Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 87

Internal

Principles of the WCDMA System


GSM-to-UMTS Training Series_V1.0
www.huawei.com

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Date 2008-10-25 2008-12-31

Version 1.0 1.1

Description Draft Completed. Updated the access technology in the latest products in page 8. Added the comparison of frequency computation between the GSM and the WCDMA in page 13. Added the comparison of encoding process in page 27. Added explanations about closed loop power control in page 66. Added explanations about handover in page 79.

Author Zang Liang Dong Qihuan

2009-01-14

1.11

Added information about EGSM/RGEM frequency bands in page 10. Added handover modes and interference modes to the major differences between the GSM and the UMTS in page 11. Added the method of computing frequencies at the EGSM/RGEM frequency bands in page 13. Added association control channels in page 47.

Kuang Jun

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 2

Objectives
After studying this course, you will be able to:

Know the similarities and differences between the GSM and the WCDMA technologies. Master the basic principles of the CDMA technology.

Master the structure and radio interfaces of the WCDMA system.


Master the principle of WCDMA radio resource management.

Know technical features of the WCDMA FDD.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 3

Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction: GSM and WCDMA Chapter 2 Overview of CDMA Principles Chapter 3 WCDMA Radio Interface Physical Channel Chapter 4 Overview of Radio Resource Management Chapter 5 Technical Features of WCDMA FDD

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 4

Evolution from GSM to WCDMA


GSM Mainly designed for the speech service Theoretical rate/actual rate: 64 kbit/s/9.6 kbit/s

GPRS

Supports higher data rates through the introduction of packet channels Theoretical rate/actual rate: 171.2 kbit/s/20 kbit/s-40 kbit/s With the introduction of new modulation mode, the theoretical rate is three times higher than that of the GPRS Theoretical rate/actual rate: about 473.6 kbit/s/100 kbit/s

EDGE

WCDMA
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Has the capability of high-speed data access and provide various services Theoretical rate/actual rate: R99 and R4: 2 Mbit/s/384 kbit/s R5 (HSDPA): 14.4 Mbit/s/1 Mbit/s higher
Huawei Confidential
Page 5

Multiple Access Technology - Distinguish Different Users


FDMA
Power

CDMA

TDMA

Power

Power

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 6

Comparison of Multiple Access Technology Between the GSM and the WCDMA
GSM: FDMA + TDMA
Bandwidth of a single carrier: 200 kHz Weak anti-interference capability. C/I: > 9 dB

WCDMA: FDMA + CDMA


Bandwidth of a single carrier: 5 MHz Strong anti-interference capability. C/I: > -8 dB

With eight timeslots for a single carrier, the system capacity is relatively fixed. It can be estimated according to the timeslot quantity.
Since different users occupy different timeslots, they rarely interfere with each other.

The capacity is not fixed (soft capacity), closely related to user distribution, service type, and interference.
Users interfere with each other. They must be well controlled.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 7

Comparison of Radio Access Technology Between the GSM and the WCDMA
GSM

Source coding

FR: RPELTP coding, 13 kbit/s EFR: enhancing the voice quality, 13 kbit/s HR: increasing the system capacity, 6.5 kbit/s AMR coding

Channel coding Channelization Modulation technology Power control technology

Convolutional code (1/2) Packed in the pulse mode, data is sent out in different timeslots. GMSK, 8PSK (EDGE) Slow power control (2 Hz)

WCDMA AMR: eight types of speech rates Compatible with the coding of current mainstream mobile communication systems, helpful for designing multimode terminals Provided with the traffic-adaptive capability: able to automatically adjust the speech rate so that the system can balance between the coverage, capacity, and speech quality Speech service: convolutional code (1/2 and 1/3) High-speed data service: Turbo code Through spread spectrum and scrambling, data is combined and outputted. QPSK, 16QAM (HSDPA) Fast power control (1500 Hz): used to restrain fading

Transmit diversity
Receiving technology (antifading)

Transmit diversity (BTS3012)


Space diversity and polarization diversity The effect similar to that of the frequency diversity can be realized through frequency hopping.

