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Ohio BWC Division of Safety & Hygiene

Measuring Safety Performance

Table of Contents
> > > > > > > > >
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Why Measure Performance? Types of Measures Accountability Step 1:Define Expectations Step 2: Provide Tools & Skills Step 3: Measure Performance Step 4: Provide Feedback Case Studies Follow-up Activities

You will learn:


> A sound foundation for developing or improving safety performance measuring systems; > Strategies and techniques for measuring safety performance, emphasizing process measures, accountability, systematic monitoring, and goal setting; > An understanding of how you can proactively use measurement systems to guide future performance; > Key elements of contemporary safety measurement tools
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Turn & Talk

> Why measure performance?

Reasons for Measuring Performance


> > > > A navigational tool An early warning sign Alter behavior To implement strategies and policies > Trend Monitoring > Improvement prioritization
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> Improvement project evaluation > Input into bonus and incentive systems > A marketing tool > Benchmarking > Increased motivation

Viewpoints of Measurement
> Organizational > Personal

A macro view how overall results are measured to determine whether safety efforts are paying off.

A micro view do measures insure individual performance or foster nonperformance.

Turn & Talk

> How does your company currently measure safety performance?

Types of measures
> Results Measures > Activity Measures

Trailing Downstream End of Pipeline Results Achievement

Leading Upstream Performance Predictors

Results Measures

> > > >

Lost-Time Injury Rate Incidence Rate Severity Rate Accident Costs

DIRECT COST
VS

INDIRECT COST IS 4 TIMES THE DIRECT COST

INDIRECT COST
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Results-measures are good when..

They are broken down by unit They give insight into the nature and causes of the accidents They are expressed eventually in terms of dollars per unit They conform to any legal and insurance requirements

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Limitations of Results Measures



Sometimes they measure only luck. They do not discriminate between poor and good performers. They do not diagnose problems. They can be unfair if used to judge individual performance

Results measures do not tell you why an accident occurred or how to improve future performance.
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Activity Measures

Behaviors/performance linked to accident prevention. These measures assess results of supervisor or workgroup, or organizational action taken before accidents occur.

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Discussion >What activities could prevent injuries from occurring at your company?
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Fatality
Lost Time

Safety Model

Recordable
First-Aid Case Near Miss

Property Damage Behaviors

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How Do You Decide Which Activities to Measure?

> It depends on your goals and what you want to accomplish

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Some Things To Look At:

Organizational vision, Goals, Strategic Plans Perception surveys Structured Interviews Safety Audits/Inspections Accident Analysis Accident Trends Behavior Observation Data

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What is Your Vision For The Future?

> Vision Serves Three Purposes Clarifies Direction Motivates People Aligns Individuals

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Characteristics of an Effective Vision > Imaginable > Desirable > Feasible > Focused > Flexible > Communicable
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S a fet y Ma n a gem en t (R )evolu t ion


Changing Organizational Culture
Line/Staff Conflict Symptoms Blood (Behaviors/ Cycles Conditions)

Quiet

Transparent

Integrated

Valued

Equal

Radical Organizational Change


Quick Fix Committees Programs

WORLD CLASS
Progressive
Safety Responsibility: Management Driven/Employee Owned Perception: Good Business Investment

Management Characteristics
Accidents: intolerable, no excuses Safety a measure of management effectiveness Decisions: time consuming and difficult Planning: long-term; 3-5 years Responsibilities/Expectations: clearly defined No glitz or hype

The NORM
Significant Financial Crisis
High Excessive Insurance Losses Costs Adversarial Employee Relations Litigation Statutory Ignorance
Naturally Occurring Reactive Management

Traditional
Management Characteristics
Incidents: excused Compliance is the goal Likes cookbook approaches Little accountability lack of employee involvement High visibility and glitz

Employee involvement: win/win Communications: informal, open, encouraged Accountability established, measured, recognized

SWAMP
Safety Without Any Management Process

Hansen/Ingalls 1994

Safety Culture Assessment

The Perception Survey


100 questions Safety Categories Perceptions of all Employees

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The O hio D ivision of S a f et y & H ygiene


