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Sujetadores y Tornillos de Potencia

Engineers need to be continually reminded that nearly all engineering


failures result from faulty judgments rather than faulty calculations.
Eugene S. Ferguson, Engineering and the Minds Eye.
Perfile roscado
Parmetros empleados para definir un perfil roscado
Dimetro mayor, d. Paso por pulgada p=1/n, n roscas por pulgada
Dimetro de cresta, dc
Dimetro de paso, dp
Dimetro de raiz, dr

Text Reference: Figure 15.1, page 667
Roscado
(a) Simple, (b) doble, y (c) triple.
Text Reference: Figure 15.2, page 667
AVANCE
l = tipo roscado x p
Perfiles de rosca
M;

C-basto
F-Fino

Ej.MF8X2-G6
dc/roscas/pulg/ajuste
UN;
8 series de rosca de paso
constante
C-basto
F-Fino
EF-Extra Fino

UN -- M
ACME
Uso: potencia, mquina - herramienta
Ej.UNF1/2X16-1B
dc/roscas/pulg/ajuste
Buttress
Perfil M y UN
Detalle dimensiones de perfiles M y UN.
ht= 0.5p / tan 30
Text Reference: Figure 15.4, page 668
Ajuste
Serie pulgadas Serie mtrica
Tornillo Tuerca Tornillo Tuerca
1A
2A
3A
1B (suelto)
2B (normal)
3B (justo)
8g
6g
8h
7H
6H
5H

Equivalencias entre roscas
Text Reference: Table 15.1, page 669
Calidad 3(apretado)-9(Suelto)
Tornillos de potencia: Perfil ACME
Detalle del perfil - Dimensiones. (valores en pulgadas)
Text Reference: Figure 15.5, page 670
Buscamos: mayor ventaja mecnica - posicionamiento.
diametro Cresta,
d
c
, in.
Numero rosca por
pulgada, n
Area a tensin, A
t
,
in
2

Shear stress area,
A
s
, in
2

1/4
5/16
3/8
7/16
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
1
1 1/8
1 1/4
1 3/8
1 1/2
1 3/4
2
2 1/4
2 1/2
2 3/4
3
3 1/2
4
4 1/2
5
16
14
12
12
10
8
6
6
5
5
5
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
0.02663
0.04438
0.06589
0.09720
0.1225
0.1955
0.2732
0.4003
0.5175
0.6881
0.8831
1.030
1.266
1.811
2.454
2.982
3.802
4.711
5.181
7.338
9.985
12.972
16.351
0.3355
0.4344
0.5276
0.6396
0.7278
0.9180
1.084
1.313
1.493
1.722
1.952
2.110
2.341
2.803
3.262
3.610
4.075
4.538
4.757
5.700
6.640
7.577
8.511

Text Reference: Table 15.2, page 671
Perfil ACME
Datos cortante para una
longitud de roscado de 1 pulg
dp=dc-0.5p-0.01
Tornillo de potencia con collarn
Text Reference: Figure 15.6, page 672
, ngulo de avance=ArcTan

[l/dp]
Collarn de empuje

Tornillo de potencia con collarn y husillos de bolas
Text Reference: Figure 15.6, page 672
Fuerzas sobre el tornillo de potencia
Fuerzas actuando sobre. (a) paraleleppedo ; (b) seccin axial; (c) plano tangencial.
Text Reference: Figure 15.7, page 673
Fv=0
Fh x r =0
DC=OE n
Tipos de sujetadores roscados
(a) Tornillo y tuerca. (c) Tornillo de cabeza. (c) Birlo.
Nota:Arandela o roldana
Text Reference: Figure 15.8, page 679
Par torsor el tornillo de potencia
Fv=0
Fh x r =0
DESCENSO
ASCENSO
Ejercicios
1. Determine los pares de torsin, de elevacin y de
descenso, as coma la eficiencia del tornillo de potencia
manufacturado con rosca ACME. es autobloqueante?
cual es la contribucin de la friccin del collarn, en
comparacin con la friccin del tornillo, si el collarn
tiene, a) deslizamiento, m=0,15 b) rodamiento, m=0,02
ambos en aceite. W=1000lb. Rosca Acme 1,25-5 y
Omedio collarn =1,75 in.
2. Mismo ejercicio con W=1000lb. Rosca Acme 1-5
roscado doble y Omc=1,5 in. m=0,16 rosca y 0,12
collarn.
3. Igual que el ejercicio dos, pero con roscado simple.