Transmit diversity
Space diversity and polarization diversity Frequency diversity: rake receiver
Page 8

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Comparison Between GSM and WCDMA Network Interfaces


GSM NSS
A Gb IuCS

WCDMA Core Network


IuPS

Iu RNS
Iur

BSS
BSC
Abis Abis

RNS
RNC
Iub

RNC
Iub Iub
Iub

BTS

BTS

Node B

Node B

Node B

Node B

Sector = Cell. One cell can include multiple carriers. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

One sector can include multiple cells. Cell = Carrier

Huawei Confidential

Page 9

Comparison Between GSM and WCDMA Protocols


GSM L3: BSSAP A/Iu-CS L2: MTP L1: E1 L3: RANAP L2: ATM L1: E1 or STM1 WCDMA

L3: BTSM
Abis/Iub L2: LAPD L1: E1 L3: RR L2 (data link layer): LAPDm

L3: NBAP
L2: ATM L1: E1 or STM1 RRC L2 (data link layer): RLC/MAC L1 (radio frequency band) (MHz):

Radio interface

Major frequency band: 1920-1980 / 2110-2170 L1 (radio frequency band) (MHz): 890-915/935-960 1710-1785/1805-1880 Supplementary frequency band: 17101785/1805-1880 (In China, only 30 MHz in the high frequency band serves as a supplementary frequency band.)

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 10

Major Differences Between WCDMA and GSM Air Interfaces


GSM Carrier spacing Frequency reuse coefficient 200 kHz 1-18 Frequency + BSIC 2 Hz or lower Network planning (frequency planning) 5 MHz 1 Frequency + Scrambling code 1500 Hz Algorithm of radio resource management The 3.84-MHz bandwidth enables the network to use the rake receiver for multipath diversity Packet scheduling based on loads Supported for increasing the capacity of downlinks WCDMA

Method for differentiating cells


Power control frequency QoS control

Frequency diversity

Frequency hopping
Timeslot-based scheduling in the GPRS Not supported by the standards but applicable

Packet data Downlink transmit diversity

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 11

Allocation of 3G Spectrum
1850 1900 1950 2000
2010 MHz

2050

2100

2150

2200

2250

ITU
1885 MHz

IMT 2000
GSM 1800 DECT
1805 MHz
cellular(1)

MSS 2025 MHz

IMT 2000
2110 MHz

MSS

2170 MHz

Europe

UMTS
cellular(2)

MSS 1980 MHz


2025 MHz

UMTS

MSS

1880 MHz
cellular(2) CDMA
1865

China

GSM 1800

FDD TDD WLL WLL


1920 1945

CDMA

FDD WLL
1960 1980

1885

1895

1918

2170 MHz

Japan
1865 1870

C PHS

IMT A 2000
1945 1965 1970 1975 1930

MSS

IMT A. 2000

MSS

1885 1890 1895

1910

1990 MHz

2165 MHz Broadcast auxiliary Reserve MSS

USA

PCS
A D B EF C A D B EF C

MSS

1850

1900

1950

2000

2050

2100

2150

2200

2250

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 12

Comparison of Frequency Computation Between the WCDMA and the GSM


Computing WCDMA frequencies
Main working bands: 19201980 MHz/21102170 MHz Formula for computing WCDMA frequencies: Frequency number = Frequency x 5 Central frequency number of uplink: 96129888 Central frequency number of downlink: 1056210838 Supplementary working bands: 17551785 MHz/18501880 MHz The currently existing GSM frequency bands of China Mobile and China Union can be used for the WCDMA later.
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Computing GSM frequencies


GSM900: BS reception: f1 (n) = 890 + n x 0.2 MHz BS transmission: f2 (n) = f1 (n) + 45 MHz GSM1800: BS reception: f1 (n) = 1710 + (n 511) x 0.2 MHz BS transmission: f2 (n) = f1 (n) + 95 MHz

Huawei Confidential

Page 13

Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction: GSM and WCDMA Chapter 2 Overview of CDMA Principles Chapter 3 WCDMA Radio Interface Physical Channel Chapter 4 Overview of Radio Resource Management

Chapter 5 Technical Features of WCDMA FDD

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 14

Overview of CDMA Principles

Radio Propagation Environment Multiple Access Technology and

Duplex Technology
CDMA Principles and Rake Receiver

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 15

Multipath Environment
Tx signals

Rx signals Intensity Time

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 16

Fading

Tx data

Rx data
0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40

dB

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 17

Fading
Rx power (dBm) -20

Fast fading Slow fading

-40

-60

10
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

20
Huawei Confidential

30
Page 18

Distance (m)

Frequency-Selective Fading
Intensity Intensity

Narrowband system (GSM)


Tx signals

Large fading

Frequency
Rx fading signals

Frequency

Intensity

Intensity

Broadband system (CDMA)

Large fading Frequency Tx signals Rx fading signals Frequency

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 19

Classification of Typical Radio Mobile Channels


Static channels (static) Pedestrian channels in typical urban areas (TU3) Vehicle-mounted channels in typical urban areas (TU30) Vehicle-mounted channels in rural areas (RA50) Vehicle-mounted channels on expressways (HT120)

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 20

Overview of CDMA Principles

Radio Propagation Environment Multiple Access Technology and

Duplex Technology
CDMA Principles and Rake Receiver

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 21

Duplex Technology Distinguish Users UL and DL Signal


Frequency division duplex (FDD): Distinguish uplink and downlink according to

frequencies.
Adopted by the WCDMA and CDMA2000
Advantage: It can be easily implemented. Disadvantage: The spectrum utilization is low when the uplink and downlink services (mainly the data services) are asymmetrical.
Time division duplex (TDD): Distinguish uplink and downlink according to timeslots.

