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MICA R&D Project

Human-Machine
Interaction
/ Interazione Uomo-Machina/
?
by Adam Maria Gadomski

E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it
URL: http://erg4146.casaccia.enea.it/

ENEA, C.R.Casaccia

18 November 1999

On the rights of the web white paper (Intell.Prop.) - © ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999.
MICA Project

Human-Machine Interaction from the


Systemic and Cognitive Perspective
Contribution to the MICA 2.8.3.3 Task D: Realization of an Integrated
Modeling Environment for the Hardware/Software/Human Components of
Plant Control Room Systems : Study on a Meta-Modeling Frameworks.
http://erg4146.casaccia.enea.it/

Presentation outline
 Problem Recognition
 Problem Identification

 Possible Solutions
 Conclusions

"Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler.” [Albert Einstein]

© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it


Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project

Preface
This my activity have been focused on a preliminary study of the
human mental errors of industrial operators involved in the control
and supervisory of high-risk complex technological systems.
It deals with the identification of human mental errors and
possibilities of their mitigation through an application of intelligent
computer decision support systems.

Methodology
Heuristic application of the TOGA (Top-down Object-based Goal-
oriented Approach) methodology to the problem identification.
 Problem Recognition
Application of the IPK conceptual framework to the cognitive
 Problem Identification operator modelling [http://erg4146.casaccia.enea.it/].
 Possible Solutions
Results
 Conclusions An indication and the preliminary analysis of mental functins and
tasks which could be supported or executed by IDSSs (Intelligent
Computer Decision Support Systems).

Dec.97, http://erg4146.casaccia.enea.it/Mika-saf.html

© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it


Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project

Problem Recognition
Human-Machine Interaction is a continuously
growing domain of interest of researchers and
practictioners.
It is a consequence of ever more and more
complex technologies and systems controlled
and managed by humans.

 Problem Recognition The problem is dedected from the perspectives


 Problem Identification
of :
 Possible Solutions - efficacy and quality of the production
 Conclusions
- economy and sostenibility , and especially,
- safety and reliability of human component in
human-machine aggregates.
© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it
Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project

Problem Recognition
The research in the field of Human-Machine Interaction
(AltaVista: 50 017doc. ) is also distributed among such
domains as:

Man-Machine Interface - AltaVista: 1906 doc.


Human-Computer Interface - AltaVista: 2868 doc.
Lycos: 8201doc.
Stanford: 524
MIT: 897
 Problem Recognition Human-Computer Communication -AV. 734
 Problem Identification
Human-Computer Cooperation - AV. 39
 Possible solutions
Cognitive Technology - AV. 985
 Conclusions
Cognitive Engineering - AV. 3015

© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it


Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project

Problem Recognition
Classical engineering paradign:

 Problem Recognition To addopt humans to machine


 Problem Identification failured in the case of high-risk
 Possible solutions systems and complex tasks.
 Conclusions
...is a classical example of the consequences of
a badly designed user interface [Excerpt from
the official report to the Three Mile Island nuclear
accident]

New systemic perspective:” a joint


human machine system is performing the
“Human ignorance is a source task” [E.Hollnagel at al, 94],
of defeates and... human power” http://www.erlbaum.com/260.htm

© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it


Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project

Problem Recognition
Poorly designed user interface causes
economical loss: - rejection , - rare using.
Badly designed user interface causes
catastrofic human errors trough:
-> confusion, misleading presentation of
 Problem Recognition
information,
 Problem Identification -> misinterpretation,
 Possible solutions -> cause of dangerous actions.
 Conclusions
More difficult is to specify what should be
implemented than how to do it.
We need appropriate goal-oriented models
Goal:
make communication smoothest possible to interfere
least possible with thought process.
[W.Joerg, Alberta Univ.95]
© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it
Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project

Problem Recognition

"The goal is to create software that works


 Problem Recognition ---really works --- in being appropriate and
effective for people who live in the world that the
 State of the Art
software creates.”
 Problem Identification [Terry Winograd, HCI,96, http://pcd.stanford.edu/]
 Possible Solutions and yet:
http://hci.stanford.edu/~winograd/bds/introduction.html
 Conclusions

Human-Machine Interaction should be


modeled from the human and systemic
perspective but not invented by software
specialists.
[KMC, E.Swanstrom,1997]
© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it
Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project

Problem Identification approches

Sistemic Approach Cognitivistic Approach

Human - Machine Interactions


 Problem Recognition
 Problem Identification
 Possible solutions
Software + Hardware Systems
 Conclusions

Software Technologies & Engineering Platform

© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it


Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project
Systemic Perspective

on Reliability and Safety of


Human-Machine Interactions (HMI)

HMI can be seen as a process.


