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Learning & Knowledge Education - India

Day 2
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Learning & Knowledge Education - India

JavaScript
2007 IBM Corporation

Learning & Knowledge Education - India

Objectives

Introduction to JavaScript
Introduction to JavaScript programming language Using Script tag Inserting Java Script into tags Linking Java Script from separate files

JavaScript expression and Operators


Defining and naming variables Data Types Expression Operators Arithmetic, String, Logical, Assignment, typeof

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Objectives (Contd.)

Functions and Flow Control


Flow Control Ifelse For loops while loops Break and continue statements Using JavaScript functions Built in functions User defined functions Returning values from functions Events, Event Handlers
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Objectives (Contd.)

Objects and Arrays


Properties and Methods Browser Object Hierarchy Addressing Objects Creating Objects Objects and Variables External Objects Security Implications Arrays and Objects

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Objectives (Contd.)

Document Object Model


Introduction to DOM The Navigator Object The Window Object Communicating between windows Working With Frames in the DOM The Document object The Location & History Object Image Object Link Object

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Objectives (Contd.)

Form Validation The Form Object Model


Recap of Form Elements Form Tag Events Controlling Submission Forms as Navigation List Events Buttons Text Processing

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Objectives (Contd.)

Cookies
Introduction to HTTP Cookies Formatting Cookies Persisting Cookies Cookie Security JavaScript & Cookies Reading / Writing Cookies Modifying and deleting Cookies

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Introduction To JavaScript
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Introduction to Java Scripts

What is JavaScript???
JavaScript is a scripting Language created by Netscape Scripting Language is a lightweight programming language. Scripting Languages are not needed to be compiled. The language is interpreted at runtime.

What is a Scripting Language???

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Introduction to JavaScript (Contd.)


A JavaScript is usually directly embedded in an HTML page.
External JavaScripts can be created which can be used by HTML pages. JavaScript adds interactivity to HTML pages.

JavaScript's are integrated into the browsing environment.

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Introduction to JavaScript (Contd.)


Java is a programming
Is JavaScript same as Java???
language which requires compilation and interpretation.

Java is used to make large


scale applications.

JavaScript is a scripting
language which just requires interpretation. The script is some set of commands which the browser interprets.

JavaScript is used to add


interactivity in HTML Pages.
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Types of JavaScript

Client-Side JavaScript (CSJS) -- an extended


version of JavaScript that enables the enhancement and manipulation of web pages and client browsers.

Server-Side JavaScript (SSJS) -- an extended


version of JavaScript that enables back-end access to databases, file systems, and servers.

Core JavaScript -- the base JavaScript language.

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Core JavaScript

Core JavaScript encompasses all of the statements,


operators, objects, and functions that make up the basic JavaScript language.

The following objects are part of core JavaScript:


array date math

number
string

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Client Side Java Scripting

CSJS is composed of core JavaScript and many


additional objects, such as the following: document form frame window Navigator History

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Server Side JavaScript

SSJS is composed of core JavaScript and additional


objects and functions for accessing databases and file systems, sending e-mail, and so on.

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Uses of JavaScript (Client Side)

Menus for Navigation Form Validation Popup Windows Password Protecting Math Functions Special effects with document and background Status bar manipulation Messages Mouse Cursor Effects Links
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Test Your Understanding

Client Side JavaScript ________________ is an extended version of JavaScript that enables the enhancement and manipulation of web pages and client browsers Server Side JavaScript Core JavaScript

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Test Your Understanding

Client Side JavaScript ________________ is an extended version of JavaScript that enables the enhancement and manipulation of web pages and client browsers Server Side JavaScript Core JavaScript

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Syntax rules of JavaScript

Statements may or may not contain a semicolon at the


end.

Multiple statements on one line must be separated by


a semicolon.

JavaScript is case sensitive.

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Using <script> tag


The HTML <script> tag is used to enter JavaScript into a HTML. The <script> tag can be embedded within
<head> tag. <body> tag.

JavaScript in the head section will be executed when called. JavaScript in the body section will be executed while the HTML
page is loaded.