Adopted by the TD-SCDMA Advantage: The uplink and downlink can be allocated with different numbers of timeslots when the uplink and downlink services are asymmetrical. Therefore, the spectrum utilization is high. Disadvantage: It cannot be easily implemented and needs precise synchronization. In the CDMA system, GPS synchronization is needed.

When it is used with the CDMA technology, it is difficult to control interference between the uplink and the downlink.
Huawei Confidential
Page 22

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)


Multiple users share a same frequency at the same time. This greatly

improves spectrum utilization. Users are identified through pseudo numbers.


The CDMA system supports soft capacity.

For all the users, the system performance deteriorates when the number of users increases. Contrarily, the system performance improves when the number of users decreases. That is, the CDMA system can obtain larger capacity by deteriorating parts of the system performance.
Disadvantages of the CDMA system:

It occupies a wide bandwidth. It is a self-interference system. This causes mutual interference between users.

It is difficult to implement such technologies as power control and load control.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 23

Overview of CDMA Principles

Radio Propagation Environment Multiple Access Technology and

Duplex Technology
CDMA Principles and Rake Receiver

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 24

Common Terms
Bit, symbol and chip

Bit (bit/s): the data that is obtained upon source coding and contains information. Symbol (sps): the data obtained upon channel coding and interleaving. Chip (cps): the data obtained upon final spreading.
The spreading rate of WCDMA is: 3.84 Mcps

Processing gain

It refers to the ratio of the final spreading rate to the bit rate (cps/bit/s).

In the WCDMA system, the processing gain depends on the specific service.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 25

Spreading Factor and Service Rate


Symbol rate = (service rate + check code) channel code

repetition or punching rate


For WCDMA, if the service rate is 384 Kbit/s and the channel code is 1/3 Turbo, the symbol rate is 960 Kbit/s. For CDMA2000-1x, if the service rate is 9.6 Kbit/s and the channel code is 1/3 convolutional code, the symbol rate is 19.2 Kbit/s.
Chip rate = symbol rate spreading factor

For WCDMA, if the chip rate is 3.84 MHz and the spreading factor is 4, the symbol rate is 960 Kbit/s.

For CDMA2000-1x, if the chip rate is 1.2288 MHz and the spreading factor is 64, the symbol rate is 19.2 Kbit/s.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 26

Basic Block Diagram of CDMA System

Source coding

Channel Interleaving coding and interleaving

Spreading

Scrambling

Modulation

RF emission

Radio channel

Source decoding

Dedeinterleaving interleaving RF De-spreading Descrambling Demodulation Channel reception decoding

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 27

Source Coding in WCDMA


The WCDMA system adopts the adaptive multi-rate (AMR) speech coding.

A total of eight coding modes are available. The coding rate ranges from 12.2 Kbit/s to 4.75 Kbit/s.
Multiple voice rates are compatible with the coding modes used by current mainstream mobile communication systems. This facilitates the design of multimode terminals. The system automatically adjusts the voice rate according to the distance between the user and the NodeB, thus reducing the number of handovers and call drop. The system automatically decreases the voice rate of some users according to the cell load, thus saving power and containing more users.

Source coding

Interleaving Spreading coding and


interleaving

Channel

Scrambling Modulation

RF emission

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 28

Channel Coding in WCDMA


Channel coding can enhance symbol correlation to recover signals in

the case of interference.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Code type

Voice service: convolutional code (1/2 and 1/3). Data service: Turbo code (1/3).

Source coding

Interleaving coding and Spreading


interleaving

Channel

Scrambling

Modulation

RF emission

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 29

Interleaving
Interleaving is used to disarrange symbol correlation and reduce the impact

caused by fast fading and interference of the channel. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ...


Ist interleaving A4 A5 A6 A7 B0 1 9 17 25 . . B1 2 10 18 26 . . B2 3 11 19 27 . . B3 4 12 20 28 . . B4 5 13 21 29 . . B5 6 14 22 30 . . B6 7 15 23 31 . . B7 8 16 24 32 . . C0 C1 C2 C3

... 452 453 454

....

....

