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power electronics

TEXT BOOKS
Power Electronics by M. D. Singh & K. B. Kanchandhani, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing company, 1998.
Power Electronics : Circuits, Devices and Applications by M. H. Rashid, Prentice Hall of India, 2nd edition
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REFERENCE BOOKS
Power Electronics - by V.R.Moorthy , 1st edition -2005, OXFORD University Press Power Electronics by Vedam Subramanyam, New Age International (P) Limited, Publishers

Power Electronics-by P.C.Sen,Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing


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UNIT-1 POWER SEMI CONDUCTOR DEVICES

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Lecture-1

Introduction to Power Electronics

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History of Power Electronics


Mercury arc rectifier (year 1900). Metal tank rectifier. Grid controlled vacuum tube rectifier. Ignitron, Phanatron, Thyratron SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) - The 1st Thyristor developed by Bell labs in 1956. 1st Commercial grade SCR developed by General Electric Co. in 1958.
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Power Electronic Applications


Commercial Applications Air conditioners Central refrigeration. UPS Elevators Emergency lamps Heating systems Domestic Applications Cooking equipments. Lighting & heating ckts. Air conditioners. Refrigerators. Freezers. Personal Computers.

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Power Electronic Applications


Telecommunications Battery chargers. DC power supply & UPS Mobile cell phone battery chargers. Transportation Traction control of electric vehicles. Battery chargers for electric vehicles. Electric locomotives. Street cars & trolley buses.

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Power Electronic Applications


Utility Systems High voltage DC transmissions (HVDC). Static VAR compensation. Fuel cells. Energy storage systems Boiler feed water systems.
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Power Devices
Power Diode Power BJT Power MOSFET IGBT Thyristor (SCR)

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Applications of Power Devices

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Thyristorised Power Converter


Thyristorised Power Controllers

Power Source

Load Equipment
T o measure voltage, current, speed, temperature

Command Input

Control Unit

Measuring Unit

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Advantages
Easy and flexibility in operation due to digital controls. Faster dynamic response compared to the electro mechanical converters. Lower acoustic noise when compared to electro magnetic controllers, relays and contactors.

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Contd
High efficiency due to low losses in the Thyristors. Long life and reduced/minimal maintenance due to the absence of mechanical wear. Control equipments using Thyristors are compact in size.

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Disadvantages
Generate unwanted harmonics. Harmonics are injected into power supply lines affecting the performance of other loads and equipments. Unwanted interference with communication circuits due to electromagnetic radiation.

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Special protection circuits must be used to protect the thyristor devices. Thyristors must be rated for maximum loading conditions. Special steps are to be taken for correcting line supply power factor.
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Different types of Power Converters


Diode rectifiers (uncontrolled rectifiers). Line commutated converters or AC to DC converters (controlled rectifiers). AC voltage (RMS voltage) controllers (AC to AC converters).

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Cyclo converters (AC to AC converters at low output frequency). DC choppers (DC to DC converters). Inverters (DC to AC converters).

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AC to DC Converter
+ AC Input V oltage Line Commutated Converter DC Output V0(QC) -

Type of input: AC supply (fixed voltage & frequency) Type of output: DC voltage (variable)
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AC to DC Converter

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Application Of Power Electronics

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Application Of Power Electronics


Speed control of DC motor in DC drives. UPS. HVDC transmission. Battery Chargers.

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AC Voltage Regulators
V0(RMS) AC Input V oltage fs Vs fs AC V oltage Controller V ariable AC R MSO/P V oltage fS

Type of input: AC supply (fixed voltage & frequency). Type of output: Variable AC RMS O/P voltage.

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Applications
Speed control of ac motors. Speed control of fans (domestic and industrial fans). AC pumps.

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Cyclo Converters
V0 , f0 AC Input V oltage Vs fs Cyclo Converters V ariable F requency AC Output f0< fS

Type of input: AC supply (fixed voltage & frequency). Type of output: Variable frequency ac O/P voltage.

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Applications
Traction vehicles Gearless rotary kilns.

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DC Choppers

+ V0(d c ) + Vs DC Chopper V ariable DC Output V oltage -

Type of input: Fixed DC supply voltage. Type of output: Variable DC voltage.

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Applications
Speed control of DC motors from a DC supply. DC drives for sub-urban traction. Switching power supplies.

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Inverters

DC S upply + Inverter (Forced Commutation) AC Output V oltage

Type of input: Fixed DC supply voltage. Type of output: AC O/P voltage.

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Power Electronics

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Applications
Industrial AC drives using induction and synchronous motors. Uninterrupted power supplies (UPS system) used for computers, computer labs.

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Peripheral Effects

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Contd
Induced current and voltage harmonic into supply system, and at the output of the converters. Distortion in the output voltage. Unwanted electromagnetic radiation. Interference with communication circuits.