Unlimited number of JavaScripts can be placed both in head and


body section in a HTML document.

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Using <script> tag


Eg:
<html> <head><title>Example</title> </head>

<body>
<script type="text/javascript"> document.write("Hello World!") </script> </body> </html>
Is a standard command for writing output to a page

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How to Handle Older Browsers

Browsers that do not support JavaScript will display


the script as it is. Use the HTML comment tag to prevent this. Eg. <script type="text/javascript"> <!--

document.write("Hello World!")
// --> </script>
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The two forward slashes at the end of comment line (//) are a JavaScript comment symbol. This prevents the JavaScript compiler from compiling the line.
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Using an External JavaScript

A JavaScript can be written in an external file, which


can be used by different HTML pages.

The external script cannot contain the <script> tag. The external file needs to end with the .js extension.

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Using External JavaScript (contd.)


document.write("This line has been writen in the External JavaScript!!!") External.js <html> <head><title>Example</title> </head> <body> <script src="External.js"> </script>> <p > This line has been written in the html page!!! </p> </body> </html> JavaScript.html
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Test Your Understanding

Select the Correct Statement/s

<script></script> is embedded within <head> </head>

<script></script is embedded
within <body></body>

<script></script> is embedded within <title></title>

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Test Your Understanding

Select the Correct Statement/s

<script></script> is embedded within <head> </head>

<script></script is embedded
within <body></body>

<script></script> is embedded within <title></title>

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JavaScript Operators & Expressions


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JavaScript Variables and expression

JavaScript Variables
Variable: A variable is a symbolic name that represents some data in the memory. A variable value can change during the execution of the JavaScript. A variable can be referred by its name to see or change its value. Variables are name are case sensitive. Must begin with a letter or underscore.

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Rules of a Variable

Variable Declaration
Variables can be declared using the var statement var <variable name>=some value Variables can also be created without using var statement <variable name>=some value Eg var firstname=Samuel OR firstname=Samuel

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Data Type in JavaScript

JavaScript is a loosely typed language.


Data Type of Variable
Loosely Typed??
need not be specified during declaration.

Data types are


automatically converted during script execution.

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Data Type in JavaScript (contd.)

JavaScript recognizes the following type of values:


Values

numbers string
9, 3.56

boolean
true or false

Samuel, Samuel J Palmisano

null
A Special keyword which refers to nothing

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Data Type in JavaScript (contd.)

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JavaScript Operators
Operators

Arithmetic

Assignment

Conditional String

Comparison

Logical

typeof

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JavaScript Operator (contd.)


Arithmetic

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JavaScript Operator (contd.)


Comparison

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JavaScript Operator (contd.)


Assignment

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JavaScript Operator (contd.)


Logical

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JavaScript Operator (contd.)


String

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JavaScript Operator (contd.)


Conditional

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JavaScript Operator (contd.)


typeof

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Test Your Understanding


x=20
x=Test typeof(x) evaluates to

number

string null

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Test Your Understanding


x=20
x=Test typeof(x) evaluates to

number

string null

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Flow Control & Functions


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Flow Control
Conditional Statements
if statement - use this statement if you want to execute some code only if a specified condition is true. if...else statement - use this statement if you want to execute some code if the condition is true and another code if the condition is false. if...else if....else statement - use this statement if you want to select one of many blocks of code to be executed.

switch statement - use this statement if you want to select one of many blocks of code to be executed.

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while statement

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break and continue Statements


There are two special statements that can be used inside loops:
break. continue.

Break
The break command will break the loop and continue executing the code that follows after the loop (if any).

Continue
The continue command will break the current loop and continue with the next value.

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Example of break statement


html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var i=0 for (i=0;i<=5;i++) { if (i==3){break} document.write("The number is " + i) document.write("<br />") } </script> </body> </html>
<

Result

The number is 0 The number is 1 The number is 2

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Example of continue statement


html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var i=0 for (i=0;i<=5;i++) { if (i==3){continue} document.write("The number is " + i) document.write("<br />") } </script> </body> </html>
<

Result The number is 0 The number is 1 The number is 2 The number is 4 The number is 5

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For loop

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Functions

A function is a reusable piece of code that will be


executed when called for.