449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456


2nd interleaving

{A4,B0}

{A5,B1} {A6,B2} {A7,B3} {B4,C0}

{B5,C1}

{B6,C2}

{B7,C3}

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 30

Spreading Principle
Users who need to send information: UE1, UE2 and UE3

UE1 uses c1 for spreading: UE1 x c1 UE2 uses c2 for spreading: UE2 x c2 UE3 uses c3 for spreading: UE3 x c3 c1, c2 and c3 are orthogonal to each other
Information sent: UE1 x c1 + UE2 x c2 + UE3 x c3

Source coding

Interleaving Spreading coding and


interleaving

Channel

Scrambling

Modulation

RF emission

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 31

De-spreading Principle

UE1 uses c1 for de-spreading.


(UE1 x c1 + UE2 x c2 + UE3 x c3) x c1
= UE1 x (c1 x c1) + UE2 x (c2 x c1) + UE3 x (c3 x c1) = UE1 x 1 + UE2 x 0 + UE3 x 0 = UE1

In the same way, UE2 uses c2 for de-spreading and UE3 uses c3 for de-spreading to get their own signals.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 32

Spreading and De-spreading (DS-CDMA)


Symbol

Data

1 -1 Chip

Spreading
1 -1

Spreading code

Spreading signal = Data x Code word

1 -1

Despreading
Spreading code
1 -1 Data = Spreading signal x Code word 1 -1

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 33

Spreading Principle
____________ UE1: UE2: c1: c2: UE1c1: UE2c2: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 _____________ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

UE1c1 UE2c2:

0 2 0 2

0 2 0 2

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 34

De-spreading Principle
UE1c1 UE2c2
UE1 de-spreading with c1: De-spreading result: Integral: Decision: UE2 de-spreading with c2: De-spreading result: Integral: Decision :

-2 0

-2 -1 +2

0 +1 0

+2 0 +2 -1 +1 -1 -2 0 -4 -4/4 = -1 -2

+1 -1 +1 0 +2 0 +4 +4/4 = +1

+1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 0 -2 -4 -4/4 = -1 0 -2 0 +2 0 +2 +4 +4/4 = +1

Question: How to generate those orthogonal codes like c1 and c2?


HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential
Page 35

If error codes occur in the propagation process


UE1 c1 + UE2 c2: 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 1 2 0 2

UE1 c1 + UE2 c2 error code: 2 2 0 2

UE1 uses c1 for de-spreading: c1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1


De-spreading result: Integral detection: Normalization: 2 2 0 2 6 +6/4=1.5 0 2 0 2 4 - 4/4= -1

UE1 uses c2 for de-spreading: c2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 De-spreading result: Integral detection: 2 2 0 2 2 0 2 0 2 4

Normalization:

2/4=0.5

4/4=1

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 36

OVSF and Walsh


Cch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1) Cch,2,0 = (1,1) Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1) Cch,1,0 = (1) Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1) Cch,2,1 = (1,-1) Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1) SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4

OVSF codes (Walsh) are completely orthogonal and their mutual correlation is zero.
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential
Page 37

Use of OVSF Code


Over downlink channels, OVSF codes are used to differentiate users. Over uplink channels, OVSF codes are used to differentiate the services

of a user.
Typical Service AMR Modem 28.8 kbit/s 12.2 kbit/s AMR and 64 kbit/s packet data 12.2 kbit/s AMR and 144 kbit/s packet data 12.2 kbit/s AMR and 384 kbit/s packet data Data Rate (bit/s) 12.2 + 3.4 28.8 + 3.4 Downlink SF 128 64 Uplink SF 64 32

12.2 + 64 + 3.4
12.2 + 144 + 3.4 12.2+384+3.4

32
16 8

16
8 4

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 38

Scrambling in the WCDMA System

Downlink: Different cells (sector carrier frequencies) have different downlink scrambling codes.
Each cell is configured with a unique downlink scrambling code. The UE identifies a cell based on the scrambling code.
OVSF codes are used to differentiate different users in a cell.

Uplink: Scrambles are used to differentiate different users.


In a cell, each user is configured with a unique uplink scrambling code. OVSF codes are used to differentiate the services of a user.

Source coding

Interleaving Spreading coding and


interleaving

Channel

Scrambling

Modulation

RF emission

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 39

WCDMA Scrambling Code: G old Sequence


Over downlink channels, OVSF codes are used to differentiate

users. There are 224 uplink long scrambling codes and 224 uplink short scrambling codes.
Over downlink channels, scrambling codes are used to differentiate

cells (sectors/carriers). There are (218 - 1 = ) 262143 scrambling codes on the downlink. Currently, however, only the primary scrambling codes in the

scrambling codes from No.0 to No.8191 are used.


A scrambling code is repeated every 10 ms. It is 38400 chips long.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 40

Primary and Secondary Scrambling Codes


Primary scrambling code 0

Secondary scrambling code 1

8192 scrambling codes

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Downlink scrambling code

Set 0
Set 1 Set 511

Secondary scrambling code 15

Primary scrambling code 51116

Secondary scrambling code 511161

512 sets Secondary scrambling code 5111615

Each set contains 1 primary scrambling code and 15 secondary scrambling codes.

