the jobs of the future, enterprise is the key. The lesson of the economic history of Europe in the 1970s and 1980s is that central planning and detailed control don't work, and that personal endeavour and initiative do.

a State-controlled economy is a recipe for low growth; free enterprise within a framework of law brings better results. The aim of a Europe open to enterprise is the moving force behind the creation of the Single European Market by1992.[] Our aim should not be more and more detailed regulation from the centre: it should be to deregulate and to remove the constraints on trade. Britain has been in the lead in opening its markets to others. we certainly do not need new regulations which raise the cost of employment and make Europe's labour market less flexible and less competitive with overseas suppliers.

- Europe threatens sovereignty:

My first guiding principle is this: willing and active co-

operation between independent sovereign states is the best way to build a successful European Community. To try to suppress nationhood and concentrate power at the centre of a European conglomerate would be highly damaging and would jeopardise the objectives we seek to achieve. Europe will be stronger precisely because it has France as France, Spain as Spain, Britain as Britain, each with its own customs, traditions and identity. It would be folly to try to fit them into some sort of identikit European personality.

- Europe is over-centralised: working more closely together does not require power to be centralised in Brussels or decisions to be taken by an appointed bureaucracy. Indeed, it is ironic that just when those countries such as the Soviet Union, which have tried to run everything from the centre, are learning that success depends on dispersing power and decisions away from the centre, some in the Community seem to want to move in the opposite direction. We have not successfully rolled back the frontiers of the state in Britain, only to see them reimposed at a European level, with a European superstate exercising a new dominance from Brussels.

-Europe lacks pragmatism, leading to economic inefficiency: Community policies must tackle present problems in a practical
way, however difficult that may be. If we cannot reform those Community policies which are patently wrong or ineffective and which are rightly causing public disquiet, then we shall not get the public's support for the Community's future development. [] we cannot rest on what we have achieved to date. For example, the task of reforming the Common Agricultural Policy is far from complete. Certainly, Europe needs a stable and efficient farming industry. But the CAP has become unwieldy, inefficient and grossly expensive. Production of unwanted surpluses safeguards neither the income nor the future of farmers themselves. We must continue to pursue policies which relate supply more closely to market requirements, and which will reduce overproduction and limit costs.

Mrs Thatcher addresses Parliament in 1990 No No No speech Layout : adversarial. Debate. Lively. Many references to sovereignty: of Parliament, in relation to monetary policy. Pound sterling as an expression of sovereignty. Rejection of single currency According to Mrs Thatcher, into what areas does the COMMISSION want to extend its powers? According to Mrs Thatcher, what did Jacques Delors (President of the Commission) say concerning the institutional organisation of the EC? What are the main points made by Mr Benn (labour)? QMV // power to veto, unanimity. At the end, how does Mrs Thatcher describe EMU?

- Basic objection : too many EC directives and regulations: obstacles to free trade - 1989 Charter of Fundamental Social Rights for Workers. Annexed to Treaty of Maastricht 1992 (Social Protocol). - John Major (Prime Minister 1990-97): this flew in the face of UK attempts to liberalise labour relations and limit union power: optout 1992. Conservatives: liberalisation of labour relations and curbing of unions.

Tony Blair and Europe: New Labour

Tony Blair has generally been considered to be a committed European. Indeed, even before coming to power (1997), he was enthusiastic: Europe is a vital part of our national interest. To be sidelined without influence is not a betrayal of Europe. It is a betrayal of Britain. There is now a growing part of the Tory Party that would take Britain out of Europe altogether. That would be a disaster for jobs and businesses. I say this in all honesty to my country. We cant be half in and half out for ever. This country should be leading Europe and under Labour it will. Tony Blair, Prime Minister 1997-2007, speech to the Labour Party conference, Brighton, 3 October 1995 Europe is not, as the sceptics would have us believe, something that happened to us in 1973. We are Europeans. We are made up of wave after wave of settlers who came to these islands from Europe: Celts, Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings and Normans. Tony Blair, speech to the Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, 5 April 1995

Monetary policy - In 1992 John Major had negotiated an opt-out from the final stage of EMU, the adoption of the Euro

- Gordon Browns (Chancellor of the Exchequer): five economic tests for joining the Euro. Treasury assessment, Britain not ready to join Euro-zone. - Blair promised a referendum on the adoption of the Euro, but resigned before having one Blairs third-way politics. Schroeder and Clinton. Belief in neo-liberalism set him apart from the social democratic/corporatist Continent. Enthusiasm for Europe, but reform needed to make it more competitive on the world stage :

Our commitment to Europe does not mean that we accept a bureaucratic and wasteful Europe. In fact it suits the Tories to keep it that way so that they have something to attack. We want a new, revitalised, peoples Europe: A Europe more relevant to the real concerns of our people. Instead of being obsessed with the minutae of institutional reform, the Union should be working to combat unemployment and make European business more competitive in the world economy in part by removing the barriers to competitiveness within the EU. A more democratic and open Europe. Meetings of the Council in legislative session should no longer take place in secret. The Commission should be made more accountable to national parliaments and the European Parliament. Subsidiarity should be given real effect. A Europe that is less wasteful and inefficient. The scandals and waste of the CAP are bad for Britain and bad for Europe. A stronger Britain can work to correct them more effectively.

