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Steady State Nonisothermal

Steady State Nonisothermal


Reactor Design
Reactor Design
Dicky Dermawan
Dicky Dermawan
www.dickydermawan.net78.net www.dickydermawan.net78.net
dickydermawan@gmail.com dickydermawan@gmail.com
ITK-33 !hemical Reaction "ngineering
ITK-33 !hemical Reaction "ngineering
Rationale
Rationale

#ll reactions always accom$anied %y heat e&&ect'


e(othermic reactions )s. endothermic reactions

*nless heat trans&er system is care&+lly


designed, reaction mass tem$erat+re tend to
change

Design o& heat trans&er system itsel& re-+ires the


+nderstanding o& this heat e&&ect

"nergy %alance is also needed, together with


$er&ormance e-+ations deri)ed &rom mass
%alance
.%/ecti)es
.%/ecti)es

Descri%e the algorithm &or !STRs, 01Rs, and 02Rs that


are not o$erated isothermally.

Si3e adia%atic and nonadia%atic !STRs, 01Rs, and


02Rs.

*se reactor staging to o%tain high con)ersions &or highly


e(othermic re)ersi%le reactions.

!arry o+t an analysis to determine the 4+lti$le Steady


States 54SS6 in a !STR along with the ignition and
e(tinction tem$erat+res.

#naly3e m+lti$le reactions carried o+t in !STRs, 01Rs,


and 02Rs which are not o$erated isothermally in order
to determine the concentrations and tem$erat+re as a
&+nction o& $osition 501R702R6 and o$erating )aria%les
8hy "nergy 2alance9
8hy "nergy 2alance9
Imagine that we are designing a nonisothermal 01R &or a Imagine that we are designing a nonisothermal 01R &or a
&irst order li-+id $hase e(othermic reaction' &irst order li-+id $hase e(othermic reaction'
0er&ormance 0er&ormance
e-+ation' e-+ation'
0 A
A
F
r
dV
dX

Kinetics' Kinetics'

A
r
k A
C
The tem$erat+re
will increase with
con)ersion down
the length o&
reactor
1
]
1

,
_


T
1
T
1
R
E
exp k k
1
a
1
Stoichiometry' Stoichiometry'
0

A 0 A
C F
0 A 0 0 A
C F ) X 1 ( C C
0 A A

!om%ine' !om%ine'
0
X 1

1
]
1

,
_


1
a
1
T
1
R
E
exp k
dV
dX
T
1
) V , T ( X X
) V ( T T
) X ( T T ) V ( X X
"nergy 2alance
"nergy 2alance

+ + + +
n
1 i
0 I 0 I 0 D 0 D 0 C 0 C 0 B 0 B 0 A 0 A 0 i 0 i
H F H F H F H F H F H F : In

+ + + +
n
1 i
I I D D C C B B A A i i
H F H F H F H F H F H F Out
#t steady state'
dt
E

d
H F H F !
"#"
n
1 i
i i
n
1 i
0 i 0 i "
+


+
n
1 i
"
!

0 i
F
0 i
H

n
1 i
i
F
i
H
0
!onsider
generali3ed
reaction'
D C B A
a
d
a
$
a
%
+ +
I 0 A I
a
d
D 0 A D
a
$
C 0 A C
a
%
B 0 A B
0 A A
F F
) X ( F F
) X ( F F
) X ( F F
) X 1 ( F F

+
+


*$on s+%stit+tion'
( )
A B
a
%
C
a
$
D
a
d
A0
H H H H X F & +



n
1 i
i i
n
1 i
0 i 0 i
H F H F
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
]
1

+ +
+ +

CI 0 I I D 0 D D
C 0 C C B 0 B B A 0 A
0 A
H H H H
H H H H H H
F



n
1 i
i i
n
1 i
0 i 0 i
H F H F ( )


n
1 i
i 0 i i 0 A
H H F
) T ( H X F
Rx 0 A

"nergy 2alance 5cont:6
"nergy 2alance 5cont:6



n
1 i
i i
n
1 i
0 i 0 i
H F H F ( )


n
1 i
0 i i i 0 A
H H F
) T ( H X F
Rx 0 A

+
T
T
pi R
'
i i
R
dT C ) T ( H H
1rom thermodynamics, we know that'

+
0 i
R
T
T
pi R
'
i 0 i
dT C ) T ( H H
Th+s'
) T T ( C
(
dT C H H
0 i pi
T
T
pi 0 i i
0 i

