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Specific Heat Capacity at Constant Volume (Cv)

The specific heat capacities of any substance is defined as the amount of heat energy required to raise the unit mass through one degree temperature raise. In thermodynamics, two specified conditions are used, those of constant volume and constant pressure

If 1 kg of a gas is supplied with an amount of heat energy sufficient to raise the temperature of the gas by 1 degree whilst the volume of the gas remains constant, then the amount of heat energy supplied is known as the specific heat capacity at constant volume, and is denoted by Cv. The unit of Cv is J/kg K or kJ/kg K.

For a reversible non-flow process at constant volume, we have dQ = mCvdT Heat flow in a constant volume process, Q12 = mCv(T2 T1) from the non-flow energy equation Q W = (U2 U1) mcv(T2 T1) 0 = (U2 U1) (U2 U1) = mCv(T2 T1)

Example 2.4
3.4 kg of gas is heated at a constant volume of 0.92 m3 and temperature 17 oC until the temperature rose to 147 oC. If the gas is assumed to be a perfect gas, determine: a)the heat flow during the process b)the beginning pressure of gas c)the final pressure of gas Given Cv = 0.72 kJ/kg K R = 0.287 kJ/kg K

Solution to Example 2.4


From the question m = 3.4 kg V1 = V2 = 0.92 m3 T1 = 17 + 273 K = 290 K T2 = 147 + 273 K = 420 K Cv = 0.72 kJ/kg K R = 0.287 kJ/kg K

From equation 2.13,


Q12 = mCv(T2 T1) = 3.4 x 0.72(420 290) = 318.24 kJ
From equation 2.6, PV = mRT Hence for state 1, P1V1 = mRT1

P1

For state 2, P2V2 = mRT2

mRT1 3.4 kg x 0.287 kJ/kgK x 290 K 2 307 . 6 kN/m V1 0.92 m 3

P2

mRT 2 3.4 kg x 0.287 kJ/kgK x 42 0 K 2 445 . 5 kN/m V2 0.92 m 3

Specific Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure (Cp)


If 1 kg of a gas is supplied with an amount of heat energy sufficient to raise the temperature of the gas by 1 degree whilst the pressure of the gas remains constant, then the amount of heat energy supplied is known as the specific heat capacity at constant pressure, and is denoted by Cp. The unit of Cp is J/kg K or kJ/kg K.

For a reversible non-flow process at constant pressure, we have dQ = mCpdT

For a perfect gas the values of Cp are constant for any one gas at all pressures and temperatures. Heat flow in a reversible constant pressure process Q = mCp(T2 T1)

Specific Heat Ratio ()


The ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at constant volume is given the symbol (gamma),

i.e.

Cp Cv

Example 2.5
A certain perfect gas has specific heat as follows
Cp = 0.846 kJ/kg K and Cv = 0.657 kJ/kg K Find the gas constant and the molecular weight of the gas.

Solution to Example 2.5


From equation 2.16

R = C p - Cv i.e. R = 0.846 0.657 = 0.189 kJ/kg K or R = 189 Nm/kg K From equation 2.10 M = R0
R

i.e.

8314 44 M= 189

Tutorial
2.3 Two kilograms of a gas receive 200 kJ as heat at constant volume process. If the temperature of the gas increases by 100 oC, determine the Cv of the process. 2.4 A perfect gas is contained in a rigid vessel at 3 bar and 315 oC. The gas is then cooled until the pressure falls to 1.5 bar. Calculate the heat rejected per kg of gas. Given: M = 26 kg/kmol and = 1.26. 2.5 A mass of 0.18 kg gas is at a temperature of 15 oC and pressure 130 kN/m2. If the gas has a value of Cv = 720 J/kg K, calculate the:
gas constant molecular weight specific heat at constant pressure specific heat ratio

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