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Philosophy of Idealism

Content:
I. II. III. Nature Historical Retrospect of Idealism Philosophical Rationale of Idealism A. metaphysics B. epistemology C. value IV. Synthesis of Idealism A. On Knowledge and Education B. On Human Self V. Educational Theory of IDEALISM A. Aims B. Education C. Curriculum D. Teaching-Learning process E. Methods of Teaching

Ideals are the stars. You will not succeed in touching them with your hands. But like seafaring men on the desert of waters, you choose them as your guides, and following them, you will reach your destiny.
-Carl Schurz

Definition:

Ideas and knowledge

are the truest reality.


-Plato

Nature:

One of the oldest schools of thoughts with its origin traced back to Platos ideas.

S t r e s s e s t h e men tal , m ora l a nd spiritual nature of an ind ivi dua l a nd his universe.

Contrasted materialism

Goodness is ideal state, something to be strived for.

Advocates that education is both a basic right of man.

Intelligent people should be taken care of by the government next to the best school to be of greater service to t h e country. -The Republic, Plato

Truth is to be found consistency of ideas.

As a result, schools exist to sharpen the mind and intellectual processes.

Historical Retrospect of Idealism


Pre-Christian Origins: Plato

Proposed the theory of Forms or the doctrine of Ideas Ideas hold the truest reality. Gave importance to the right of education for both girls and boys

Modern idealism:
Rene Descartes

I think, therefore I am. Emphasizes the centrality or importance of the mind Stressed the importance of mind and reason Proposed that an idea is divided

into mind and matter known as the theory of dualism

George Berkeley
primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called immaterialism (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others)
The theory immortalized the dictum, "esse est percipi" ("to be is to be perceived"). speculated that all aspects of everything of which one is conscious are actually reducible to the ideas present in the mind

The observer does not conjure external objects into existence, however; the true ideas of them are caused in the human mind directly by God.

Emanuel Kant
Wrote Critique of Pure Reason, and Critique of Practical Reason Rationalism and Empiricism transcendental idealism greatly refined idealism through his critical inquiry into what he believed to be the limits of possible knowledge

held that all that can be known of things is the way in which they appear in experience; there is no way of knowing what they are substantially in themselves. the fundamental principles of all science are essentially grounded in the constitution of the mind rather than being derived from the external world.

Kants Ethical Values of Idealism


1. There are universal, moral laws 2. Man has a feeling of obligation to act in obedience to these moral laws 3. It is possible for an individual to act purely out of desire or intension to do good, fulfil the moral law. 4. The immortality to fulfil the moral law 5. Belief in the existence of God. He stressed the oughtness of life. Gos is your ought the motivating factor.

George Hegel
Author of Principles of Human Knowledge States all existence depends on some mind to know it; if no mind exist, then nothing exists unless it is perceived by the mind of God.
absolute idealism

disagreed with Kant's theory concerning the inescapable human ignorance of what things are in themselves, instead arguing for the ultimate intelligibility of all existence. Hegel also maintained that the highest achievements of the human spirit (culture, science, religion, and the state) are not the result of naturally determined processes in the mind, but are conceived and sustained by the

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I. Philosophical Rationale of Idealism A. metaphysics B. epistemology C. value

Synthesis of Idealism A. On Knowledge and Education B. On Human Self


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Educational Theory of Modern Idealism

Educational Aim:

To develop the individual spiritually, mentally and morally.

The purpose of education is to contribute to the development of the mind and self of the learner. The education-imparting institute should emphasize intellectual activities, moral judgments, aesthetic judgments, selfrealization, individual freedom, individual responsibility, and selfcontrol in order to achieve this development.

Methods of Teaching
Encourage learners to enlarge their horizons Stimulate reflective thinking Encourage personal moral choices Provide skills in logical thinking Provide opportunities to apply knowledge to moral and social problems Stimulate interest in the subject content Encourage learners to accept the values

TEACHING METHODS
Lecture-Discussion Method Excursion Question Method Project Method

CURRICULAR EMPHASIS
Subject Matter of Mind:

Literature History Philosophy Religion Mathematics Arts

Teaching-Learning process
The teacher must be excellent, in order to serve as an example for the student, both intellectually and morally.

ROLE OF TEACHERS

Chief source of inspiration Creator of educational environment