Currently, the system mainly uses primary scrambling codes.


Huawei Confidential
Page 41

Primary Scrambling Codes and Scrambling Code Groups Primary scrambling


code 0 Primary scrambling code 1

512 scrambling codes

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Downlink scrambling code

Group 0
Group 1 Group 63

Primary scrambling code 7

Primary scrambling code 504

Primary scrambling code 505

64 groups

Primary scrambling code 511

Each group contains eight scrambling codes, one of which is the primary scrambling code.

Scrambling code planning in the network planning is to plan and allocate the 512 primary scrambling codes.
Huawei Confidential
Page 42

Spreading/De-spreading Principle Explanations for Frequency Domain


Eb/No = Ec/Io Gain
Power spectrum

a2Tbit = Ebit Eb/No required Allowed maximum interference level

Gain

Power sharable for all users

Other user interference signals

Echip

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 43

Spectrum Change in CDMA


Spreading code P(f) P(f)

f Broadband signal f Narrowband signal Noise f P (f)

Separation of signals and noise P (f)

Signal combination f Spreading code

Noise + broadband signal P (f)

The CDMA broadband spreading technology effectively avoids frequency-selective fading of radio channels.
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential
Page 44

Rake Receiver
Receiving path 1

Receiving path 2 Front-end receiver Receiving path 3

Signal synthesizer

Consolidate signals

Delay estimator

Compute delay and phase deflection

s(t)

s(t)

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 45

Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction: GSM and WCDMA Chapter 2 Overview of CDMA Principles Chapter 3 WCDMA Radio Interface Physical Channel Chapter 4 Overview of Radio Resource Management Chapter 5 Technical Features of WCDMA FDD

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 46

Mapping of Channel Function Between the GSM and the WCDMA


GSM FCCH: frequency correction channel

Cell SCH: synchronization channel search BCCH: broadcast control channel

Paging PCH: paging channel Uplink: RACH: random access channel SDCCH: stand-alone dedicated control channel Access Downlink: AGCH: access grant channel SDCCH: standalone dedicated control channel Speech TCH: traffic channel service Data PDCH: packet data channel service HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

WCDMA (P)CPICH: (Primary) common pilot channel SCH: s ynchronization channel, but has different functions from that in the GSM system P-CCPCH: primary common control physical channel PICH: page indicator channel, helpful for power saving on a terminal S-CCPCH: secondary common control physical channel Uplink: PRACH: physical random access channel Downlink: AICH: acquisition indication channel S-CCPCH: secondary common control physical channel DPDCH: dedicated physical data control channel DPDCH: d edicated physical data control channel HS-PDSCH: high-speed physical downlink shared channel HS-SCCH: high-speed shared control channel HS-DPCCH: high-speed dedicated control channel
Page 47

Huawei Confidential

Classification of WCDMA Channels


In terms of protocol layer, the WCDMA radio interface has three

channels: Logical channel: Carrying user services directly


According to the types of the carried services, it is divided into two types: control channel and service channel.

Transport channel : Provided service for MAC layer by the physical layer
According to whether the information transported is dedicated information for a user or common information for all users, it is divided into dedicated channel and common channel.

Physical channel: It is the final form of all kinds of information when they are transmitted on radio interfaces.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 48

Logical Channels
Broadcast Control Channel BCCH Paging control channel Dedicate control channel (PCCH) (DCCH)

CCH

Common control channel

(CCCH)

Dedicated traffic channel Common traffic channel

(DTCH) (CTCH)

TCH

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 49

Transport Channels
Dedicated Channel (DCH)

-DCH can be uplink or downlink channel

Dedicated transport channel

Broadcast channel Forward access channel Paging channel Random access channel

(BCH) (FACH) (PCH) (RACH) Common transport channel

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 50

Physical Channels
Physical channels are divided into uplink and down physical channels.
A physical channel can be determined by a carrier, codes (channel code and

scrambling code), and a phase. Most channels consist of radio frames and timeslots. Each radio frame has 10 ms and consists of 15 timeslots.