Equivalencia de la conexin: Sistema de resortes
Bolt-and-nut assembly simulated as
bolt-and-joint spring.
Text Reference: Figure 15.9, page 680
Force vs. Deflection
of Bolt and Member
Force versus deflection of bolt and
member.
(a) Seperated bolt and joint.
(b) assembled bolt and joint.
Text Reference: Figure 15.10, page 680
Fueza vs. Deflexin
Text Reference: Figure 15.11, page 681
0 ) ( = + +
k b i k j i
e k P e k P P
Bolt and Nut
Figure 15.12 Bolt and
nut. (a) Assembled;
(b) stepped-shaft
representation of
shank and threaded
section.
Text Reference: Figure 15.12, page 682
Bolt and Nut Assembly
(
(

+ +
+ +
=
) )( tan (
) )( tan (
ln 2
tan
c i c i f i
c i c i f i
f c i
ji
d d d d L
d d d d L
d E
k
o
o
o t
Figure 15.13 Bolt-and-nut
assembly with conical fustrum
stress representation of joint.

di=dw= dimetro menor del
cono de presin
(

+
+
=
) 5 , 2 577 , 0 (
) 5 , 0 577 , 0 (
5 ln 2
577 , 0
c i
c i
c i
ji
d L
d L
d E
k
t
(
(

+ +
+ +
=
) )( tan (
) )( tan (
ln 2
tan
c i c i f i
c i c i f i
f c i
ji
d d d d L
d d d d L
d E
k
o
o
o t
Simplificacin tal que el dimetro de la cara de arandela es
aproximadamente 50% mayor que el dimetro de la espiga
del sujetador en el caso de tornillos de maquinaria y pernos
con cabeza hexagonal de tipo estandar
(dw=1,5dc y =30)
Constants for Joint Stiffness Formula
Poiss ons
Modulus of
Elasticity, E, Numerical Constants
Material ratio, v GPa A
i
B
i
Steel
Aluminum
Copper
Gray cast iron
0. 291
0. 334
0. 326
0. 211
206. 8
71.0
118. 6
100. 0
0. 78715
0. 79670
0. 79568
0. 77871
0.62873
0.63816
0.63553
0.61616
Table 15.3 Constants used in joint stiffness formula [Eq. (15.26)] [From
Wileman et al (1991)]
Text Reference: Table 15.3, page 684
) (
, i
c i
L
d B
i
i i
i m
e A
d E
k
=
Gasketed Joint
6 3 s s
Nd
D
b
t
Figure 15.17 Threaded fastener with unconfined
gasket and two other members.
Text Reference: Figure 15.17, page 694
6 3 s s
Nd
D
b
t
(
(