0 i
T
T
pi
pi
T T
dT C
C
(
0 i

( )
R p R
'
Rx Rx
T T C

) T ( H ) T ( H +
R
T
T
pi
pi
T T
dT C
C

) T ( H ) T ( H ) T ( H ) T ( H ) T ( H
R
'
D R
'
D
a
%
R
'
D
a
$
R
'
D
a
d
R
'
Rx
+
pA pB
a
%
pC
a
$
pD
a
d
p
C C C C C +


n
1 i
0 pi i 0 A
) T T ( C
(
F
"nergy 2alance 5cont:6
"nergy 2alance 5cont:6



n
1 i
i i
n
1 i
0 i 0 i
H F H F ( )


n
1 i
0 i i i 0 A
H H F
) T ( H X F
Rx 0 A

*$on s+%stit+tion'



n
1 i
i i
n
1 i
0 i 0 i
H F H F
( ) ) T T C

) T ( H * X F
R p R
'
Rx 0 A
+
1inally;.
0 H F H F !
n
1 i
i i
n
1 i
0 i 0 i "
+



( ) 0 T T C

) T ( H X F ) T T ( C
(
F !
R p R
'
Rx 0 A
n
1 i
0 i pi i 0 A "
+


So what9
"nergy 2alance 5cont:6
"nergy 2alance 5cont:6
1or adia%atic reactions'
The energy %alance at steady state %ecomes'
#&ter rearrangement'
0 !

8hen work is negligi%le'


0
"

( ) [ ] 0 T T C

) T ( H X F ) T T ( C
(
F
R p R
'
Rx 0 A
n
1 i
0 i pi i 0 A
+

( ) [ ]
R p R
'
Rx
n
1 i
0 i pi i
T T C

) T ( H
) T T ( C
(
X
+

This is the <=<5T6 we:)e %een looking &or>


#$$lication to #dia%atic !STR Design
#$$lication to #dia%atic !STR Design
) X 1 ( C C
0 A A

!ase #' Si3ing' < s$eci&ied, calc+late ? 5and T6
0er&ormance e-+ation'
Kinetics'
Stoichiometry'
!om%ine'
A
0 A
r
X F
V


A
r
k A
C
1
]
1

,
_


T
1
T
1
R
E
exp k k
1
a
1
) X 1 ( C k
X F
V
0 A
0 A

Sol)e the energy %alance &or T


( ) [ ]
R p R
'
Rx
n
1 i
0 i pi i
T T C

) T ( H
) T T ( C
(
X
+

!alc+late k
!alc+late ? +sing com%ining e-+ation
#$$lication to #dia%atic !STR Design
#$$lication to #dia%atic !STR Design
) X 1 ( C C
0 A A

!ase 2 5Rating6' ? s$eci&ied, calc+late < 5and T6
0er&ormance e-+ation'
Kinetics'
Stoichiometry'
4ole %alance'
A
0 A
r
X F
V


A
r
k A
C
1
]
1

,
_


T
1
T
1
R
E
exp k k
1
a
1
) X 1 ( C k
X F
V
+% 0 A
+% 0 A

"nergy %alance'
( ) [ ]
R p R
'
Rx
n
1 i
0 i pi i
e%
T T C

) T ( H
) T T ( C
(
X
+

1ind < @ T that satis&y 2.TA the material %alance


and energy %alance,
)i3. $lot <
m%
)s T and <
e%
)s T in the same gra$h' the
intersection is the sol+tion
#$$lication to #dia%atic !STR Design
#$$lication to #dia%atic !STR Design
"(am$le' P8-5A
The elementary irre)ersi%le organic li-+id-$hase reaction'
# B 2 !
is carried o+t adia%atically in a !STR. #n e-+al molar &eed in #
and 2 enters at C7
o
!, and the )ol+metric &low rate is C D7s.
5a6 !alc+late the !STR )ol+me necessary to achie)e 8EF
con)ersion
5%6 !alc+late the con)ersion that can %e achie)ed in one E D
!STR and in two CE D !STRs in series
+', - k$a, /1 ) 0 123 ( H
+', - k$a, 14 ) 0 123 ( H
+', - k$a, 10 ) 0 123 ( H
'
C
'
B
'
A



$a,-+',50 30 C
$a,-+',50 14 C
$a,-+',50 14 C
pC
pB
pA

$a,-+', 10000 E
0 300 at 01 5 0 k
a
" +',
6

+',-6 1 5 0 C
0 A

#$$lication to #dia%atic !STR Design
#$$lication to #dia%atic !STR Design
!ase #' Si3ing' < s$eci&ied, calc+late ? 5and T6
0er&ormance e-+ation'
Kinetics'
Stoichiometry'
!om%ine'
A
0 A
r
X F
V