A function can be called from anywhere from within


the page or even from other pages if the function is stored in an external JavaScript (.js) file.

Functions can be embedded in the <head></head>


and within the<body> </body> tag.

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Predefined functions in JavaScript


DialogBoxes
alert( message) Displays an alert box with a message defined by the string message. Eg. alert(An Error Occurred!)

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Predefined functions in JavaScript (contd.)


confirm(message)
When called, it will display the message and two boxes. One box is "OK" and the other is "Cancel". If OK is selected, a value of true is returned, otherwise a value of false is returned. Eg. confirm(Do you wish to Continue?)

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Predefined functions in JavaScript (contd.)


prompt(message)
Displays a box with the message passed to the function displayed. The user can then enter text in the prompt field, and choose OK or Cancel. If the user chooses Cancel, a NULL value is returned. If the user chooses OK, the string value entered in the field is returned.

Eg:
prompt(enter your Name)

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Predefined functions in JavaScript (contd.)

Conversion Functions
eval(string) Converts a string to an integer or a float value. Eg x=20 y=eval(x)+10 y contains the value 30

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Predefined functions in JavaScript (contd.)


isNaN(value)
If the value passed is not a number then a boolean value of true is returned else the boolean value of false is returned. Eg x=Samuel y=isNaN(x) The value stored in y is true

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Predefined functions in JavaScript (contd.)


parseInt(string)
Converts a string to an integer returning the first integer encountered which is contained in the string. Eg

x=77AB67
y=parseInt(x) y stores the value 77

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Predefined functions in JavaScript (contd.)


parseFloat(string)
Converts a string to an float value . Eg x=77.5AB67 y=parseFloat(x) y stores the value 77.5

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User Defined Functions

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User Defined Functions (contd.)

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User Defined Functions (contd.)

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Events

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Events (contd.)

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Event Handlers

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Common Event Handlers

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Common Event Handlers (contd.)

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Common Event Handlers (contd.)

onLoad and onUnload


The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. The onload event is also triggered when the image is loaded.

The showstatus() function will be called when a user enters a page <body onload=showStatus()>

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Common Event Handlers (contd.)

onFocus, onBlur and onChange


The onFocus, onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields.

The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field:

<input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">;

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Common Event Handlers (contd.)

onSubmit
The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. <form method="post" action="xxx.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()">

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Common Event Handlers (contd.)

onMouseOver and onMouseOut


onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons.

An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a href="http://www.ibm.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver event)> <img src=ibmlogo.gif" width="100" height="30"> </a>

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Test Your Understanding

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Test Your Understanding

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Example

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Example (contd.)

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Example (contd.)

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Example (contd.)

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Example (contd.)

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Example (contd.)

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Example (contd.)
function Addition(x,y)

{
var x1=document.form1.text1.value var y1=document.form1.text2.value var Ans=document.form1.text3.value var temp=x1+y1 }

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Example (contd.)
function Addition (x,y) { var x1=parseInt(x) var y1=parseInt(y) var Ans=document.form1.text3.value

var temp=x1+y1
}

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Example (contd.)
function Addition (x,y) {
var x1=parseInt(x) var y1=parseInt(y) var Ans=document.form1.text3.value var temp=x1+y1 }

<INPUT TYPE=button value= +op onClick=Addition(text1.value,text2.value)>

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Example (contd.)
function Addition (x,y)
{

var x1=parseInt(x) var y1=parseInt(y) var Ans=document.form1.text3.value var temp=x1+y1 if(Ans==temp){ alert(Your Result agrees with JavaScript!) document.form1.text1.value= document.form1.text2.value= document.form1.text3.value= } else{ alert(No, JavaScript evalutes this operation differently) document.form1.text3.value= }}

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Test Your Understanding

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Test Your Understanding

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A Complete Program
<html>
<input type="button"

<head>
<script type="text/javascript"> function myfunction(txt) {

onClick="myfunction('Good Morning!')"
value="In the Morning"> <input type="button" onClick="myfunction('Good Evening!')" value="In the Evening"> </form> <p> When you click on one of the buttons, a function will be called. The function will alert the argument that is passed to it. </p> </body> </html>

alert(txt)
} </script> </head> <body> <form>

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Output

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myfunction (txt) receives Good Morning!