PERCEPTION SURVEY
PART 1
A. Enter your work location: (Example: production, office, etc.) ___________________________ B. Enter your shift: _____________

C. Circle your job function: Line worker, supervisor, or manager ___________________________

D. Enter years with company: ____

PART 2
Y N 1. Do you feel you received adequate job training? Y N 2. Do supervisors discuss accidents and injuries with employees involved? 5. Do you perceive the major cause of accidents to be unsafe conditions? 8. Are supervisors more concerned about their safety record than about accident prevention? 11. Is high hazard equipment inspected more thoroughly than other equipment? Y N 3. Is discipline usually assessed when operating procedures are violated?

Y N

4. Would a safety incentive program cause you to work more safely? 7. Is safety considered important by management?

Y N

Y N

6. Does your company actively encourage employees to work safely? 9. Do you think penalties should be assessed for safety and health violations?

Y N

Y N

Y N

Y N

10. Have you used the safety involvement teams to get action on a complaint or hazard which concerned you? 13. Have you been asked to perform any operations which you felt were unsafe? 16. Are employees provided information on such things as cost, frequency, type and cause of accidents? 19. Is off-the-job safety a part of your companys safety program?

Y N

Y N

12. Is the amount of safety training given to supervisors adequate?

Y N

Y N

14. Are records kept of potential hazards found during violations?

Y N

15. Are employees influenced by your companys efforts to promote safety?

Y N

Y N

17. Does your company deal effectively with problems caused by alcohol or drug abuse? 20. Does management insist upon proper medical attention for injured employees? 23. Does your company hire employees who do not have the physical ability to safely perform assigned duties? 26. Is safe work behavior recognized by supervisors?

Y N

18. Are unscheduled inspections of operations made?

Y N

Y N

Y N

21. Are safe operating procedures regularly reviewed with employees?

Y N

22. Are you interested in how your companys safety record compares with other companies in your industry?

Y N

Y N

24. Do your co-workers support the companys safety program?

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Y N

25. Do supervisors pay adequate attention to safety matters?

Y N

Y N

27. Do employees participate in the development of safe work practices?

Goals for Safety Performance Hazard Correction Inspections Involvement of Employees Awareness Programs Recognition for Performance Discipline Safety Concerns Operating Procedures Supervisor Training Support for Safety Employee Training Safety Climate Management Credibility Stress

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% Positive Responses
100 120 20 40 60 80 0 Manager

Accident Investigation Quality of Supervision Alcohol/Drug Abuse Attitude Toward Safety Communication New Employees
Employee Supervisor

Survey Results

The Structured Interview


25% of Employees Facilitation of Discussion More detailed comments

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Accountability
The Key to Managing Safety

Rank the following:


Quality Cost Containment Safety Customer Satisfaction Production Employee Morale

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Video Safety Accountability


> Safety must be managed the same as productivity and quality

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The Key to Managing Safety

>Accountability

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What gets measured. gets done

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Who Is Responsible for Safety?

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Line Management & Staff


CEO Safety

President
Vice President Plant Manager Supervisors Employees
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Human Resources Purchasing Accounting Quality

Exercise

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Steps to Accountability
1. Define expectations and explain rationale. 2. Provide the tools and skills. 3. Measure performance. 4. Provide feedback.
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Performance Formula
Motivation x Ability x Job Clarity >
PERFORMANCE =

Obstacles
Performance = safe job execution
Motivation = desire

Ability = mental/physical ability


Job Clarity = knows expectations
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Obstacles = The things that get in the way of great performance

Turn & Talk >How do your employees know what is expected of them?