A
r
k B A
C C
1
]
1

,
_


T
1
T
1
R
E
exp k k
1
a
1
1
0 A
0
1 1
0 A
0 A
) X 1 ( C k
X
) X 1 ( C k
X F
V

"nergy %alance'
( ) [ ]
R p R
'
Rx
n
1 i
0 i pi i
T T C

) T ( H
) T T ( C
(
X
+

!alc+late k
!alc+late ? +sing com%ining e-+ation
) X 1 ( C C
0 A A

) X 1 ( C ) X ( C C
0 A B B 0 A B

0 $a,-+', 30 14 14 C C C
(
pB B pA
n
1 i
pi i
+ +

$a,-+', 7000 & k$a,-+', 7 14 10 /1 H H H ) 123 ( H


'
B
0
A
'
C
'
Rx
+ +
0 14 14 30 C C C C

pB pA pC p

0 /20 100 84 5 0 300 T
100
300 T
) 7000 (
) 300 T ( 30
84 5 0 +

" +',
6
312 5 /
/20
1
300
1
982 5 1
10000
exp 01 5 0 k

1
]
1

,
_


6 124
) 84 5 0 1 ( 1 5 0 312 5 /
84 5 0 1
V
1

#$$lication to #dia%atic !STR Design


#$$lication to #dia%atic !STR Design
) X 1 ( C C C
0 A B A

( ) [ ]
R p R
'
Rx
n
1 i
0 i pi i
e%
T T C

) T ( H
) T T ( C
(
X
+

!ase 2 5Rating6' ? s$eci&ied, calc+late < 5and T6


0er&ormance e-+ation'
Kinetics'
Stoichiometry'
4ole %alance'
A
0 A
r
X F
V

1
]
1

,
_


T
1
T
1
R
E
exp k k
1
a
1
1
+% 0 A
+% 0
) X 1 ( C k
X
V

"nergy %alance'

A
r
k B A
C C
1
+%
+%
) X 1 ( 1 5 0
T
1
300
1
982 5 1
10000
exp 01 5 0
X 1
400

1
]
1

,
_

100
300 T
) 7000 (
) 300 T ( 30
X
e%

.C
.G
.H
.8
I
3 3E G GE E
<m%
<e%
T 3 3I 3C 33 3G 3E 3H 37 38 3J G GI GC G3 GG GE GH G7 G8 G8C G8G G8E GJ E
<m% .I7C .CGE .3CE .GH .G8C .EEC .HI3 .HHH .7II .7E .783 .8I .83G .8EG .87I .88E .8J8 .J8 .JI8 .JIJ .JCI .JCC .JCH .J33
<e% . .E .I .IE .C .CE .3 .3E .G .GE .E .EE .H .HE .7 .7E .8 .8E .J .JI .JC .JCE .JE I.
#$$lication to #dia%atic 01R702R Design
#$$lication to #dia%atic 01R702R Design
T
T
:
:
X 1
X 1
C C
0
0
0 A A

+


( ) [ ]


T T C

) T ( H
) T T ( C
(
X
R p R
'
Rx
n
1 i
0 i pi i

"(am$le &or 1irst .rder Reaction


0er&ormance e-+ation'
Kinetics'
Stoichiometry'
0ress+re dro$'
1
]
1

,
_


T
1
T
1
R
E
exp k k
1
a
1
"nergy %alance'

A
r
k A
C
&or 01R7small 0'
070

= I
) X 1 (
: - :
:
T
T
1 d
d:
0
0
0
+


) X 1 ( C C
0 A A

Kas
li-+id
0 A
A
F
r
d
dX

[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
p
n
1 i
pi i
n
1 i
0 pi i R p
'
Rx
n
1 i
0 pi i R p
'
Rx p
n
1 i
pi i
n
1 i
n
1 i
0 pi i pi i R p p
'
Rx
C