Data
The timeslot concept in the WCDMA system differs greatly from that in the GSM system.
Timeslot 0 Timeslot 1

Data T timeslot = 2560 chips

Timeslot i

Timeslot 14

T = 10 ms, 38400 chips

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 51

Uplink Physical Channel


Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel Uplink Dedicated Physical Data Channel (Uplink DPDCH) Uplink Dedicated Physical Control Channel (uplink DPCCH) Uplink Physical Channel

Uplink Common Physical Channel Physical Random Access Channel

(PRACH)

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 52

Downlink Physical Channel


Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (downlink DPCH)

Downlink Common Physical Channel Common Control Physical Channel (CCPCH) Synchronization Channel (SCH) Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) Downlink Physical Channel

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 53

Configuration Example of Downlink Physical Channel


SCH 0,1
SF 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 Pilot channel (PICH) C(256,0):PCPICH 2 0 Used to bear broadcast C(256,1):PCCPCH 3 channels (BCHs) 0 C(256,2): AICH 6 1 C(256,3): PICH 10 0 C(64,1):SCCPCH 8 Used to bear forward 0 access channels C(64,2):SCCPCH 9 (FACHs) and paging 1 channels (PCHs) 3 0 1 Allocated to dedicated 0 physical channels 1 (DPCHs) in real time 1 2 3

Synchronization channel (SCH)

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 54

Functions of Physical Channels


Cell broadcast channel (CBCH) P-CPICH: primary common pilot channel S-CPICH: secondary common pilot channel P-CCPCH: primary common control physical channel SCH: synchronization channel Paging channel (PCH) S-CCPCH: secondary common control physical channel PICH: paging indicator channel Random access channel (RACH) PRACH: physical random access channel

User equipment (UE)

NodeB (BS)

AICH: a cquisition indication channel


Dedicated access channel

DPDCH: d edicated physical data channel


DPCCH: dedicated physical control channel High-speed downlink shared channel HS-SCCH: high-speed shared control channel HS-PDSCH: high-speed physical downlink shared channel HS-DPCCH: high-speed dedicated control channel

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 55

Functions of Common Physical Channels


SCH: used for cell search

Divided into P-SCH and S-SCH


CPICH: used to identify scrambling codes

Divided into P-CPICH and S-CPICH P-CPICH: Their channel codes are fixed to be Cch,256,0. They use primary scrambling codes. P-CPICH is the power benchmark of other physical downlink channels. S-CPICH: used for smart antennas
P-CCPCH: used to carry system messages

channel codes are fixed to be Cch,256,1.


Each cell must be configured with all these channels, but only

one for each type.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 56

Functions of Common Physical Channels


S-CCPCH: used to carry downlink signaling messages PICH: used to carry paging indicators. A PICH must be configured

with an S-CCPCH as a pair.


PRACH: used to carry uplink signaling messages

The interval for timeslot access is 5120 chips, indicating that the maximum coverage radius of a WCDMA BS is 200 km.
AICH: used to carry acquisition indications of PRACH prefix. An

AICH must be configured with a PRACH as a pair.


Each cell must be configured with all these channels, at least

one for each type.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 57

Functions of Dedicated Physical Channels


DPDCH: used to carry users' service data. The maximum data rate of a

single code channel is 384 kbit/s.


DPCCH: used to carry control information, and provide control data

such as demodulation and power control for DPDCHs


On the uplink, DPDCHs and DPCCHs transmit signals over different

code channels. On the downlink, DPDCHs and DPCCHs transmit signals in the mode of time multiplexing.
When the required data rate is higher than the maximum data rate of a

single code channel, the system can use multiple code channels for transmission.
Maximum uplink data rate: 384 kbit/s x 6 code channels Maximum downlink data rate: 384 kbit/s x 7 code channels

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 58

Mapping Between Logical Channels and Transport Channels


Logical Channels
CCCH (uplink) DCCH/DTCH (uplink) BCCH (downlink) PCCH (downlink) CCCH/CTCH (downlink) DCCH/DTCH (downlink)

Transport Channels
RACH RACH DCH BCH PCH FACH DCH FACH

DTCH (downlink)

HS-DSCH

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 59

Mapping Between Transport Channels and Physical Channels


Transport Channels
DCH RACH

Physical Channels
Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)

BCH
FACH PCH

Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH)


Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) Synchronization Channel (SCH) Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) Paging Indicator Channel (PICH)

HS-DSCH PDSCH)

High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-

HS-DSCH-related Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH)


Dedicated Physical Control Channel (uplink) for Hs-DSCH HS-DPCCH

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 60

Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction: GSM and WCDMA Chapter 2 Overview of CDMA Principles Chapter 3 WCDMA Radio Interface Physical Channel Chapter 4 Overview of Radio Resource Management

Chapter 5 Technical Features of WCDMA FDD

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 61

Overview of Radio Resource Management


RRMRadio Resource Management Since the WCDMA system is a self-interference system, the use of

power is incompatible in WCDMA system.


On one hand, increasing the Tx power for a user can improve the quality of service (QoS) of this user.

On the other hand, as WCDMA is self interference system, power enhancement will interfere other user and make the reception quality worse. .
Power is a final radio resource. The only way to make radio resources

utility is to strictly control the use of power.