+ +
+ +
=
) )( tan (
) )( tan (
ln 2
tan
c i c i f i
c i c i f i
f c i
ji
d d d d L
d d d d L
d E
k
o
o
o t
) (
, i
c i
L
d B
i
i i
i m
e A
d E
k
=
Strength of Bolts (Inches)
SAE grade
Range of
cres t
diameters,
in.
Ultimate
tensile
s trength, S
ut
,
ksi
Yield
strength, S
y
,
ksi
Proof
s trength, S
p
,
ks i
1
2
4
5
7
8
1/4 - 1 1/2
1/4 - 3/4
3/4-1 1/2
1/4 - 1 1/2
1/4 - 1
1 - 1 1/2
1/4 - 1 1/2
1/4 - 1 1/2
60
74
60
115
120
105
133
150
36
57
36
100
92
81
115
130
33
55
33
65
85
74
105
120
Table 15.4
Strength of steel bolts for various sizes in inches.
Text Reference: Table 15.4, page 687
Strength of Bolts (Millimeters)
Table 15.5
Strength of steel bolts for various sizes in millimeters.
Text Reference: Table 15.5, page 687
Metric grade
Crest
di ameter, d
c
,
mm
Ultimate
tensile
strength, S
ut
,
MPa
Yi eld
strength, S
y
,
MPa
Proof
strength, S
p
,
MPa
4.6
4.8
5.8
8.8
9.8
10.9
12.9
M5-M36
M1.6-M16
M5-M24
M17-M36
M1.6-M16
M6-M36
M1.6-M36
400
420
520
830
900
1040
1220
240
340
a
415
a
660
720
a
940
1100
225
310
380
600
650
830
970
aYield strength approximate and not included in standard.
Coarse and Fine Thread Dimensions
Coarse Threads (UNC) Fine Threads (UNF)
Crest
diameter,
d
c
, in.
Number of
threads per
inch, n
Tensile
stress area,
A
t
, in.
2
Number of
threads per
inch, n
Tensile
stress area,
A
t
, in.
2
0. 0600
0. 0730
0. 0860
0. 0990
0. 1120
0. 1250
0. 1380
0. 1640
0. 1900
0. 2160
0. 3500
0. 3125
0. 3750
0. 4735
0. 5000
0. 5625
0. 6250
0. 7500
0. 8750
1. 000
1. 125
1. 250
1. 375
1. 500
1. 750
2. 000
-
64
56
48
40
40
32
32
24
24
20
18
16
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
7
6
6
5
4 1/2
-
0. 00263
0. 00370
0. 00487
0. 00604
0. 00796
0. 00909
0. 0140
0. 0175
0. 0242
0. 0318
0. 0524
0. 0775
0. 1063
0. 1419
0. 182
0. 226
0. 334
0. 462
0. 606
0. 763
0. 969
1. 155
1. 405
1. 90
2. 50
80
72
64
56
48
44
40
36
32
28
28
24
24
20
20
18
18
16
14
12
12
12
12
12
-
-
0. 00180
0. 00278
0. 00394
0. 00523
0. 00661
0. 00830
0. 01015
0. 01474
0. 0200
0. 0258
0. 0364
0. 0580
0. 0878
0. 1187
0. 1599
0. 203
0. 256
0. 373
0. 509
0. 663
0. 856
1. 073
1. 315
1. 581
-
-
Table 15.6 Dimensions
and tensile stress areas for
UN coarse and fine
threads.
Text Reference: Table 15.6, page 687
Coarse and Fine Thread Dimensions - Metric
Table 15.7 Dimensions
and tensile stress areas for
metric coarse and fine
threads.
Text Reference: Table 15.7, page 69
Coarse Threads (MC) Fine Threads (MF)
Crest
diameter,
d
c
, mm
Pitch, p,
mm
Tensile
stress area,
A
t
, mm
2
Pitch, p,
mm
Tensile
stress area,
A
t
, mm
2
1
1. 6
2
2. 5
3
4
5
6
8
10
12
16
20
24
30
36
42
48
0. 25
0. 35
0. 4
0. 45
0. 5
0. 7
0. 8
1
1. 25
1. 5
1. 75
2
2. 5
3
3. 5
4
4. 5
5
0. 460
1. 27
2. 07
3. 39
5. 03
8. 78
14. 2
20. 1
36. 6
58. 0
84. 3
157
245
353
561
817
1121
1473
-
0. 20
. 25
. 35
. 35
. 5
. 5
. 75
1
1. 25
1. 25
1. 5
1. 5
2
2
3
-
-
-
1. 57
2. 45
3. 70
5. 61
9. 79
16. 1
22
39. 2
61. 2
92. 1
167
272
384
621
865
-
-
Ejercicio Cilindro hidralico
Un cilindro hidrulico de do=150mm y e=2mm sometido a Pi= 250 Kg/cm2 se ha de disear con
n=1(mnimo). Se embridan las piezas de acero, con una junta elstica. Determinar: tornillo a
colocar, calidad, pretensado considerando un 5% de relajacin y espesor de juntas. Atornillos=7%
At,junta
Roscas finas MF