X C
(
T C
(
T C

X H X
T
T C
(
T C

X H X T C

X T C
(

T C
(
T C
(
T C

X T C

X H X
+
+ +

+ + +
+



) X ( T T
!om%ine'
) X ( k
) X ( T T
) T ( k k

) : , X ( C C
) X ( T T
) : , T , X ( C C
A A
A A

) : , X ( r r
)) : , X * C ), X * k ( r r
A A
A A A


) : , X ( ; ) : , T , X ( ;
d
d:
) : , X ( < ) r ( <
d
dX
A

Th+s
The com%ination res+lts in C sim+ltaneo+s
di&&erential e-+ations
Sam$le
Sam$le
0ro%lem
0ro%lem
&or
&or
#dia%atic
#dia%atic
01R
01R
Design
Design
P8-6A
Sam$le 0ro%lem &or #dia%atic 02R
Sam$le 0ro%lem &or #dia%atic 02R
Design
Design
NIN# = Dia%atic Reactor Design
NIN# = Dia%atic Reactor Design
Aeat Trans&er Rate to the Reactor
Aeat Trans&er Rate to the Reactor
( )0 TTC) T(HX F)TT( C(F R p R'Rx0 A n1i 0i pii0A " + !

Rate o& energy trans&erred %etween the reactor and the coolant'
The rate o& heat trans&er &rom the
e(changer to the reactor'

,
_


1 a
1 a
1 a 1 a
T T
T T
,n
T T
A = !

!om%ining'


0 H X F ) T T ( C
(
F
Rx 0 A
n
1 i
0 i pi i 0 A "

NIN# = Dia%atic Reactor Design


NIN# = Dia%atic Reactor Design
Aeat Trans&er Rate to the Reactor 5cont:6
Aeat Trans&er Rate to the Reactor 5cont:6
( )0 TTC) T(HX F)TT( C(F R p R'Rx0 A n1i 0i pii0A " + !

#t high coolant &low rates the e($onential term


will %e small,
so we can e($and the e($onential term as a
Taylor Series, where the terms o& second
order or greater are neglected'
Then'
0 H X F ) T T ( C
(
F
Rx 0 A
n
1 i
0 i pi i 0 A "

( ) T T A =
1 a

The energy %alance %ecomes'
Sam$le
Sam$le
0ro%lem &or
0ro%lem &or
Dia%atic
Dia%atic
!STR
!STR
Design
Design
08-G2
08-G2
Sam$le 0ro%lem &or Dia%atic !STR Design
Sam$le 0ro%lem &or Dia%atic !STR Design
#$$lication o& "nergy 2alance to Dia%atic
#$$lication o& "nergy 2alance to Dia%atic
T+%+lar Reactor Design
T+%+lar Reactor Design
Aeat trans&er in !STR' ( ) T T # * L
I a

In 01R, T )aries along the


reactor'
( ) ( ) d? T T
?
#
* d# T T * L
?
a
#
a

( ) T T a *
d?
L d
a

Th+s'
D
G
D
D D
a
a
reaktor ta%+ng )ol+me
reaktor ta%+ng selim+t l+as
?
#
G
D
C



1or 02R'
d8
I
d?
8
?
?
8
% %
%


Th+s'
( ) T T
a *
d8
L d
a
%

#$$lication o& "nergy 2alance to Dia%atic


#$$lication o& "nergy 2alance to Dia%atic
T+%+lar Reactor Design
T+%+lar Reactor Design
The steady state energy %alance, neglecting work term'
Di&&erentiation with res$ect to the )ol+me ?'
( ) T T a *
d?
L d
a

and recalling that


.r'
( ) T T !
M
6 T 5 A < 1 6 T T 5 !
N
1 L
R $ R
o
R(
#
n
I i
i $i i #
+

O O P

dT ! 6 T 5 A < 1 dT ! 1 L
T
T
$ R
o
R(
#
T
T
$i i #
R o

1
1
]
1

O O P

Inserting

d?
d<
dT ! 6 T 5 A 1
d?
dT
! < 1
d?
dT
! 1
d?
L d
T
T
$ R
o
R(
# $ # $i i #
R

1
1
]
1

O O O P

d?
d<
1 r
# #

( ) T T a *
a

( )
d?
dT
! < ! 1
$ $i i #
+

O P ( ) 6Q T 5 A R r
R(
#
O +

( ) ( )
( )
$ $i i #
R(
# a
! < ! 1
6Q T 5 A R r T T a *
d?
dT
O P
O
+
+

!o+$led with
0 A
A
F
r
dV
dX

6 T , < 5 g
6 T , < 5 &
1orm C
di&&erential with C
de$endent
)aria%les < @ T
Sam$le 0ro%lem &or Dia%atic T+%+lar Reactor
Sam$le 0ro%lem &or Dia%atic T+%+lar Reactor
Design
Design
Design &or Re)ersi%le Reactions
Design &or Re)ersi%le Reactions
"ndotermik' "ndotermik' K naik dengan kenaikan T < <
e- e-
naik naik reaksikan
$ada T
ma(
yang di$erkenankan
K ln T R K O
C
R(
T R
A
dT
K6 5ln d