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Basic theory of operation of SCR Static characteristics

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Modes of operation of Thyristor


Reverse Blocking mode
Forward Blocking mode Forward Conduction Mode

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HOLDING CURRENT
After an SCR has been switched to the on state a certain minimum value of anode current is required to maintain the thyristor in this low impedance state. If the anode current is reduced below the critical holding current value, the thyristor cannot maintain the current through it and reverts to its off state usually is associated with turn off the device.
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Contd
Thus holding current may be defined as the minimum value of anode current below which it must fall for turning off the thyristor.

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LATCHING CURRENT
After the SCR has switched on, there is a minimum current required to sustain conduction. This current is called the latching current and it is associated with turn on and is usually greater than holding current. Latching current is defined as the minimum value of anode current which it must attain during turn-on process to maintain conduction when get signal is removed
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Turn-on and turn-off methods

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Thermal Turn on
If the temperature of the thyristor is high, there will be an increase in charge carriers which would increase the leakage current. This would cause an increase in current flow & and the thyristor may turn on. This type of turn on may cause thermal run away and is usually avoided.

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Light Turn If light be allowed to fall on the junctions of a thyristor, charge carrier concentration would increase which may turn on the SCR. LASCR Light activated SCRs are turned on by allowing light to strike the silicon wafer.
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High Voltage Triggering


This is triggering without application of gate voltage with only application of a large voltage across the anode-cathode such that it is greater than the forward breakdown voltage. This type of turn on is destructive and should be avoided.

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dv dt

Triggering

Under transient conditions, the capacitances of the p-n junction will influence the characteristics of a thyristor. If the thyristor is in the blocking state, a rapidly rising voltage applied across the device would cause a high current to flow through the device resulting in turn-on.

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i j is the current through the If junction and C j is the junction capacitance and V j is the voltage across j2 , then
2
2

C j2 dVJ 2 dC j2 dq2 d ij 2 C j Vj V j2 2 2 dt dt dt dt

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From the above equation, we see that if dv dt is large,1 j will be large. A high value of charging current may damage the thyristor and the device must be protected against dv high dt . The manufacturers specify the allowable dv .
2

dt

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Dynamic characteristics of SCR


And Characteristics Of BJT

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Characteristics Of BJT

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Steady state Characterictics

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INPUT CHARACTERISTICS

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OUTPUT CHARACTERICTICS

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ADVANTAGES OF BJT

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ADVANTAGES OF BJT

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Power MOSFET and its characteristics

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Power MOSFET
Power MOSFET is a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor. It is a voltage controlled device requiring a small input gate voltage. It has high input impedance. MOSFET is operated in two states viz., ON STATE and OFF STATE. Switching speed of MOSFET is very high. Switching time is of the order of nanoseconds.
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Types of MOSFET
MOSFETs are of two types (a) Depletion MOSFETs (b) Enhancement MOSFETs. MOSFET is a three terminal device. The three terminals are gate (G), drain (D) and source (S
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DEPLETION MOSFET
D G n
+

Metal D p-type substrate Channel

n
+

G S

S Oxide

Fig. : n-channel depletion type MOSFET

SymboL

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P-channel Depletion Type MOSFET

D G

Metal D n-type substrate Channel

p
+

G S

S Oxide

Fig. : P-channel depletion type MOSFET


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Symbol
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CHARACTERISTICS OF n-Channel Depletion MOSFET


D G

ID

VDS
+ VGS S +

Fig: n-channel Depletion MOSFET power electronics

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Drain Characteristic
Linear region Saturation region VGS3 ID VGS2 VGS1

VDS
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Transfer characteristic
IDSS

ID

VGS(OFF)
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VGS
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Characteristics Of n-channel enhancement MOSFET


ID

D G

VDS
+ VGS S +

Fig: n-channel Enhancement MOSFET


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Transfer Characteristic

ID

VT
Fig.: Transfer Characteristic power electronics

VGS
VT VGS TH
Gate Source Threshold Voltage

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Drain Characteristic
Linear region Saturation region VGS3 ID VGS2 VGS1

VGS 3 VGS 2 VGS 1


VDS
Fig. : Drain Characteristic

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Lecture-7

IGBT and its characteristics

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INSULATED GATE BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR (IGBT)

IGBT is a voltage controlled device. It has high input impedance like a MOSFET and low on-state conduction losses like a BJT

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Structure And Symbol of IGBT


Collector

n Bufferlayer n epi p n Gate

G n

E Gate

Emitter

Fig (a) Structure

Fig (b) Symbol

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Characteristic of IGBT
RC RS G VCE VG RGE VGE E IC

VCC

Fig.: Circuit Diagram to Obtain Characteristics


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Output Characteristics
IC VGE4 VGE3 VGE2 VGE1 VGE4>VGE3>VGE2>VGE1

VCE
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Transfer Characteristic
IC

VT

VGE

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Lecture-8
Characteristics Of Other Devices

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Power Semiconductor Devices, their Symbols & Characteristics

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Contd

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DEVICE SYMBOLS & CHARACTERISTICS

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