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Cellular Respiration

A quick review

When we eat, we get energy (glucose and other sugars) Food energy is broken down into usable energy

Energy used to bond phosphate groups to ADP to make ATP

Cellular Respiration

What is cell respiration???

Respiration: the process of breaking down food molecules into usable energy THE GOAL:

Create ATP for cells to use Free up electronshave high energy

Cellular Respiration

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Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration

Types of cell respiration

Aerobic Processes:

REQUIRE oxygen to take place A lot of energy available (efficient)

Anaerobic Processes:

DO NOT require oxygen to take place Get energy quickly (inefficient)

Cellular Respiration

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Glycolysis

Involves breaking down 6-carbon sugars

Break sugars into pyruvic acid molecules

3-Carbon molecules

This process is ANAEROBIC

No oxygen necessary

Occurs in the cytoplasm of cells

Glycolysis

Glycolysis also creates hydrogen ions and free electrons

The whole point of respiration = high energy

H + ions bond with NAD+ to form NADH + H +

NADH carries electrons and H + ions

This process uses 4 ADP molecule and creates 4 ATP molecules

Glycolysis

Glycolysis

TOTAL ATP PRODUCTION:

Glycolysis Step 1 uses 2 ATP molecules

Glycolysis Step 2 converts 4 ADP molecules into 4 ATP molecules Net ATP production = 2 ATP for every glucose molecule

Glycolysis

Glycolysis

Oxygen is our friend

When oxygen is present, aerobic respiration occurs

Happens in the mitochondria

Glycolysis

Breaking down Pyruvic Acid

Occurs in the mitochondria

Pyruvic Acid = 3-carbon compound Broken down into

2-Carbon compoundacetic acid Carbon Dioxide

Glycolysis

Intermediate Step in Glycolysis

2-Carbon CompoundAcetic Acid


Combined with coenzyme A (CoA) Forms compound called acetyl-CoA

This is only an intermediate stephave to move pyruvic acid into Krebs Cycle

Glycolysis

Glycolysis = 2 ATP

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Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle

Produces more ATP and releases more electrons

Electrons picked up by NAD + and FAD

Organic carrier molecules

Occurs inside mitochondria

Mitochondrial Matrix

Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle

Acetyl CoA combines with a 4-carbon molecule to form a 6-carbon molecule

Citric Acid

Citric Acid broken down into a 5-carbon compound


NAD + removes electrons (NADH + H +) CO2 released

Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle

5-carbon compound broken down into a 4-carbon compound


ATP created NAD + removes electrons (NADH + H +) CO2 released

4-carbon compound (oxaloacetic acid) is created

Used to bond with acetyl- CoA to restart cycle

Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle

Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle

Citric Acid Cycle = 2 ATP

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Electron Transport Chain

What is the ETC???

A series of molecules along which electrons are transferred, releasing energy Occurs in the mitochondria wall of mitochondria Aerobic process

Oxygen is involved

Acts as the electron acceptor

Electron Transport Chain

As the electrons are passed between carrier proteins, energy is released

ATP is created

Electrons are given up by the carrier molecules

NADH and FADH2 ------- NAD + and FAD

Electron Transport Chain

Electron Transport Chain

As the electrons (H + ions) travel down the chain, they bond with oxygen
2 H + + 1 O = water (H2O) Electron acceptor

Carbon is given off as carbon dioxide

Electron Transport Chain

Glycolysis

ETC = 34 ATP

Electron Transport Chain

A problem exists if there is no oxygen

Anaerobic process

When oxygen is used up, electrons cannot be removed

Traffic jam in the mitochondria

KEY POINT Electron Transport Chain cannot run without oxygen

Anaerobic Respiration

If no oxygen present after glycolysis, pyruvic acid can still be broken down

Fermentation

No ATP made during fermentation

Uses electrons carried by NADH + H + so that NAD+ can regenerate for glycolysis

Anaerobic Respiration

Anaerobic Respiration

Two types of fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation


Glucose 2 Pyruvic Acid 2 Lactic Acid

Alcoholic Fermentation
2 Pyruvic Acid 2 Ethanol + 2 CO2

Glucose

Anaerobic Respiration

Lactic Acid Fermentation

Muscle fatigue

When your muscle cells require more energy than can be produced Lack of oxygen Lactic acid build up = muscle fatigue

When oxygen is present, lactic acid breaks down

Anaerobic Respiration

Anaerobic Respiration

Alcohol Fermentation

Occurs in bacteria, plants and most animals

Can you think of a bacteria that is used for fermentation??? Pyruvic Acid is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide

Anaerobic Respiration

Cellular Respiration

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Cellular Respiration

General Formula
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O