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myfunction (txt) receives Good Evening !

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Objects & Arrays


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JavaScript Objects
JavaScript is not a true Object Oriented language as C++ or Java but rather an Object Based language. Objects in JavaScript are software entities such as the browser window or an HTML document.

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JavaScript Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Objects (contd.)

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Instances of Computer Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Core Objects

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

Boolean

Math

1.
2. 3. 4.

Boolean
Date Function Math Date Number

5.
6.

Number
String

Function

String

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

Boolean

Math

1.
2. 3. 4.

Boolean
Date Function Math Date Number

5.
6.

Number
String

Function

String

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)


Boolean Object
This object is used to convert a non boolean value to a boolean value.

The Boolean Object is an Object Wrapper for a Boolean value


Boolean object is defined with the new keyword var BooleanObj=new Boolean()

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)


All the following lines of code create Boolean objects with an initial value of false :
var myBoolean=new Boolean() var myBoolean=new Boolean(0)

var myBoolean=new Boolean(null)


var myBoolean=new Boolean("") var myBoolean=new Boolean(false) var myBoolean=new Boolean(NaN)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)


All the following lines of code create Boolean objects with an initial value of true:
var myBoolean=new Boolean(true) var myBoolean=new Boolean("true")

var myBoolean=new Boolean("false")


var myBoolean=new Boolean("Richard")

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Test Your Understanding

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Test Your Understanding

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

Boolean

Math

1.
2. 3. 4.

Boolean
Date Function Math Date Number

5.
6.

Number
String

Function

String

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)


Date Object
The Date object is used to work with dates and times. An instance of the Date object with the "new" keyword. An instance of Date object can be created as: var myDate=new Date() var myDate=new Date("Month dd, yyyy hh:mm:ss") var myDate=new Date("Month dd, yyyy") var myDate=new Date(yy,mm,dd,hh,mm,ss) var myDate=new Date(yy,mm,dd) var myDate= new Date(milliseconds)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)


Commonly used methods of the Date Object

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

Boolean

Math

1.
2. 3. 4.

Boolean
Date Function Math Date Number

5.
6.

Number
String

Function

String

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

Boolean

Math

1.
2. 3. 4.

Boolean
Date Function Math Date Number

5.
6.

Number
String

Function

String

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)


Math Object
Math object allows to perform common mathematical functions. The Math object includes several Mathematical values and functions. The Math object need not be defined before using it.

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)


Mathematical values provided by JavaScript

Math.E Math.PI Math.SQRT2 Math.SQRT1_2 Math.LN2 Math.LN10 Math.LOG2E Math.LOG10E

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)


Methods of Math object

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Test Your Understanding

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Test Your Understanding

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

Boolean

Math

1.
2. 3. 4.

Boolean
Date Function Math Date Number

5.
6.

Number
String

Function

String

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)

Boolean

Math

1.
2. 3. 4.

Boolean
Date Function Math Date Number

5.
6.

Number
String

Function

String

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)


String object
The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. String objects must be created using the new keyword. JavaScript automatically converts the string primitive to a temporary String object A string literal can be embedded within a single or double quotation marks.

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)


String primitives and String objects give different results when evaluated as JavaScript.
Primitives are treated as source code, but String objects are treated as a character sequence object.

s1 = "2 + 2
eval(s1) eval(s2) eval(s2.valueOf());

// creates a string primitive


// returns the number 4 // returns the string "2 + 2 // returns the number 4

s2 = new String("2 + 2") // creates a String object

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JavaScript Core Objects (contd.)


