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Heart lies on the right side of the thorax instead of the left, Caused because the heart loops to the left instead of the right

Situs inversus

General transposition of the visceras due to reverse rotation Caused by- absence of a single protein due to particular mutation in chromosome no. 12

Ectopia cordis

Heart is exposed to the chest wall Caused by faulty apposition of the lateral folds of the embryo

Probe patency of foramen ovale Persistent foramen secundum Pre-natal Closure of foramen ovale

20% of cases, fusion of the septum primum and septum secundum is incomplete a narrow oblique cleft remains between the two atria. does not allow intracardiac shunting of blood

Incomplete development or extensive resorption Septum secundum fails to overlap septum primum Permitting shunting of blood between Rt. And Lt. atria

Rare Rt. Half becomes hypertrophied and Lt. Half is poorly differentiated.

Dies shortly after birth

Persistent foramen primum

Septum primum fails to fuse with upper surface of septum intermedium

Biventricular monoatrial heart

Complete failure of septation of primitive atrium Known as cor triloculare biventriculare

Common atrioventricular canal

Associated with Persistent foramen primum & patent inter-ventricular foramen Septal cusp of tricaspid valve and ventral cusp of mitral valve spilt into ventral and dorsal componentfuse- single atrioventricular canal guarded by five cusps Found in Down syndrome

Tricuspid atresia

Rt. Atrio-ventricular orifice is closed by fusion tricuspid valve Blood reaches the Rt. Ventricle through patent foramen ovale & inter-ventricular foramen Associated with hyper trophy of Lt. ventricle and rudimentary Rt. ventricle

Persistent interventricular foramen

Defect in membranous part of inter-ventricular foramen AV bundle with its Rt. and Lt. limb passes along the lower margin of the opening

Bi-atrial monoventricular heart

Complete absence of atrioventricular septum Agenesis of mascular part of inter-ventricular foramen Known as cor triloculare

Tetralogy of Fallot

(a) pulmonary stenosis, (b) displacement of aortic orifice to the right to override the ventricular septum, (c) patent interventricular foramen, (d) hypertrophy of the Rt. Ventricle Associated with A.S.D- pentalogy

Esenmengers complex

Pulmonary hypertension due to(a) hyperplasia of the pulmonary capillary plexus, (b) dilatation of pulmonary trunk, (c) hypertrophy of the Rt. Ventricle Associated with A.S.D, V.S.D, P.D-

Esenmengers syndrome

Undivided truncus arteriosus

Agenesis of aorto-pulmonary septa Due to abnormal migration of neural crest cells Associated with patent interventricular foramen

Transposition of the great vessels

Reverse spiral attachment of aorto-pulmonary septum ascending aorta arises from Rt. Ventricle and pulmonary trunk arises from Lt. Ventricle Associated with patent interventricular foramen-

tausigbing syndrome

valvular stenosis of the pulmonary artery

The trunk of the pulmonary artery is narrow or even atretic The patent oval foramen then forms the only outlet for blood from the right side of the heart. The ductus arteriosus, always patent, is the only access route to the pulmonary circulation.

aortic valvular stenosis

Fusion of the thickened valves may be so complete that only a pinhole opening remains. The size of the aorta itself is usually normal. When fusion of the semilunar aortic

aortic valvular atresia

valves is complete


Complete agenesis of heart 155 cases so far Monochorionic twins

Abnormal opening of pulmonary veins

Abnormal origin of lt. coronary artery from pulmonary trunk

pulmonary veins opening in Rt. Atrium Not understood

Blood in the Lt. coronary artery is entirely venous Left ventricle dilates & severe cardiac failure occurs