Mtrica
rea
esfuerzo,
mm2
Material
disponible:
calidades
10 61.2 5.8,8.8, 9.8 y
10.9
12 92.1 L= 4 mm
16 167 0.5-1-2-3-4
20 272 Junta de
Cobre
Separation of Joint
Figure 15.15
Separation of joint.
Text Reference: Figure 15.15, page 690
Pretensado

Unin permanente: 0,9Fp
Unin desmontable: 0,75Fp

Fp, carga lmite
Cyclic Load
Figure 15.16 Forces versus deflection of bolt and joint as function of
time.
Text Reference: Figure 15.16, page 691
Cyclic Load
m a
y
e
u
i u
a
e
a
u m i m a
e a
a
a
S
n f luencia a
S
S
S
S
S
S
S S Goodman S S
P S AD
S
n
o o
o
o
o
+
=
+

=
= + =
= = =
/ _ _
1
) 1 ( :
0 / /
min ,
Grfica Lneas/puntos

L de carga: (s
i
,0) (sm sa)
L de rendimiento: (Sy,0) (0, Sy)
L de Goodman: (Se,0) (0, Su)
Factor Concentracin Fatiga
SAE grade
Metric
grade
Rolled
threads
Cut
threads
Fillet
0-2
4-8
3. 6-5. 8
6. 6-10. 9
2. 2
3. 0
2. 8
3. 8
2. 1
2. 3
Factor de concentracin de esfuerzos, incluye el factor
acabado superficial
Text Reference: Table 15.8, page 692
Kb y Kc,axial=1
Ejercicio Fatiga
Disear la junta atornillada que se situara al extremo de un recipiente tal que su
presin varia de 75 a 150 kg/cm2.

a) Pi y n, tal que a 160kg/cm2 acte como vlvula (suponiendo que no hay
fatiga).
b) causa de rotura con el Pi y tornillo anterior.
c) Dimetro de tornillo para evitar fatiga y n fatiga.

Datos: k1=0,153.Tornillo: Calidad 8.8 y 9.8. relajacin 5%.,Nt(15:25)
Failure Modes of Riveted Fasteners
Figure 15.18 Failure modes due to shear loading of riveted fasteners. (a)
Bending of member; (b) shear of rivet; (c) tensile failure of member; (e)
bearing of rivet on member or bearing of member on rivet.
Text Reference: Figure 15.18, page 695
Text Reference: Figure 15.19, page 697
Group of riveted fasteners used in Example 15.9. (a) centroid of rivet group Assembly; (b) radii from
centroid to center of rivets; (c) resulting triangles; (d) direct and torsional shear acting on each rivet; (e)
security beding factor (side view of member). (All dimensions are in inches.)
Example 15.9

A
=5/8
B
=7/8
Text Reference: Figure 15.19, page 697
Text Reference: Figure 15.19, page 697
Cortante debido a la torsin
0 3000 2 25 , 0 75 , 0 0 = + =
B A
P P M
DATOS Un paso para peatones se remacha a un puente de acero como se indica en la figura. La carga
mxima sobre el paso es equivalente a una carga de 3 000 N, localizada a 2 m del costado del puente de
acero por cada par de remaches. Se supone un factor de seguridad de 5.
HALLAR: El dimetro del remache que se necesita si los remaches estan hechos de acero AISI 1040.
Text Reference: Figure 15.20, page 699
25 , 0 75 , 0
B A
P P
=
Nota: las fuerzas de tensin
que actan sobre los dos
remaches son proporcionales a
la distancia desde el extremo
inferior de la mnsula
Cylinder End Cap Section
Figure 15.28 End cap of hydraulic cylinder for baler application.
Text Reference: Figure 15.28, page 717