Common Methods of String Object

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Defining Arrays
An Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name.
An Array object is created with the new keyword. An array can be created as: var MyArray=new Array() An array can also be created by specifying the array size. var MyArray=new Array(3)

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Arrays (contd.)
Data can be entered into an array as:
var MyArray=new Array() MyArray[0]=Paul MyArray[1]=Sam MyArray[2]=Niel Data can also be entered into an array as: var MyArray=new Array(Paul,Sam, Niel)

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Arrays (contd.)
Accessing Arrays
You can refer to a particular element in an array by referring to the name of the array and the index number. The index number starts at 0 .

var MyArray=new Array()


Myarray [0] The starting index

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Document Object Model


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Document Object Model


The DOM is a programming API for documents.
It is based on an object structure that closely resembles the structure of the documents it models. For instance, consider this table, taken from an HTML document: <TABLE> <TBODY> <TR> <TD>Shady Grove</TD> <TD>Aeolian</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD>Over the River, Charlie</TD> <TD>Dorian</TD> </TR>

</TBODY>
</TABLE>

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Document Object Model (contd.)


Graphical representation of the DOM of the example table

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Document Object Model (contd.)


With JavaScript you can restructure an entire HTML document. You can add, remove, change, or reorder items on a page.
To change anything on a page, JavaScript needs access to all elements in the HTML document. This access, along with methods and properties to add, move, change, or remove HTML elements, is given through the Document Object Model (DOM). In 1998, W3C published the Level 1 DOM specification. This specification allowed access to and manipulation of every single element in an HTML page.

All browsers have implemented this recommendation, and therefore, incompatibility problems in the DOM have almost disappeared.

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Document Object Model (contd.)

Document Tree

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How to access the nodes in an HTML


You can find the element you want to manipulate in several ways:
By using the getElementById() and getElementsByTagName() methods By using the parentNode, firstChild, and lastChild properties of an element node

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Navigator Object
Navigator object is the object representation of the client internet browser or web navigator program that is being used.
This is a top level object to all others object in DOM hierarchy.

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Navigator Object Properties


appCodeName The name of the browsers code such as Internet Explorer appName The name of the browser. appVersion The version of the browser. plugins An array of plug-ins supported by the browser and installed on the browser. cpuClass The type of CPU which may be x86. cookieEnabled A boolean value of true or false depending on whether cookies are enabled in the browser.

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Navigator Object Methods


javaEnabled() Returns a boolean telling if the browser has JavaScript enabled.

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Window Object
The Window object is the top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy.
The Window object represents a browser window. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag.

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Window Object Collections


Frames[] Returns all named frames in the window.

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Window Object Properties


name sets of return the name of the window.
status sets or returns the name of the window. length sets or returns the number of frames in the window. self returns a reference to the current window. statusbar - sets whether or not the browsers statusbar should be visible. toolbar - sets whether or not the browsers toolbar should be visible. closed Returns all named frames in the window document history
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Window Object Methods


open() Opens a new browser window.
createPopup() Creates a popup window. setInterval(code,millisec[,lang]) Evaluates an expression at specified intervals. clearInterval(id_of_setInterval) cancels a timeout that is set with the setInterval() method. setTimeout(code,millisec[,lang]) Evaluates an expression after a specified number of milliseconds. clearTimeout(id_of_setTimeout) cancels a timeout that is set with the setTimeout() method. focus() sets the focus to the current window. blur() removes focus from the current window. close() closes the current window.
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Frame Object
Frame object represents an HTML frame.
For each instance of a <frame> tag in an HTML document, a Frame object is created.

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Frame Object (contd.)

In
Document Object Model Frames are instances of Window object

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Frame Object (contd.)

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Frame Object (contd.)

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Frame Object (contd.)

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Frame Object (contd.)

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Frame Object (contd.)

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Frame Object (contd.)

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Frame Object (contd.)

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Frame Object (contd.)

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Frame Object (contd.)

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Frame Object (contd.)

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Frame Object (contd.)

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Frame Object (contd.)

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Frame Object (contd.)

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Frame Object (contd.)

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Frame Object (contd.)

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Frame Object (contd.)

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Test Your Understanding

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Test Your Understanding

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Document Object
The document object represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page.
The document object is part of the window object and is accessed through the window.document property or simply document.

