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CHAPTER 2
Cognitive and Language Development

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Learning Goals
1. 2.

Define development and explain the main processes, periods, and issues in development. Discuss the development of the brain and compare the cognitive developmental theories of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. Identify the key features of language, biological and environmental influences on language, and the typical growth of a childs language.

3.

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Cognitive and Language Development
An Overview of Child Development
Exploring What Development Is Development and Education

Processes and Periods

Developmental Issues

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An Overview of Child Development

Development: The pattern of biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes that begins at conception and continues through the life span.

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PERIODS OF DEVELOPMENT INFANCY-18 TO 24 months EARLY CHILDHOOD-24 months to 5 yrs MIDDLE & LATE CHILDHOOD-6-11yrs ADOLESCENCE-12yrs-18 to 21 yrs

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Developmental Processes
Biological processes and genetic inheritance

Development of the brain Gains in height and weight Changes in motor skills Pubertys hormonal changes Changes in the childs thinking Intelligence Language acquisition

Cognitive processes

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Developmental Processes
Socioemotional processes

Changes in the childs relationships with other people Changes in personality

Developmental Issues

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Nature-Nurture Issue

Continuity-Discontinuity Issue
Early-Later Experience Issue

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Cognitive and Language Development
Cognitive Development

The Brain

Vygotskys Theory

Piagets Theory

Myelination

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Myelination increases the speed at which information travels through the nervous system.

Brain Lateralization

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the specialization of functions in each hemisphere of the brain. Verbal Processing


In most individuals, speech and grammar are localized in the left hemisphere.

Nonverbal Processing
Spatial perception, visual recognition, and emotion are localized in the right hemisphere.

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Piagets Cognitive Processes


Schemas Assimilation Accommodation Organization Equilibration Actions or mental representations that organize knowledge

Incorporating new information into existing schemas


Adjusting existing schemas to fit new information and experiences Grouping isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higher-order system A shift, a resolution of conflict to reach a balance

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Piagets Four Stages


Cognition unfolds in a sequence of four stages. Each stage is agerelated and distinctive. Each stage is discontinuous from and more advanced than the previous.

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Piagets Four Stages

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Piagets Sensorimotor Stagebirth to two yrs


Coordination of sensory experiences with motor actions. Object permanence involves the realization that objects continue to exist over time.

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Piagets Preoperational Stage


Symbolic Function Substage-2yrs to 4yrs

Symbolic Thought: Ability to represent mentally


an object that is not present; pretend play

Limitations:
Egocentrism: The inability to distinguish between
ones own perspective and someone elses perspective.

Animism: The belief that inanimate objects have


lifelike qualities and are capable of action.

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The Three Mountain Tasks

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Piagets Preoperational Stage


Intuitive Thought Substage -4yrs-7 yrs

Intuitive Thought rather than logical thinking Centration: Focuses on one characteristic to the
exclusion of others.

Lack of Conservation

Classification: Ability to classify objects according to only


one characteristic at a time.

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Conservation of Liquid

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Piagets Concrete Operational Stage7yrs-11yrs
Logical reasoning replaces intuitive reasoning, but only in concrete situations. Conservation
The idea that some characteristics of an object stay the same even though the object might change in appearance. Coordinate several characteristics rather than focus on a single property of an object. Order stimuli along some quantitative dimension. Combine relations to understand certain conclusions. If A>B, and B>C, then A>C.

Classification Seriation

Transitivity

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Hierarchical Classification
When shown a family tree of four generations, the concrete operational child can classify the members vertically, horizontally, and obliquely.

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Piagets Formal Operational Stage11yrs to 15 yrs


Abstract reasoning: Think in abstract, idealistic,
and logical ways.

Hypothetical-deductive reasoning: Ability to


develop hypotheses about ways to solve problems and systematically reach a conclusion.

Adolescent egocentrism: Heightened selfconsciousness and a sense of personal uniqueness.

Piagets Theory
Teaching Strategies

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Take a constructivist approach Facilitate rather than direct learning Consider the childs knowledge & level of thinking Promote the students intellectual health Turn the classroom into a setting of exploration & discovery

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Criticisms of Piagets Theory

Estimates of childrens competence Stages Training children to reason at a higher level Culture and education

Vygotskys Theory

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Zone of Proximal Development Scaffolding: Teacher adjusts the level of support as performance rises. Language and Thought: Develop independently of each other, then merge. Have external or social origins Self-talk

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Vygotskys Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Tasks too difficult for child to master even with assistance

Tasks child can master alone

ZPD

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Zone of Proximal developmentUpper limit buds/flowers of development Lower limit fruits of development

ScaffoldingChanging level of support- as student competence increases less guidance is given.

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Language & thought
Private speech (self talk) transition from external to internal speech takes place between 3-7yrs; after a while self talk becomes minimal and they can act without verbalizing; hence this can be called as the transition of egocentric speech to inner speech which in turn are called our thoughts.

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Strategies for using Vygotskys theory


Assess the childs ZPD Use the childs ZPD for teachingWhat can I do to help you Use skilled peers as teachers Monitor & encourage childrens private speech Place instruction in a meaningful context (real world implications)

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Reflection & Observation


Reflection: Identify an experience in which a more competent person helped you learn something you were unable to do alone. How did this person scaffold your learning?

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Cognitive and Language Development


Language Development

What Is Language?

How Language Develops

Biological and Environmental Influences

Language is

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a form of communication, spoken, written, or signed, that is based on a system of symbols.

Phonology

Sound system of a language

Morphology
Syntax

Units of meaning involved in word formationRules for combining words into phrases/sentences--Bob was beaten by James

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Semantics Meaning of words and


sentences-girl and woman

Pragmatics Appropriate use of language


in different contexts-addressing
diff people according to age and relationship

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How Language Develops


Infancy-birth to 2 yrs

Babbling One two words

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How Language Develops


Early Childhood-2-5yrs Phonology Morphology Syntax Semantics Pragmatics
Sensitive to sounds, rhymes Overgeneralize rules (eg foot-foots) Complex rules for ordering words(where daddy is going?) 6-year-old: 8,000 to 14,000-word vocabulary Talk in different ways to different people

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How Language Develops


Middle & Late Childhood-6 to 11 yrs Alphabetic principle: letter-sound Phonology correspondence Morphology Syntax Semantics
Appropriate application of rule(categorizingdog/barks; eat/lunch.transforms to dog/cat & eat/drink)
Complex grammar; metalinguistic awarenessto think about their lang. understand what words are and even define them 12-year-old: 50,000-word vocabulary

Pragmatics

Culturally appropriate language use

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How Language Develops


Adolescence-12 yrs to adulthood

Increased sophistication in use of words Greater understanding of metaphors(implied comparison between unlike things), satire,(irony) and complex literary works Better writers Dialect includes jargon and slang

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Supporting Vocabulary Development Through Technology
Computers
Relate the new to the known Promote active, in-depth processing-learn meaning instead of
memorizing

Encourage reading

Audio Books Educational Television

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