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1. 2. 3. 4.
> > > > >

Define Expectations Provide Tools & Skills Measure Performance Provide Feedback

Policies Safe Work Practices Job Safety Analysis Performance Goals Job Descriptions

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Safety policy criteria


> Express long-range purpose. > Commit management at all levels to reaffirm and reinforce this purpose in daily decisions. > Indicate the role lower-level management will have in the system.
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The Policy should Include:


> > > > > > > Managements intent Scope of activity covered Responsibilities Accountability Safety staff assistance Safety committees Standards

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Safe Work Practices

> Leaders must communicate the need for all employees to understand the safety-related processes and procedures, and to actively participate in the organizations safety programs.
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Criteria for Safe Work Practices

> Reasonable and specific > Enforceable > Easily understood > Positive > Regularly reviewed and updated
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Job Safety Analysis


A.Break the job down into component steps. 1.Select a worker to observe. 2. Observe the worker performing the job. 3. Describe each step and number sequentially. 4. Observe the worker several times to make sure all steps were noted. 5. Check the listed steps with the worker for agreement. 42

Job Safety Analysis


B. Identify the potential hazards. 1. types of hazards a. Contact b. Caught c. Falls d. Overexertion e. Exposure f. Repetitive motion

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Job Safety Analysis

C. Safe work procedures 1. Explains how to do the job safely and efficiently, step by step. 2. Involves developing solutions to the potential hazards identified.

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Performance Goals
Step 4 Performance Appraisals

Job Descriptions

1. 2. 3. 4.

Define Expectations Provide Tools & Skills Measure Performance Provide Feedback

>Needs assessment Measured Activity Training Tools Resources


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Ohio BWC

Division of Safety & Hygiene Classes / Workshops

Leading the Change

Topics:
How injuries affect profitability Accident Causation Injuries equal Management error Motivation Measurement and Accountability Contemporary vs. Traditional Safety Programs
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Safety Involvement Teams Topics:

The benefits of teams Phases of team development How to deal with team conflict Communication skills Team tools
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Facilitator Training
Topics:

Roles and responsibilities of the facilitator Team problem solving and decision making Running effective safety meetings Conflict resolution
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Behavior-Based Safety
Topics:

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Why behavior-based safety works What to observe At-risk behaviors Feedback Positive reinforcement Coaching Managing behavior data

1. 2. 3. 4.

Define Expectations Provide Tools & Skills Measure Performance Provide Feedback

Criteria:
> Measure the performance of a task (rather than an outcome). > Constructed to affect rewards. > Specific and Measurable > Within the persons span of control > Measure the presence of a safety activity (not its absence).
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Criteria for Performance Measures continued


> Provide a means for swift and continuing feedback. > Be flexible and allow for individual styles and strategies. > Be simple and administratively feasible. > Be self monitoring.
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Safety Performance Measurement Systems

> SCRAPE > SBO > Menu (DSH Model) > Balanced Scorecard

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What Measures are Appropriate?


> Upper Management > Middle Management
100% Results 50% Results 50% Activities

> Supervisors
> Safety Director

100% Activities
100% Activities

> Employees
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100% Activities

1. 2. 3. 4.

Define Expectations Provide Tools & Skills Measure Performance Provide Feedback

>List types of feedback & recognition

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Criteria for Performance Evaluations

> > > > > > > >


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What Who When Why How Systems Support Personal Impact Organizational Impact

> > > > > >

Roles Numerical Rating Flexibility EE Involvement Central Coordination Addressing EE Weaknesses > Additional Items > System Evaluation

Positive Reinforcement
> Find someone doing something right, and reward them. > Construct consequences to increase the probability that the behavior that precedes the consequence will occur more often in the future.
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Case Studies

Review
> Steps to Accountability

1. Define Expectations 2. Provide Tools and Skills 3. Measure Performance 4. Provide Feedback

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Next Steps
1. Review current measurement systems. 2. Get management support/commitment. 3. Develop a vision. 4. Develop performance measures and activities for all levels of the organization.

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Next Steps
5. Conduct a Needs Assessment for tools and training required. 6. Determine how activities will be measured and reported. 7. How will performance be recognized and rewarded? 8. Re-evaluate the process.
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How Do You Know when You Get There?

>You never get there.

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There is Always Room For Improvement