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INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY

A report in EDUC-101

Definition of Information Processing Theory


The information processing theory approach to the study of cognitive development evolved out of the American experimental tradition in psychology. Developmental psychologists who adopt the information-processing perspective account for mental development in terms of maturational changes in basic components of a childs mind. The theory is based on the idea that humans process the information they receive, rather than merely responding to stimuli. This perspective equates the mind to a computer, which is responsible for analyzing information from the environment. According to the standard informationprocessing model for mental development, the minds machinery includes attention mechanisms for bringing information in, working memory for actively manipulating information, and long term memory for passively holding information so that it can be used in the future.

Types of Knowledge
1. Personal knowledge knowledge by acquaintance 2. Procedural knowledge knowledge on how to do something 3. Propositional knowledge knowledge of facts

Stages of Information Processing Theory


1. Collection of data - capturing data from their sources and recording it onto some media 2. Preparation of data - copying, grouping, or arranging data in a more convenient way for input 3. Input of data - entering the data or sending the stored data into the processing system 4. Processing of data - calculating or manipulating the input data and even storing the results for future use 5. Output of information - giving out the processed results in a readable form

Sensory Register
Capacity: Our mind receives a great amount of information but it is more than what our minds can hold or perceive. Duration: The sensory register only holds the information for an extremely brief in the order of 1 to 3 seconds. There is a difference in duration based on modality: auditory memory is more persistent than visual.

The Role of Attention


To bring information into consciousness, it is necessary that we give attention to it. Getting through this attentional filter is done when the learner is interested in the material; when there is conscious control over attention, or when information involves novelty, surprise, salience, and distinctiveness. Before information is perceived, it is known as precategorical information.

Working Memory
Capacity: The working memory can only hold 5 to 9 chunks of information, sometimes described as 7 2. Duration: Around 18 seconds or less. To reduce the loss of information in 18 seconds, you need to do maintenance rehearsal. It is using repetition to keep the information active in working memory, like when you repeat a phone number just given over and over.

Long Term Memory


The long term memory is the final or permanent storing house for memory information. It holds the stored information until needed again. Capacity: Long term memory has unlimited capacity. Duration: Duration in the long term memory is indefinite.

Forgetting
Forgetting is the inability to retrieve access information when needed. There are two main ways in which forgetting likely occurs: Decay information is not attended to, and eventually fades away. Interference new or old information blocks access to the information in question.

Methods for Increasing Retrieval of Information


1. Rehearsal repeating information word by word, either mentally or aloud. 2. Meaningful learning making connections between new information and prior knowledge. 3. Organization making connections among various pieces of information. 4. Elaboration adding additional ideas to new information based on what one already knows. 5. Visual imagery forming a picture of the information. 6. Generation things we produce are easier to remember than things we hear. 7. Context remembering the situation helps recover information. 8. Personalization making the information relevant to the individual.

Other Memory Methods


Recency and primacy you will remember the beginning and end of list most readily. Part learning break up the list or chunk information to increase memorization. Distributed practice break up learning sessions, rather than cramming all the information at once. Mnemonic aids memory techniques that learners may employ to help them retain and retrieve information more effectively.

Mnemonic Techniques
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Linking method - method of remembering lists that is based on creating an association between the elements of that list. Number rhyme system - where digits are assigned mnemonic images based on words that rhyme with the number. Number shape system - digits are assigned mnemonic images based on the shape of the number. Roman room system - things to be remembered are associated with these objects, so that by recalling the objects within the room, all the associated objects can also be remembered. Major system - mnemonic technique used to aid in memorizing numbers. The system works by converting numbers into consonant sounds, then into words by adding vowels. The system works on the principle that images can be remembered more easily than numbers. Dominic system - a letter-based abbreviation system where the letters comprise the initials of someone's name, while the major system is typically used as a phonetic-based consonant system for either objects, animals, persons, or even words. Katapayadi system - an ancient Indian system to depict letters to numerals for easy remembrance of numbers as words or verses. Method of loci - t is a method of memory enhancement which uses visualization to organize and recall information. Many memory contest champions claim to use this technique to recall faces, digits, and lists of words.