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Chemistry is the study of substances

1. Compositions water, carbon dioxide 2. Structures

3. Properties m.p., b.p. 4. Changes burning, change of state

Chemistry started as metal extraction

Stone age Bronze age Iron age Alchemists : cheap metals gold

Chemistry in our daily lives

1. Clothing polyester, nylon ..
2. Food flavourings, colourings and preservatives

3. Housing and daily life metals, alloys (bronze ..)

4. Transport fuels 5. Medical care

7 8

2 1 3
6 5

1. No running in the laboratory

2. Long hair should be tied in the laboratory 3. No eating in the laboratory 4. Reagents must be stoppered

5. Flammable reagents should be kept away

from Bunsen flame 6. Safety goggles should be used

7. No playing in the laboratory

8. Unattended Bunsen flame

A. Physical change
- NO NEW substance formed. e.g. boiling, melting, colour etc.
solid sublimation gas


B. Chemical change - NEW substance formed. (rust) e.g. rusting of iron. (iron iron oxide)
Q. 1.4 Solution

(a) magnesium magnesium oxide chemical

(b) sugar sugar solution

(c) water ice (d) iron iron oxide

physical physical chemical

C. Physical properties
- properties that can be determined without the
substance changing into another substance. e.g. solubility, electrical/thermal conductivity, malleability, ductility

D. Chemical properties
- chemical reactions of the substance.
(NEW substances formed after reaction.) e.g. chemical properties of sodium 1. Reacts with air 2. Reacts with water

Particles tiny pieces of matter that make up everything Diffusion

- spreading and mixing of one substance into another, from a place of higher concentration to

a place of lower concentration

e.g. perfume, iodine in alcohol

Solution a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances Saturated Solution the solvent has dissolved the max. amount of the solute it can at that temperature

Kinetic Theory of Matter

1. All matter is composed of tiny particles, with spaces between them. 2. (a) Particles are in constant, random motion.

(b) Average K.E. of particles with temp.


1. Tightly packed with little spaces

2. Fixed volume and shape, incompressible

3. Vibrate about their fixed positions


1. Fairly close packed

2. Fixed volume but no fixed shape

3. Particles can move freely, not arranged in a fixed pattern


1. Widely separated with a lot of spaces

2. No fixed volume and shape, easy to compress

3. Move freely at great speeds

A. Element
- pure substance which cannot be broken down into anything simpler by chemical methods. e.g. copper (Cu), hydrogen B. Compound

- two or more elements chemically joined together. e.g. water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2)

Most abundant elements : 1. Oxygen (oxygen gas, water, sand) 2. Silicon (sand - silicon dioxide SiO2) 3. Aluminium

Q 2.4
(a) Phosphorus Element (e) Sulphuric acid H2SO4 Compound

(b) Sodium chloride NaCl (f) Mercury Element Compound

(c) Ammonia


(d) Glucose C6H12O6 Compound

Word equation
copper + chlorine copper chloride product reactants carbon + oxygen carbon dioxide Q. 2.5 hydrogen + oxygen water

Properties of compounds compare with constituent elements

silvery grey solid greenish yellow gas

white solid

Mixture two or more substances which

have NOT chemically combined together
element/element mixture element/compound mixture compound/compound mixture alloys air, oxygen in water sea water

Q.2.7 Five elements : Five compounds : Five mixtures :

Q.14-17 (P.46)

Pure element : Pure compound :


Mixture of elements :
Mixture of compounds :

Structure of Earth Crust, mantle, outer core and inner core Q3.2 : The Earths core consists of iron, which is magnetic.

Atmosphere, oceans and Earths crust

Atmosphere gaseous layer surrounding the Earth Air gaseous mixture making up atmosphere

Composition of air - a mixture contains 21% O2, 78% N2, traces of CO2, water vapour and noble gases (helium, neon .).

syringe A

copper turnings

syringe B


Strong heat

copper + oxygen copper oxide

(reddish brown) (black)

Initial volume = 100 Final volume = 79 Volume of oxygen used 100 79 = 21 cm3

Assumptions : 1. Assume the reaction between copper and oxygen is complete.

2. Assume oxygen is the only reactive gas in air. 3. Assume oxygen content is the same everywhere.

Separation of O2 and N2 - by fractional distillation of liquid air

Simple distillation

Thermometer alcohol vapour water(100 C) + alcohol

(78 C)

alcohol heat
cold water

Fractionating column temp.

O2(g) (- 183C)

Compression liquid air air and (- 200C) in cooling chamber

N2(g) (- 196C)

TEST FOR O2 - relights a glowing splint. growing splint TEST FOR H2 - pop sound test - use a burning splint, pop sound is heard.

