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COMPUTATIONAL WORK Axisymmetric and three dimensional simulations are made using commercial software FLUENT.

GRID GENERATION
Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis is divided into three categories namely pre-processing, solver settings and post processing. GAMBIT is a pre-processor of FLUENT. Geometry creation, meshing of the model and boundary condition specification can be done in GAMBIT. GAMBIT includes four major divisions which are geometry creation pad, meshing pad, zone command pad and tool command pad.

Meshing in GAMBIT can be done in various forms namely edge meshing, face meshing and volume meshing. In edge mesh command, grading schemes include successive ratio, first length, last length, first last ratio, last first ratio, exponent, bi-exponent and bell shaped. Double sided grading can also be performed. Grading schemes can be used to control the grid in and around the model. The face meshing scheme includes the elements and types. Quadrilateral, triangular and a combination of the two can be used as the elements. The meshing types include: Map, Submap, Pave, Tri Primitive and Wedge Primitive.

The elements in volume meshing are Hex, Hex/Wedge and Tet/Hybrid. The meshing types include: Map, Submap, Pave, Tet Primitive, Cooper, Tet/Hybrid and Stairstep.
Boundary command pad is used to define the boundaries in and around the model. Boundaries like wall, pressure inlet, pressure outlet, pressure far field, mass flow inlet, outflow, axis, symmetry etc., can be defined for required simulation. Other CAD software like AutoCAD, CATIA, Pro-E etc., can also been used for creation of geometry which can be imported in GAMBIT for meshing purpose. After meshing and defining boundary types, grid can be exported as a mesh files for FLUENT or any other CFD solver.

BOUNDARY CONDITION
Pressure far field boundary condition was

used for the inflow to specify the free stream conditions. Pressure outlet boundary condition was set at the outflow, where the variables will be extrapolated from the interior cells. No slipwall boundary condition was assigned for the model. For axis symmetric simulation, axis boundary condition was specified.

NUMERICAL SOLVER
Numerical simulations were performed using the

commercially available software FLUENT. Once a mesh file is created in GAMBIT, it has to be exported to FLUENT, where all remaining operations are performed. These include defining the fluid properties and solver settings, specifying the freestream conditions, executing the solution and post processing. The FLUENT solver has the following modelling capabilities, flow in two or three dimensional geometry, steady or unsteady flows, inviscid, laminar or turbulent flows, compressible or incompressible flows including all speed regimes i.e. subsonic, transonic, supersonic and hypersonic flows, Newtonian or non Newtonian flows , Heat transfer including forced, natural and mixed convection, and radiation, dynamic mesh modelling etc.

Fluent uses a control-volume based technique to convert the governing Navier-Stokes equations to algebraic equations that can be solved numerically. FLUENT has two solvers: Segregated solver and Coupled solver. Using either method, FLUENT will solve the governing integral equations for the conservation of mass and momentum, and energy if required and other scalars such as turbulence and chemical species. The segregated solver is the solution algorithm in which, the governing equations are solved sequentially (i.e., segregated from one another). The coupled solver solves the governing equations of continuity, momentum, and (wherever appropriate) energy and species transport simultaneously (i.e., coupled together).

TURBULENCE MODELS
FLUENT provides the following choices of turbulence models: Spalart-Allamaras model (S-A) k- models

Standard k- model Renormalization-group (RNG) k- model Realizable k- model

k- models

standard k- model Shear Stress Transport (SST) k- model

Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) Large Eddy Simulations (LES)

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