O
"ksotermik' "ksotermik' K t+r+n dengan kenaikan T < <
e- e-
t+r+n t+r+n reaksikan
$ada T rendah


Da/+ reaksi lam%at $ada T rendah>
#da trade off antara as$ek termodinamika dan kinetika
<
e-
= <
e-
5K6
= <
e-
5T6
Design &or Re)ersi%le Aighly-"(othermic
Design &or Re)ersi%le Aighly-"(othermic
Reactions
Reactions
-r -r
# #
= -r = -r
# #
5<,T6 5<,T6
Kenerally' Kenerally' Aigher < Aigher < slower reaction rate slower reaction rate
Aigher T Aigher T &aster rate &aster rate
#t < = < #t < = <
e- e-
' ' -r -r
# #
= =
Design &or "-+ili%ri+m Aighly-"(othermic
Design &or "-+ili%ri+m Aighly-"(othermic
Reactions
Reactions
SI SI Starting with R-&ree sol+tion, %etween dan I Starting with R-&ree sol+tion, %etween dan I
o o
! !
determine the e-+ili%ri+m con)ersion o& # &or the elementary determine the e-+ili%ri+m con)ersion o& # &or the elementary
a-+eo+s reaction' a-+eo+s reaction'
# # R R

cal7mol I8 A
cal7mol 337E K

CJ8

CJ8


O
O
The re$orted data is %ased on the &ollowing standard states o& The re$orted data is %ased on the &ollowing standard states o&
reactants and $rod+cts' reactants and $rod+cts'

Imol7D ! !

R

#ss+me ideal sol+tion, in which case' #ss+me ideal sol+tion, in which case'
!
#
R

#
#

R
R
K
!
!
! 7 !
! 7 !
K
In addition, ass+me s$eci&ic heats o& all sol+tions are e-+al In addition, ass+me s$eci&ic heats o& all sol+tions are e-+al
to that o& water to that o& water
! cal7g. I !

$

Design &or "-+ili%ri+m Aighly-"(othermic
Design &or "-+ili%ri+m Aighly-"(othermic
Reactions'
Reactions'
Reaction Rate in < T T Diagram
Reaction Rate in < T T Diagram
k T ( ) 050918 exp 4849
1
T
1
198

1
1
]
:
rA X T , ( ) k T ( ) CA0 1 X
X
0 T ( )

,
:
Reaction Rate in The < T T Diagram
Reaction Rate in The < T T Diagram
at !
at !
# #
= I mol7D
= I mol7D
0 10 10 30 /0 40 70 20 80 90 100
0
051
051
053
05/
054
057
052
058
059
1
>u?u, C
0
'
n
@
e
r
"
i
r
A
0 01 ,
r
A
0 014 ,
r
A
0 04 ,
r
A
0 1 ,
r
A
0 14 ,
r
A
0 4 ,
r
A
1
r
A
1
r
A
/
Design &or "-+ili%ri+m Aighly-"(othermic Reactions
Design &or "-+ili%ri+m Aighly-"(othermic Reactions
'
'

.$tim+m Tem$erat+re 0rogression
.$tim+m Tem$erat+re 0rogression
in T+%+lar Reactor
in T+%+lar Reactor
S3 S3
a. a. !alc+late the s$ace time needed &or 8F con)ersion o& a &eed !alc+late the s$ace time needed &or 8F con)ersion o& a &eed
starting with initial concentration o& # o& I mol7D starting with initial concentration o& # o& I mol7D
%. %. 0lot the tem$erat+re and con)ersion $ro&ile along the length o& 0lot the tem$erat+re and con)ersion $ro&ile along the length o&
the reactor the reactor
Det the ma(im+m o$erating allowa%le tem$erat+re %e JE Det the ma(im+m o$erating allowa%le tem$erat+re %e JE
o o
! !