Uses of gases

A. Oxygen
- breathing. - rockets and space shuttles.

B. Nitrogen
- provide inert atmosphere. - refrigerant.

- making ammonia.

C. Carbon dioxide - refrigerant. - soft drinks.

- fire extinguishers. D. Noble gases

- airships, advertising signs, light bulbs.

1.2 The Ocean A. Solvent, Solute and Solution Solute + Solvent Solution (sugar + water sugar solution)
Perfume - flower extracts dissolved in alcohol. Correction fluid - plastic dissolved in 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Iodine tincture - iodine in alcohol.

1.2.2 Composition of sea water

- common salt / table salt (NaCl), pure H2O.
Extraction of NaCl and isolation of pure H2O

A. Evaporation

- salt is remained. (Water CANNOT be collected.) - separate soluble solid from solution.

Advantage : quick and simple.

Disadvantage : solid obtained only which contains impurities.

B. Crystallization
(i). Heat the solution until it is saturated. (ii). Cool rapidly to obtain a small crystal or cool slowly to obtain a large crystal. OR By seeding. glass rod

pure crystal

saturated solution

(iii). Filter to obtain the crystals. (iv) Wash the crystal with distilled water. (v) Dry the crystal with a filter paper. Advantage : pure crystal can be obtained. Disadvantage : time-consuming - separate soluble solid from solution.

C. Distillation

to provide smooth boiling

- pure solvent (water) obtained.

- separate solvent from a solution. (two miscible liquids with different b.p.)

Advantage : pure liquid obtained. Disadvantage : complicated set-up.

D. Filtration

- separate insoluble solid. Advantage : quick and simple.

Disadvantage : rough separation.

Test for sodium and chlorine in common salt

Flame Test - test for sodium

Materials used : platinum (Nichrome) wire, conc. HCl, a bunsen burner.

1. Platinum wire is washed with conc. HCl and placed in a bunsen flame to observe the flame colour. 2. Repeat the above procedure until the flame colour is illuminous. 3. Bring the platinum wire into contact with the solid sample so that some of the sample adheres to the wire, hold the wire in the edge of a illuminous bunsen flame.

Element in compound

Flame colour

potassium calcium

golden yellow
lilac(purple) brick red

Silver nitrate (AgNO3) Test

- test for chlorine

1. The sample is dissolved in water. 2. Excess dil.HNO3 is added into the sample solution to remove carbonate, oxide. (Basic substances) AgNO3 also forms precipitate with carbonate/oxide.
3. AgNO3(aq) is added. 4. White ppt. (AgCl) is observed to show the presence of Cl-. AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)

Test for water - cobalt (II) chloride paper is used. - from blue to pink.

Electrolysis of sea water and uses of the products


Carbon electrode

NaOH remained

Sea water

Products hydrogen chlorine

Uses 1. As rocket fuel 2. Making ammonia (NH3) 1. Sterilize drinking, swimming pool water 2. Making plastics(P.V.C.) 1. Mixed with Cl2 to form bleach 2. Making soap, detergents

sodium hydroxide (NaOH)

1.3 Rocks and Minerals

Minerals - individual chemical compounds that make up rocks rocks as a source of minerals - metal ores contained.

Extraction of metals from their ores A. Heating metal oxides e.g. 2Ag2O 4Ag + O2 B. Heating metal oxides with carbon e.g. ZnO + C Zn + CO C. Electrolysis of molten ores e.g. 2Al2O3

4Al + 3O2

Investigation of Calcium carbonate - in 3 forms : limestone, chalk and marble. A. Action of Heat CaCO3 CaO + CO2

- when water is added into CaO.

CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2(s)
slaked lime

lime water
slightly soluble in H2O

B. Action of Water - CaCO3 is insoluble in water. C. Action of Acids CaCO3 + HCl CaCl2 + CO2(g) + H2O
Effervescence (Bubbles given)

D. Erosion processes in nature

- major causes of erosion are gravity, running water, waves ice and wind.

CO2 + H2O H2CO3

carbonic acid

H2CO3 + CaCO3 Ca(HCO3)2


Thermal decomposition of CaCO3 CaCO3 CaO + CO2

- CO2 is tested by lime water. Ca(OH)2(aq) + CO2(g) CaCO3(s) milky / white ppt.

Test for calcium and carbonate ion - Ca is tested by flame test.

- CO32- is tested by heating the sample and then test the presence of CO2.
Or by adding dilute HCl and test the presence of CO2.