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Translation is always performed in a given direction from a Source Language (SL)into Target Language (TL).

There are some different writers define translation in different ways.


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Translation is the replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL) (Catford, 1969:20). Translation is made possibly by an equivalence of thought that lies behind its different verbal expression. (Savory, 1969:13) Translation consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style (Nida, 1969:12). Translation is a process of finding a TL equivalent for an SL utterance (Pinchuck, 1977:38). Translation is the rendering of a source language (SL) text into the target language (TL) so as to ensure that (1) the surface meaning of the two will be approximately similar and (2) the structures of the SL will be preserved as closely as possible but not so closely that the TL structures will be seriously distorted. (Mc Guire, 1980:2) Translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/ or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language (Newmark, 1981: 7).

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If you pay attention to the underlined words, you will learn that:
The word equivalent is used by Catford, Savory, Nida, and Pinchuck. While Mc Guire uses the word Similar. Textual Meaning (Catford) SL text (Mc Guire), written message (Newmark), and SL message (Nida) something to be translated into TL. Replacement (Catford) and reproducing (Nida) derive from replacement and reproduce which are synonymous. The word replace is used by Newmark.

Noted

Equivalent, SL text (message) and replacement are the three important elements in translation. The others are meaning, style, craft, and process.

Elements of Translation
Source Language

Meaning/Message

Target Language

Translation Equivalence
Word for word Child : Anak Phrase for phrase Security system : Sistim keamanan Sentence for sentence Kakakku (lk) seorang penasehat : My brother is a counselor

Words sometimes have more than one meaning. Their translation equivalent could be a problem unless they are used in context (phrase, sentence, or paragraph). E.g Chair? Chair punishment ? He took as a chair in our meeting)

A word used in the idiomatic phrases would puzzle you even more
Cat : kucing To bell the cat: melakukan sesuatu yang berbahaya. To let the cat out of the bag : membuka rahasia. A cat and a dog life: kehidupan yang penuh dengan pertengkaran. Rain cats and dogs: hujan sangat lebat.

The mice will play when the cat is away Bebas sekali kalau tidak ada majikan di rumah The enemy played cat-and-mouse with the prisoners Musuh mempermainkan tawanannya.

Translation is the transfer of meaning (Pinchuck, 1977:35) words are a vehicle of communication and express meaning.
The rules of grammar govern the manipulation of words and certain principles determine the use of vocabulary items. The understanding of the these which is often intuitive is necessary in order to carry out a transfer of (replace/reproduce) the content of a message (written material/ SL text) from one language (SL) to another language (TL)

Linguistic Factors
Subject

matter of the text Objective of the originator of the text The author The intended readers Time and place

Text Translation

Unity
Idea, wording, coherence, unity (meaning), context.

Meaning and Vocabulary


Lexicon (meaning based), diction, register, cultural content, and contextuallybased, expression, idiomatic expression.

Style
Scientific Formal, Informal Informal Short story, drama, poetry, literary work ancient words, informal, slang.

Structure
Grammar (words, phrases, clauses, text, discourse) Cohesive relation Translator must know Structuring rules