The RRM is to manage the power by combining QoS objectives.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 62

Purposes of RRM
The RRM is intended to:
Ensure the QoS requested by the CN
Enhance the system coverage Improve the system capacity

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 63

Tasks of RRM
Channel configuration: To ensure the QoS requested by the CN, the

RRM maps the QoS into some features of the access stratum and thus uses the resources at the access stratum to serve the local connection.
Power control: When the QoS requested by the CN is ensured, the RRM

minimizes the Tx power of a UE to reduce the interference of this UE to the entire system, and to improve the system capacity and coverage.
Mobility management: The RRM maintains the QoS when a UE moves. Load control: After a certain number of UEs access to the system, the

RRM must ensure that the load of the entire system retains at a stable level to ensure the QoS of each connection in the system.

QoS assurance and power saving run through the entire RRM.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 64

Power ControlNear-Far Effect


The CDMA has not been put into commercial use in a large scale

since it was put forward. That is because it cannot overcome the near-far effect.
One UE can congest an entire cell All other signals are overwhelmed by the signals of a UE closest to the BS. Communications fail.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 65

Purpose and Classification of Power Control


Owing to the near-far effect, the WCDMA system must introduce power

control. In addition, power control can also bring many other benefits:
Adjust the transmit power to maintain the uplink and downlink communication quality. Overcome slow and fast fading. Reduce network interference and improve the system quality and capacity.
Power control is classified into:

Open loop power control Closed loop power control - Uplink and downlink inner loop power control

- Uplink and downlink outer loop power control

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 66

Principles of Open Loop Power Control


Basic principle

Suppose the coupling loss between the transmit power and the received power is the same as the interference level between them. Use the previouslymeasured received power to determine the initial transmit power. If the BS fails to receive the initial transmit power, there is a retransmission mechanism for improving the power.
Basic function

To overcome slow fading and path loss


Major disadvantage

Asymmetry between the wave power of the uplink and downlink channels is not considered, so accuracy cannot be guaranteed.
Major application

Uplink: applied to PRACHs and DPCCHs Downlink: applied to DPCCHs

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 67

Principles of Open Loop Power Control


Principles of setting initial transmit power
CPICH _ RSCP CPICH _ Pow PLDL ............................(1) X _ EcNo X _ Pow PLUL InterferenceUL ....................(2) Suppose the uplink and downlink path losses are the same: PLDL PLUL ....................(3) X _ Pow CPICH _ Pow CPICH _ RSCP InterferenceUL X _ EcNo

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 68

Open Loop Power Control over the PRACH


BCH: Transmit power of CPICH UL interference level

RACH NodeB
The open loop power control is intended to roughly estimate the initial transmit power. It estimates the path loss and interference level according to measurement results, and thus calculates the initial transmit power.

UE
The UE measures the received power of the CPICH and calculates the initial uplink transmit power.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 69

Open Loop Power Control over the PRACH


One access slot AICH access slots RX at UE
Acq. Ind.

p-a
PRACH access slots TX at UE
Preamble Preamble Message part

p-p

p-m

Access process of the PRACH: A UE transmits a PRACH preamble signal over the PRACH. After a BS successfully captures the preamble signal, the BS responds with an AI over the downlink AICH. If the UE receives the AI signal, the UE transmits a PRACH message. If the UE fails to receive the AI signal at the time point pa, the UE will increase the power and transmit next preamble signal after a certain time p-p. The UE will continue such an action over and over until it receives the AI signals.
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential
Page 70

Open Loop Power Control over the PRACH


Method for setting the transmit power of the first preamble signal over the uplink PRACH:
Preamble_Initial_Power = PCPICH DL TX power - CPICH_RSCP + UL interference + Constant Value
Note: The PCPICH DL TX power, UL Interference, and Constant Value are delivered in system messages. The CPICH_RSCP is measured by the UE.

In the early stage of network construction, the coverage is limited, so the Constant Value can be set to a larger value (-16 dB or -15dB). In this way, the network can receive the preamble signals sent by the UE in time. In addition, the parameter Power Ramp Step can also be set to a larger value to increase the network probability of capturing preamble signals. Default settings:
Constant Value: -20 dB PowerRampStep: 2 dB

PreambleRetransMax: 20

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 71

Open Loop Power Control over the Uplink DPCCH


Method for setting the initial power of the uplink DPCCH:
DPCCH_Initial_power = DPCCH_Power_offset - CPICH_RSCP
Note: The CPICH_RSCP is measured by a UE. The DPCCH_Power_offset is the offset of the initial transmit power of the DPCCH. The RNC allocates it to a UE at the beginning of an RRC connection setup. The formula for computing it is as follows:

DPCCH_Power_offset = Primary CPICH DL TX power + UL Interference + Default Constant Value


In the formula,
the Primary CPICH DL TX power is the downlink transmit power of the P-CPICH. The UL interference is the uplink interference. The Default Constant Value is the default constant value of the initial transmit power of the DPCCH.