Reliability and Safety can be seen as a two complex
properties of HMI and characterized by integrated
generalized indicators:

Reliability Indicator - R
 Problem Recognition
 Problem Identification
Safety Indicator - Sf
 Possible solutions The carrier of the HMI process is the coupled
 Conclusions system: Human-Machine.

© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it


Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project

Systemic
Perspective
Cognitivistic
Perspective
Technological
Perspective
Problem Identification
Systemic
Perspective
Modeling Cognitivistic
 Problem Recognition Perspective

 Problem Identification
 Possible Solutions Design Systemic
Perspective
 Conclusions Cognitivistic
Perspective
Soft-Tools
Technological
develop. Perspective

© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it


Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project
Systemic Perspective
Top-down
Systemic identification
Perspective
Cognitivistic and
Perspective H decomposition
Technological rules
Perspective

HO CSS ENV

 Problem Recognition
 Problem Identification AD

 Possible solutions
Elementary heterogenious unit in the modern
 Conclusions
systemic approach [Gad.99]

H - Human, CSS - Computer Support Systems (Web)

HO - Human Organization AD - Domain of Activity


ENV - Environment
© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it
Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project
Given: Objectives, Functions and
Systemic Perspective their indicators

Everything said is said by


an observer'.  Identification of Systems involved
(Maturana & Varela, 1980)
 Identification of Processes, Activities
and their attributes

Search expressions (models) of the type:


[Heuristic Appication of SPG,
Gadomski,since 86;99] indicators (attributes)
Search attributes which min or max of indicators

 Problem Recognition
 Problem Identification Modification/design of Processes and
Systems according to selected attributes
 Possible solutions
Software engineer
 Conclusions

© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it


Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project
Systemic Perspective

Key Factor: RISK Risk Analysis  Risk Sources  Human


Errors
Application Domains: # HOME WORKS
# PUBLIC SERVICIES
# ADMINISTRATION
High Risk
# CULTURE Domains
# INDUSTRY
# HEALTH
 Problem Recognition # MILITARY ?
 Problem Identification # INSTRUCTION &
 Possible Solutions SCIENCE
 Conclusions

© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it


Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project

Systemic Perspective

Causes of Human Errors


Physical
environment

Organization
Machine Control and MIND

(controlled Measurement Computer


system/proc System Console Human
esses) operator

 Problem Recognition Hardware & Software


 Problem Identification Psycho-social
 Possible solutions environment
 Conclusions

© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it


Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project

Bases of the Cognitivistic


Perspective
"the study of intelligence and intelligent systems, with particular
reference to intelligent behaviour as computation" (Simon, H. A. &
C. A. Kaplan, "Foundations of cognitive science", in Posner, M.I.T.
1989

John Locke's (1690). “Cognitive science is a multidisciplinary approach to the


Essay Concerning study of the human mind.” Kalish,
Human Understanding http://iris.cogsci.uwa.edu.au/cogsci.html
and the nature of human
consciousness P.N.Johnson-Lard-Mental Models,83. M.Olivetti-Belardinelli -
-First model.. Mental Architectures,98, A.Slomans - Emotional Agents.

Professor Norman, the first chair of the UCSD Department of


 Problem Recognition
 Problem Identification Cognitive Science, originated the Cognitive Engineering course.
 Possible solutions Distributed Cognition and Human Computer Interaction Laboratory.
 Conclusions Univ. of California.,May 99.
© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it
Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project
Cognitive Engineering
Perspective
the principles of cognitive engineering refers to: user-centered
design ( its practices have wide applicability) and human-computer
interaction in particular. It is base on cognitive models.
Human-computer interaction (HCI) is the intersection between the
social and cognitive sciences, on the one hand, and computer science
and technology, on the other. HCI researchers analyze and design
interaction technologies (e.g., displays and pointing devices, gestures
and sketching). They study and improve the processes of technology
development (e.g., usability evaluation, software toolkits, cognitive
ethnography).
Over the past two decades, HCI has progressively integrated
scientific concerns with the engineering goal of improving the
usability of computers. established a body of technical knowledge
and methodology, and contributed broadly to the development of new
 Problem Recognition computer technologies and applications.
 Problem Identification http://hci.ucsd.edu/132/nsyllabus.html
 Possible solutions See also: MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science.
 Conclusions

© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it


Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project
Cognitive Technology
Perspective
Douglas Hofstadter is College Professor of cognitive science and computer
science, director of the Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition, Ph.D. in
physics, University of Oregon, 1975; Pulitzer Prize.

The First International Conference on Cognitive Technology (Hong Kong,


1995) stressed the need for a radically new way of thinking about the impact
computer technology has on humans, especially on the human mind. Our main
aim at that time was a consideration of these effects with respect to rendering
the interface between people and computers more humane.