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Document Object Collections


anchors[] - Returns a reference to all Anchor objects in the document.
forms[] - Returns a reference to all Form objects in the document. images[] - Returns a reference to all Image objects in the document. links[] - Returns a reference to all Area and Link objects in the document.

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Document Object Properties


Body gives direct access to the <body> element.
Cookie Sets or returns all cookies associated with the current document. lastModified Returns the date and time a document was last modified. Title Returns the title of the current document. URL Returns the URL of the current document.

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Document Object Methods


write() - Writes HTML expressions or JavaScript code to a document
writeln() Similar to write(), with the addition of writing a new line character after each expression. open() - Opens a stream to collect the output from any document.write() or document.writeln() methods. close() - Closes an output stream opened with the document.open() method, and displays the collected data getElementByID() Returns a reference to the first object with the specified id. getElementsByName() Returns a collection of objects with the specified name. getElementsByTagName() Return a collection of objects with the specified tag name.
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Location Object
Location object is an JavaScript object it is not an DOM object.
The Location object is automatically created by the JavaScript runtime engine and contains information about the current URL. The Location object is part of the Window object and is accessed through the window.location property.

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Location Object (contd.)

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Location Object (contd.)

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Location Object (contd.)

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Location Object (contd.)

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Location Object (contd.)

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Location Object (contd.)

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Location Object Methods


Assign (url) It loads a new document.
Reload() the current document. Replace() Replaces the current document with a new one.

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Location Object Example


<html> <body> <script> switch (window.location.protocol) { case "http:": document.write("From Web<BR>\n") break case "file:": document.write("From Local computer<BR>\n") break default: document.write("Unknown Source<BR>\n") break } </script> </body> </html>
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Output: If Accessed from the Local File System

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Output: If the page is delivered by a Web Server.

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History Object
History object is a JavaScript object.
The History object is automatically created by the JavaScript runtime engine and consists of and array of URLs. It is a part of window object & accessed through window.history property.

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History Object (contd.)

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History Object (contd.)

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History Object (contd.)

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History Object (contd.)

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Test Your Understanding

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Test Your Understanding

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Form Object Model

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Form Object Model (contd.)

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Form Object Model (contd.)

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Test Your Understanding

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Test Your Understanding

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Form Object Model (contd.)

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Form Object Model (contd.)

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Form Object Model (contd.)

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Form Object Model (contd.)

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Form Object Model (contd.)

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Test Your Understanding

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Test Your Understanding

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Form Object Model (contd.)

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Form Object Model (contd.)

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Test Your Understanding

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Test Your Understanding

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Form Object Model (contd.)

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Form Object Model (contd.)

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Form Object Model (contd.)

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Form Object Model (contd.)

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Test Your Understanding

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Test Your Understanding

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Test Your Understanding

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Test Your Understanding

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Cookies
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Cookies

A cookie can store a small amount of information


about a user visiting a site.

A cookie is a small text file that is stored on the site


visitor's computer by their browser .

Because the cookie is stored on the users computer,


it does not require any server space no matter how many users you have .

With JavaScript, you can both create and retrieve


cookie values.

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Cookies (contd.)
You can use cookies to :
save user preferences. customize data. remember the last visit. Keep track of items in an order while a user browses. Remember the information your sites visitors gave last time.

Cookies can be created, read and erased by JavaScript. They


are accessible through the property document.cookie

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Cookies (contd.)

What does a cookie contain?


Name value pair
The first element in a cookie is a "name" attribute, followed by the data to be stored in the cookie.

The expiry date


specifies how long the cookie is valid for.

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Cookies (contd.)

What does a cookie contain?


The path
this states where the cookie may be accessed from on the Web site. Most often, this is set to the server's document root.

The domain
The "domain" attribute allows you to set a domain name for the cookie. Again, this is optional.

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Question
The name-value pair is the
_____________ element in the Cookie second third

first

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Answer
The name-value pair is the
_____________ element in the Cookie second third

first

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Cookies and Security

Turn up security level on your browser to disable


cookies or prompt for cookie.

