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# Form 4 Chapter 1: Intro.

to physics Chapter 2: Force & motion Chapter 3: Force & pressure Chapter 4: Heat Chapter 5: Light

Form 5 Chapter 1: Waves Chapter 1: Electric Chapter 1: Electromagnet Chapter 1: Electronic Chapter 1: Radioactive

Vernier caliper
( 0.01 cm)

+ 0.08 cm

- 0.01 cm

( 0.01 mm)

## 7.37 mm + zero error - zero error

+ 0.09 mm

- 0.04 mm

MEASUREMENT
Accuracy
The closeness of a measurement to the actual value

Consistency
The ability of a measuring instrument to measure with little deviation in the measurements

Sensitivity
The ability of a measuring instrument to detect a small change in the measurements

ERROR
Systematic error
Due to:
Instrument

Random error
Due to: Human mistakes Surrounding factor

Example:

Example:

Zero error
Absolute error (error in calibration)

Parallax error

Motion graph

Mercury Barometer
[Atmospheric pressure is 76 cm Hg ] [Mercury density = 1.36 x 104 kg m3]

Pressure at P = 0 cm Hg Q = 76 cm Hg R = 91 cm Hg S = 106 cm Hg

Pressure at P = 20 cm Hg Q = 76 cm Hg R = 91 cm Hg S = 106 cm Hg

U-tube manometer
[Density of water = 1 000 kg m-3]
Pgas = = = = Pwater (h g) (1000)(10)(0.1) 1000 Pa

## [Atmospheric pressure is 1x105 Pa]

Pgas = = = = Patm + Pwater Patm + (h g) (1x105)+1000 Pa 1.01x105 Pa

U-tube manometer

## Density of water = 1 g cm-3 What is the density of the oil ?

Pressure at A Patm + hoil oil goil hoil oil goil oil = = = = = Pressure at B Patm + hwater water gwater hwater water gwater (10)(1) (12) 0.83 g cm-3

Pressure in tube
Densities of liquid M = 1000kgm-3 Densities of liquid N = 2500kgm-3 What is the pressure of a. liquid M at point x b. liquid M and N at point y
P = gh = (1000)(10)(0.5) = 5 kPa P = (gh)M + (gh)N = (1000)(10)(0.5) + (2500)(10)(0.3) = 5 kPa + 7.5 kPa = 12.5 kPa

## atmospheric pressure is 76 cm Hg. What is the pressure of the trapped air P ?

Pair + Pmercury Pair + 10 cmHg Pair = Patm = 76cmHg = (76 10) cmHg = 66 cmHg

P1 = P2

V P V P

## Characteristic at thermal equilibrium:

1. Temperature A = Temperature B

2. Net rate of heat transfer = 0 ( Rate of heat transfer from A to B = Rate of heat transfer from B to A

GAS LAW

P V T
1.
2.

3.

## LENSES & MIRROR

CONVERGING LENS MIRROR convex concave DIVERGING concave convex

CHARACTERISTIC OF IMAGE
CONVEX MIRROR & CONCAVE LENS VIRTUAL u anywhere UPRIGHT DIMINISHED

REFLECTION
CONCAVE MIRROR Ray P Ray F Ray C parallel - F F - parallel head (object / arrow) C

REFRACTION
CONVEX LENS Ray P Ray F Ray C parallel - F F - parallel through centre