Cognitive technologies in Europe:


- Rasmunssen, Andeson - Riso National
 Problem Recognition Lab. - Hollnagel - Halden Project
 Problem Identification (from about 18 years)
 Possible solutions
-Gadomski (since 86), Nanni (87), Balducelli (93),
 Conclusions
DiCostanzo - ENEA .
© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it
Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project
General Cognitivistic
Perspective
Systemic + Psychology + Physics Mindware applied to the identification of
mental processes of humans and living systems

Development of the
Universal Theory of Applied to Applied to autonomous
Cognition living systems H/Software systems

 Problem Recognition
Applied to Human-Machine Interaction
 Problem Identification
 Possible solutions
 Conclusions Software Engineering Platform
© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it
Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project
“The web is constructed
for the communication Cognitivistic Perspective
between humans not
computers”

Risk Human
Risk  HumanErrors
Errors Human
HumanModels
Models

Levels of a Human Functional Model:


 Sensorial & Manipulation
 Perception
 Reasoning
 Problem Recognition
Cognitive
 Problem Identification  Decision-Making
 Possible solutions Modeling
 Conclusions
 Communication
© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it
Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project

Possible Solutions

Existing Strategies for improving of HMI


- Command-driven - improving what is requested
- Event-driven - post-accident improvement
- Means-driven - improv. based on available know-how
- Goal-driven (Model-driven) - research based eng. improv.

 Problem Recognition
 Problem Identification
 Possible solutions
 Conclusions

© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it


Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project
Possible Solutions
Searching
Assumptions:
1. Every human interaction with complex machine is through
computer then a Human-Computer Cooperation is needed.
2. Every human interaction with complex machine is
decomposable on decision-making mental events.
Mental processes

?. . .
 Problem Recognition
 Problem Identification
 Possible solutions
Machine + Computer processes
 Conclusions

© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it


Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project

Possible Solutions
Mental processes

?. . .
Machine + Computer processes

Computer substitutes or supports goal-dependent


tasks of human user/operator.

 Problem Recognition Critical points (recognizable events) which need


 Problem Identification to be identified by the cognitive modeling.
 Possible solutions
 Conclusions

© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it


Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project

Possible Solutions
Solution: In order to increase human reliability and
safety in high-risk complex human-machine systems,
we need to shift mental functions from human to
computer, to construct computer
Is it my
ever more intelligent. idea ?

We need intelligent agents.


ESPECIALLY FOR NOT ROUTINE, MULTI-DATA
TASKS UNDER TIME CONSTRAINS.
 Problem Recognition
 Problem Identification
 Possible solutions
 Conclusions

© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it


Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project

Possible Solutions: an
Abstract Intelligent Agent, AIA

Two roles of AIA:


1. user model -- cognitive intelligent agent
2. kernel of a computer intelligent assisstant.

Intelligent - an agent with capability to the


modification of own preferences, capability of
learning and meta-reasoning.[TOGA,Gadomski].
 Problem Recognition
 Problem Identification Emotional agent - Modeling of emotions, emotional
 Possible solutions
behaviour [Web]
 Conclusions

© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it


Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project

Possible
1. Recognized utility of the TOGA meta-theory
Solutions: [Gadomski,90,99] and SPG conceptualization
Project [Gadomski,86,99] to the goal-oriented knowledge
Results ordering in meta-system engineering applied to the
analysis of HMI attributes.

2. Recognized plausibility of the identification of human


mental states by the Protocol Analysis [K.A.Ericsson,
H.A.Simon] applied to the IPK cognitive architecture
[A.M.Gadomski,98,99].

3. Formal conceptual separation of knowledge,


preferences and information acquisition in Human-
Machine Interactions [Gadomski at al.,99]; has been
 Problem Recognition applied to the IDA-MICA Project.
 Problem Identification
 Possible solutions
 Conclusions

© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it


Human-Machine Interaction MICA Project

Conclusions
The work has been supported by the Scientific Cooperaton (ortogonal no
profits activity) with The Interuniversity Center for the Research on
Cognitive Processing in Natural and Artificial Systems ( ECONA).
Gadomski, Pestilli :INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: TOGA
COGNITIVE AGENT, in frame of The ECONA’s Meeting on “ Research
Activities on Cognitive Modeling, May ,99 [Web].
A.M.Gadomski,S. Ceccacci:Seminar ”Contesto TOGA per la Progettazione di un Agente
Intelligente Astratto ed il suo Decision-Making” , Perugia,99 [Web](Bora per Tesi di L.)

A.M.Gadomski: TOWARDS SYSTEM ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGIES, SET,


transparent-sheet, ENEA, 99[Web].
The obtained resualts are also the base for the proposal of a research project for the
FET * Open (5th Program EU) with Univ. of Brussel,Poland, Ansaldo, ECONA
(under preparation).
*FET - Future and Emerging Technologies

© ENEA, A.M.Gadomski, 1999. E-mail: gadomski_a@casaccia.enea.it