Delete the content of a cookie and then write protect


it.

Use 3rd party software:


Cookie Pal, CookieMaster, CookieCrusher to monitor, browse and edit cookies.

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Format of Cookie

First the name value pair. Then a semicolon and a space. Then the expiry date.
Expiry date should be in UTC format.

Then again a semicolon and a space. Then the path.

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Format of Cookie (contd.)

document.cookie=<name of cookie>=<value of
cookie>;<blank space>expires=<date in UTC format>;<blank space>path=<path location>

Example

document.cookie = user=Paul; expires=Thu, 2 Aug 2008 20:47:11 UTC; path=/'

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Example of Setting a Cookie


<html> <head> <script language="JavaScript"> function setCookie(name, value) {

</script>
</head> <body>

var exp=new Date("January 31,2008") <form> <input type="button" value="Set document.cookie=name+"="+escape a Cookie" (value)+"; expires="+exp.toGMTString() onClick="setCookie(user',Paul +"; path=/ Smith')"> document.write(Cookie has been set) </form>

</body>
</html>
Set an expiry date

What does the escape function do?

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escape() function
There's no escape!
Strictly speaking, we should be escaping our cookie values -encoding non-alphanumeric characters such as spaces and semicolons.

This is to ensure that our browser can interpret the values properly.
Fortunately this is easy to do with JavaScript's escape() function.

For example
document.cookie = "username=" + escape(Paul Smith") + "; expires=15/02/2003 00:00:00";

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Example of Setting a Cookie


<html> <head> <script language="JavaScript"> function setCookie(name, value) { var exp=new Date("January 31,2008") </script>

</head>
<body> <form> <input type="button" value="Set a Cookie" onClick="setCookie(user',Paul Smith')"> </form> </body> </html>

document.cookie=name+"="+escape
(value)+"; expires="+exp.toGMTString() +"; path=/ document.write(Cookie has been set) )
The value stored is user=Paul Smith
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Reading a Cookie
<html>
<head> <script language="JavaScript"> function readCookie() { var ca = document.cookie document.write(ca) }

</script>
</head> <body> <form><input type="button" value="read" onClick="readCookie()"> </form> </body> Value retrieved is user=Paul Smith

</html>
Returns the cookie name value pair

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Extracting only the value from the Cookie


<html> <head> <script language="JavaScript"> function readCookie(c_name) { if (document.cookie.length>0) } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="read" onClick="readCookie('user')"> </form> </body> </html>

document.write( document.cookie.substring(c_start,c_ end))


} } Displays the value: Paul Smith

{c_start=document.cookie.indexOf(c_name + "=")
if (c_start!=-1) { c_start=c_start + c_name.length+1 c_end=document.cookie.indexOf(";",c_start) if (c_end==-1) c_end=document.cookie.length

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Delete Cookies
<html>

<head>
<script language="JavaScript"> function deleteCookie ( cookie_name) { var cookie_date = new Date ( ) cookie_date.setTime ( cookie_date.getTime() - 1 ) document.cookie = cookie_name += "=; expires=" + cookie_date.toGMTString() }

<body>
<form> <input type="button" value=delete" onClick="deleteCookie(user') "> </form> </body> </html>
The cookie's expiry date is set to one second less then the current date.

</script>
</head>

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Modifying a cookie

To modify a cookie simply reset the values and use


the same procedure for setting the cookie.

Ensure that the cookie name is existing or a new


cookie will be created.

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Summary
Cookies are small text files that sit on your hard disk. Cookies are created when you visit websites that use cookies to
store information that they need (or prefer).

Websites often use cookies to personalize the user experience such as remembering your name (assuming you supplied it previously) or remembering the items in your shopping cart from previous visits. they are quite harmless.

Despite the many misconceptions about cookies being malicious, Cookies can't give your personal details to other websites, or
transmit a virus or anything like that.

A cookie can only be read by the server that created it. Websites normally use cookies to make its users' lives easier, not
harder.
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Thank You For Your Participation


2007 IBM Corporation