Understanding
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential
Page 72

Open Loop Power Control over the Downlink DPCCH


Method for setting the initial power of the downlink DPCCH:

P = (Ec/Io) Req - CPICH_Ec/Io + PCPICH


Note: The (Ec/Io) Req is the required Ec/Io for a UE to correctly receive the dedicated
channel. The CPICH_Ec/Io is the Ec/Io of the CPICH measured by the UE, and it is reported to the UTRAN through the RACH. The PCPICH is the transmit power of the CPICH.

Understanding
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential
Page 73

Uplink Inner Loop Power Control


Measure SIRsof received signals and compare them 1500 Hz

Inner loop Send TPC bits Set SIRtar

NodeB
The inner loop power control is intended to ensure equal bit energy for each UE signal received at the NodeB.

UE

Each UE has its own control loop.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 74

Uplink Inner Loop Power Control


Measure the BLER over the transport channel Obtain the service data with a stable BLER Measure BLERs of received data and compare them Measure SIRsof received signals and compare them

Outer loop
Set SIRtar Set SIRtar 10-100Hz RNC NodeB

Inner loop Send TPC bits

UE

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 75

Downlink Inner Loop Power Control


Measure BLERs and compare them Layer 3 of the UE

Outer loop

1500 Hz

10-100 Hz Set SIRtar

Send TPC
Inner loop

NodeB

Measure SIRs and compare them

Physical layer of the UE

Downlink inner loop and outer loop power control

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 76

Power Control Application in the WCDMA System


Physical Channel
PRACH DPCCH DPDCH PCPICH PCCPCH SCCPCH AICH PICH

Open Loop Power Control


Inner Closed Loop

Outer Closed Loop

No Power Control

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 77

MML Commands Related to Power Control

MML commands related to open loop power control:


ADD PRACHBASIC

SET FRC

MMLcommands related to inner loop power control:


SET FRC

ADD CELLSETUP

MML commands related to outer loop power control:


ADD TYPRABOLPC SET OLPC

MMLcommands related to power balance:


SET DPB

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 78

Classification of WCDMA Handover


Soft handover:

Soft handover Softer handover


Hard handover:

Intra-frequency hard handover Inter-frequency hard handover Inter-system handover

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 79

Soft Handover

Data received/ sent by the UE

Source BS

Target BS

The UE moves

Time
Data received/ sent by the UE
No GAP of communication

Source BS

Target BS

The UE moves

Time

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 80

Hard Handover
Data received/ sent by the UE Source BS Target BS

The UE moves Data received/ sent by the UE


Source BS

Time
GAP of communication

Target BS

The UE moves

Time

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 81

Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction: GSM and WCDMA Chapter 2 Overview of CDMA Principles Chapter 3 WCDMA Radio Interface Physical Channel Chapter 4 Overview of Radio Resource Management

Chapter 5 Technical Features of WCDMA FDD

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 82

Technical Specifications of WCDMA FDD


BS synchronous mode: supports asynchronous and synchronous BS operation Signal bandwidth: 5 MHz; chip rate: 3.84 Mcps Transmit diversity mode: TSTD, STTD, and FBTD Channel coding: convolutional code and Turbo code Modulation mode: QPSK for both the uplink and the downlink Power control: uplink and downlink closed and open loop power control Demodulation mode: coherence demodulation assisted by pilots

Speech coding: AMR

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 83

Speech Evolution of the WCDMA System


Adopts AMR speech coding and supports the voice quality of 4.75

kbit/s to 12.2 kbit/s


Adopts soft handover and transmit diversity to improve the capacity Provides high-fidelity voice modes Supports fast power control

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 84

Data Evolution of the WCDMA System


Supports up to 14.4 Mbit/s data services (HSDPA) Supports packet switching Evolves from the ATM platform to All-IP gradually Provides QoS control Better supports Internet packet services (HSDPA) through the CPCH

and DSCH.
Provides mobile IP services (dynamic assignment of IP addresses)
Determines dynamic data rates provided by the TFCI domain. Provides high quality support for symmetric uplink and downlink data

services, including the voice, videophone, and video conference.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 85

Summary

This course introduces the WCDMA system briefly. The course contents include the basic key technologies of

mobile communication systems, basic principles of the CDMA system, and the FDD mode of the WCDMA system.
After studying this course, you can have a general

understanding of the 3G system, thus make a good foundation for further study.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Page 86

Thank you!
www.huawei.com