Although Blair adopted Social Protocol in 1997, strict New Labour adherence to neo-liberal economic policy. Flexibility, etc Negotiations leading up to Lisbon (Reform)Treaty 2007 - Long and complicated. Constitutional Treaty 2005. French and Dutch rejection - Chiracs anger following Blairs failure to hold a referendum in 2005. Pressure on Blair to give up on BBQ rebate. Deal with French

- Name change from Constitutional Treaty to Amended/Reform Treaty or Treaty of Lisbon. British pressure. (Czech Rep. And The Netherlands) - Blairs Insistence on unanimous vote (no QMV) in certain areas: European Council meeting in June 2007. British Red lines

1. Charter of Fundamental Rights (special protocol in Lisbon Treaty= British optout). 2. key decisions of foreign policy (external sovereignty). 3. Justice and home affairs: judicial and police cooperation, asylum and immigration (internal sovereignty). (British opt-in) 4. Harmonisation of taxation. Issues of tax benefit or spending. . NB. No Referendum on new Treaty

Blair, the special relationship and Europe - Blair saw Britain as a bridge between Europe and the US Schroeder remarked that on this bridge the traffic was one-way - 2003 Blairs support for Iraq invasion without international protocol. Old Europe and New Europe. Blairs strategic choice. Dubyas poodle . Main reason for Blair not becoming President of European Council in 2009. MEPs against Successes in developing common policies - Defence. Saint Malo 1998. Anglo-French defence declaration for armed forces cooperation. Subsequently enlarged to whole EU. Towards European defence - Heightened cooperation in Justice and Home affairs (limited by opt-in). Support for European arrest warrant. Adopted 2004 - Economic reforms : completion of single market for telecommunications, energy and financial services. Reduction on regulations, more flexible labour

Gordon Brown. Prime Minister 27 June 2007 : same Atlanticist leanings as Blair. But US ambassador to London abysmal track record 1st year in office (Wikileaks). Less overtly pro-European than Blair

Arrived 5 hours late for official signing of Lisbon Treaty in December 2007. Sulky rudenness . Refusal to have referendum, as promised by Blair

Led world and European economic governance following banking and financial sector crisis of 2008. Financial rescue plan followed by US and other European governments

David Cameron. Prime Minister 2010. European Parliament. Changed Conservative alliance with European Peoples Party (EPP). Right-wing European Conservatives and Reformists. Nick Clegg : nutters, anti-Semites and homophobes In opposition, much talk of referendum on Lisbon. Change of position in 2009. Commitment to put into place a referendum lock by legislation. No future transfer of power to EU without a referendum Will enact a UK Sovereignty Act to ensure that ultimate authority (primacy) lies with Parliament: Because we have no written constitution, unlike many other EU countries, we have no explicit legal guarantee that the last word on our laws stays in Britain. There is therefore a danger that, over time, our courts might come to regard ultimate authority as resting with the EU . Supremacy of EU law: Collision course with EU? Nov. 2010. Defence pact with French. Bilateral. Sharing military equipment and nuclear technology. Britain and France together on Libya in the UN Security Council, March 2011. New impetus for European defence? December 2011 : veto on Treaty change Euro with Greece in massive difficulty. Crisis meeting. Create a new Euro pact that doesnt need treaty change (UK and Czech Republic outside). Tobin taxe on transaction taxe.

ii) Why has Britain been such a reluctant/ awkward/ half-hearted, European partner?
Throughout the post-war period, there have been a number of important sources of conflict between the UK and her European partners: British liberalism vs. European protectionism Britain has appeared Atlanticist rather than European Adversarial vs. Consensus politics Political culture. Package deals horsetrading. play the Community game. Lowest common denominator Common law tradition vs. Proliferation of treaties and written laws. Roman/Civil law tradition. Culture of constitutional formalisation. Parliamentary sovereignty vs. Federalism Consistent rejection of the pooling of sovereignty. Concern at loss of sovereignty. Linked to Parliament. National collective unconscious.