Design &or Re)ersi%le Reactions' Aeat
Design &or Re)ersi%le Reactions' Aeat
"&&ect
"&&ect
( ) [ ]
R $ R
o
R(
n
I i
i $i i a
#
T T !
M
6 T 5 A
6 T T 5 !
N
6 T T 5
1
# *
<
+
+

O O
P
Design &or "-+ili%ri+m Aighly-"(othermic
Design &or "-+ili%ri+m Aighly-"(othermic
Reactions
Reactions
'
'
!STR 0er&ormance
!STR 0er&ormance
Design &or "-+ili%ri+m Aighly-"(othermic
Design &or "-+ili%ri+m Aighly-"(othermic
Reactions
Reactions
'
'
!STR 0er&ormance
!STR 0er&ormance
SG SG # concentrated a-+eo+s #-sol+tion o& the $re)io+s # concentrated a-+eo+s #-sol+tion o& the $re)io+s
e(am$les, ! e(am$les, !
# #
= G mol7D, 1 = G mol7D, 1
# #
= I mol7min, is to %e 8F = I mol7min, is to %e 8F
con)erted in a mi(ed reactor. con)erted in a mi(ed reactor.
a. a. I& &eed enters at CE I& &eed enters at CE
o o
!, what si3e o& reactor is needed9 !, what si3e o& reactor is needed9
%. %. 8hat is the o$tim+m o$erating tem$erat+re &or this 8hat is the o$tim+m o$erating tem$erat+re &or this
$+r$ose9 $+r$ose9
c. c. 8hat si3e o& reactor is needed i& &eed enters at o$tim+m 8hat si3e o& reactor is needed i& &eed enters at o$tim+m
tem$erat+re9 tem$erat+re9
d. d. 8hat is the heat d+ty i& &eed enters at CE 8hat is the heat d+ty i& &eed enters at CE
o o
! to kee$ the ! to kee$ the
reactor o$eration at its the o$tim+m tem$erat+re9 reactor o$eration at its the o$tim+m tem$erat+re9
Interstage !ooling
Interstage !ooling
Re)iew on "nergy 2alance in !STR .$eration
Re)iew on "nergy 2alance in !STR .$eration
2ila term ker/a dia%aikan dan A
R(
konstan'


n
1 i
0 pi i 0 A "
) T T ( C
(
F

( ) T T A =
a

0 H X F
0
Rx 0 A

X F
0 A
( ) ( )

,
_

a
0 A
n
1 i
0 pi i 0 A
0
Rx
T T
F
A =
) T T ( C
(
F H
*nt+k !STR'
A
0 A
r
X F
V

( ) V r
A
( ) ( )

,
_

+
a
0 A
0 0 p 0 A
0
Rx
T T
F
A =
) T T ( C F H
0em%agian ked+a r+as dengan 1
#
'
( ) +

,
_


0 p 0 0 p
0
Rx
0 A
A
C ) T T ( C H
F
V r
0 p 0 A
C F
A =

( )
a
T T
0 p 0 A
C F
A =


1
T T
1
T T
C F A =
T A = T C F
T
a 0
C F
A =
a
C F
A =
0
0 p 0 A
a 0 0 p 0 A
$
0 p 0 A
0 p 0 A
+
+

+
+

+
+

4+lti$le Steady
4+lti$le Steady
State @ Sta%ility o&
State @ Sta%ility o&
!STR .$eration
!STR .$eration
1
T T
T
a 0
$
+
+

) T T (
a 0
+
( ) +

,
_


) T T *( C H
F
V r
0 0 p
0
Rx
0 A
A
( ) ) T T
a

) 1 ( T
$
+
+ ) 1 ( T * C
0 p
) T T ( ) 1 ( C
$ 0 p
+
+ T T * C
0 p
)
)
( )
0
Rx
H X
) T T ( ) 1 ( C
$ 0 p
+

) T ( A ) T ( R
A
0 A
r
X F
V

( ) [ ]

T T C

) T ( H
) T T ( C
(
X
den;an Bandin;kan
R p R
'
Rx
n
1 i
0 pi i
+

Re)iew on "nergy 2alance in !STR .$eration


Re)iew on "nergy 2alance in !STR .$eration
4+lti$le Steady
4+lti$le Steady
State' Sta%ility o& !STR
State' Sta%ility o& !STR
.$eration
.$eration
Tem$erat+re Ignition T "(tinction !+r)e 1inding 4+lti$le Steady State' ?arying T
o
*$$er steady state
Dower steady state
Ignition tem$erat+re
"(tinction tem$erat+re
R+naway Reaction
Sam$le 0ro%lem on 4+lti$le Steady State in
Sam$le 0ro%lem on 4+lti$le Steady State in
!STR .$eration
!STR .$eration
08-I72
08-I72