Public opinion. 1975 opinion poll. MORI poll : since 1997, 45- 50% have
wanted to leave EU. Support for Euro has waned since 1997 - Feeling of superiority. WW2 winners. Recent economic prosperity (80s and 90s). But EU successes. Trade figures: Britain does around 60% of its trade with EU - Ridiculous Directives (e.g. bananas) : THE PRESS :(globally antiEuropean)

- Corruption, lack of transparency : The press. - General feeling of Apartness :

England remains the only European country in which apparently intelligent people can use expressions like joining Europe was a mistake, or we should leave Europe, as if the place can be hitched to the back of the car like a holiday caravan. An analysis of the British market for the French Tourist Office in 1996 advises, in measured disdain, that even though they have a welldeveloped sense of humour and can laugh at themselves, they remain conservative and chauvinistic. The British are profoundly independent and insular, constantly torn between America and Europe. They are right: one of the consequences of living on an island is that everywhere is overseas. There is a legendary English newspaper headline which tells everything you need to know about the countrys relations with the rest of Europe: FOG IN CHANNEL CONTINENT CUT OFF
Jeremy Paxman, The English: A Portrait of a People, 1999.

Chapter 4 : The major Institutions of the European Union and British reactions
The separation of powers: Executive : Judiciary : Legislature Intergovernmental / integrationist, federalist The European Court of Justice - Integrationist / federalist institution - Took power into its own hands. supremacy principle 1964. Progressive increase in jurisdiction. Infringement procedure,1992. Jursidiction over 1st pillar of Maastricht:









British reactions : Sovereignty issue The pillars of Maastricht : British opposition to extension of ECJ into second and third pillars (Maastricht and after) Social policy and labour law : ECJ integrationist crusade A Court with a mission is a menace. A supreme court with a mission is a tyranny and socialist policies. Opt-out of Charter of Fundamental Rights 2009. The Commission Brussels. One commissioner per MS. Appointment. Original motor or executive of EC. Integrationist. Jacques Delors. Neutrality. Stands up for small MS Budget Guardian of the Treaties. Making sure EU law, Directives, regulations, are properly applied. Infringement procedure Loss of power. Plan to restore this (Lisbon)

British reactions - Unelected. Democratic deficit. Brussels bureaucrats Unpopular directives - Integrationist and socialistic tendencies. The Sun Up Yours Delors! social policy 1980s - Failed politicians and corruption - The Council of Ministers. The Council of the European Union - Brussels. Main day-to-day legislative institution - Different possible Councils. MS ministers - Nominates Commission and approves budget - Legislative role. Reviews and passes legislation with EP (co-decision). Commission proposes

Method of voting. Weighted voting, QMV (74%), more than 50% of MS. (Nice 2004). Move to Double Majority in 2014 (Lisbon): 55% of votes cast (15 out of 27) if this represents 65% of EU citizens. Favourable to larger MS. Political culture: QMV is in fact rarely used as consensus is sought British reactions Made up of Ministers of MS. Intergovernmental institution. Less democratic deficit accusations British objection to extension of QMV in the Council of Ministers Political culture. Package deals, linkage diplomacy, Lowest common denominator = loss of beliefs (Thatcher). Horsetrading

The European Parliament - Brussels and Strasbourg - Only directly elected EU institution. Sits for 5 years. - Has grown in strength since 1978. Now integral part of legislative system (co-decision) - Cross-national party groups. European Peoples Party. MEPs work in committees on different areas. Possibility of lobbying MEPs - Agrees budget with Council of Ministers. Supervises Commission

British reactions Political culture. PR. Semi-circular, committeebased. Less vibrant democratic institution Threat to sovereignty of Parliament Democratic deficit. Low turn-out at EP Parliament polls. 34% in 2009 The British press has consistently attacked the EP for the low turn-out and accused it of lacking credibility:

Catch 22 situation in that when efforts are made to rectify democratic deficit by strengthening the EP, the British accuse it of threatening the sovereignty of Parliament even more.

The European Council - Members of Heads of government or state. 4 times per year - Impetus to EU, steering of political direction - Lisbon: Official EU institution and appointment of President. Herman Von Rompuy - Decisions usually taken by unanimity British reactions - Suspicion of intergovernmental conferences. Move towards written constitution - Political culture. Intergovernmental institution, but consensus

The European Central Bank

- Frankfurt, Germany - Set up 1998, 3rd stage of EMU. Official institution in 2009 (Lisbon) - President Jean-Claude Trichet - Functions and objectives : Defines and implements monetary policy in the Eurozone AIMS : Price stability. Keeping inflation down. Controls money supply and sets interest rates - Independence from political pressures British reactions - Threat to the Parliament, eurosceptics - British gold reserves. German domination of money policy - Criticism of fixed interest rates - Fear of Europact. Fiscal federalism. Exclusion. Attack on financial sector.