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ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATIONS(EKT313)

Introduction By:Cik Junita Mohd Nordin 049798419/0133910593 School:PPKKP, Aras 2,Blok A, Kompleks Pengajian KUKUM

EKT313
Sem: 1 2006/2007

Meeting: Lecture 3 Hours, Lab 2 Hours


Tuesdays: 12-2pm; 4-6 pm (labs) Thursdays: 3-4pm

Attendance are compulsory!!

SYNOPSIS
OBJECTIVES: To introduce and familiarized the students to electronics elements, components and circuits used in RF communications. At the end of the course, student would also be able to design and analyze the RF communication circuits.

SYNOPSIS

TOPICS COVERED ARE: - Introductions to Electronics Communications, AM& SSB Modulations, AM Circuits, FM and FM Circuits, Radio Transmitter and Communications Receivers

ASSESSMENTS

Final exam = 50% Test 1 = 10% Assignments/quizzes=5% Lab = 35%


presentation

Report

Project

LECTURE 1
REVIEW TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS PART 1

WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND


of COMMUNICATION SYSTEM?

DEFINITIONS OF COMMUNICATIONS

Humans exchanging information


Machines exchanging information Conveying thoughts, feelings, ideas, and facts Sending and receiving information by electronic means

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATIONS

Language: human,

computer, or electronic

Distance: space between


sending and receiving parties

COMMON FORMS OF COMMUNICATIONS

Human voice: face-to-face conversations,

public speakers, actors in plays, etc. Audio: CDs, tape, records, radio Body language: non-verbal Print: newspapers, magazines, books, etc. Film: still and movie Video: movies, graphics and animation Music: personal, concerts

FORMS OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS


Radio and TV broadcasting Telephone, wired and wireless Fax Pagers Computer networks: modem, email, Internet and World Wide Web, wireless Satellites, radar, radio telescopes

KEY MILESTONES IN ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS


1844 1876 1895 1923 1943 1946 1962 1989

Telegraph Telephone Radio TV Radar Computers Satellites Internet

MODEL OF ALL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS


Transmitter Receiver

TX

Channel Communications medium

RX

Noise
Information to be transmitted

Received information

TYPES OF COMMUNICATIONS
TX Channel RX Simplex: One-way

TX Channel(s) RX

RX

TX

Duplex: Two-way Half duplex: Alternate TX/RX Full duplex: Simultaneous TX/RX

TYPES OF COMMUNICATIONS SIGNALS


Analog - smooth and continuous voltage variation.

Digital - binary or two voltage levels.

Time

COMMUNICATIONS SIGNAL VARIATIONS

Baseband - The original

information signal such as audio, video, or computer data. Can be analog or digital.

Broadband - The baseband signal

modulates or modifies a carrier signal, which is usually a sine wave at a frequency much higher than the baseband signal.

MODULATION

An electronic technique in which a baseband information signal modifies a carrier signal (usually a sine wave) for the purpose of frequency translation and carrying the information signal via radio.
The common types of modulation are amplitude, frequency and phase.

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
The modulating (baseband) signal is a sinusoid in this example.

High-frequency carrier

An AM signal as it usually appears on an oscilloscope

The carrier frequency is normally much higher than the baseband frequency.

FREQUENCY MODULATION
The baseband signal controls the carriers frequency and the carriers amplitude remains constant.

Carrier

Modulating signal

FM
Increasing fc

Resting fc

Increasing fc

Decreasing fc

Resting fc

MULTIPLEXING

Multiplexing (MUX or MPX) - the

process of simultaneously transmitting two or more baseband information signals over a single communications channel.

Demultiplexing (DEMUX or DMPX) - the


process of recovering the individual baseband signals from the multiplexed signal.

MULTIPLEXING AND DEMULTIPLEXING


Single communications channel (radio or cable)

MUX

DEMUX

Original baseband information signals

Recovered baseband information signals

ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS


Radio broadcasting (AM & FM) Television broadcasting (analog & DTV) Cable TV Wireless remote control Paging Navigation and direction finding Telemetry

ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS (Continued)


Radio astronomy Surveillance RF identification (ID) Music services Telephones (wired, cordless, cellular) Facsimile Two-way radio

ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS (Continued)


Radar Sonar Amateur radio Citizens and family radio Data communications Networks Internet and World Wide Web

FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH

Cycle - One complete occurrence of a

repeating wave (periodic signal) such as one positive and one negative alternation of a sine wave. Frequency - the number of cycles of a signal that occur in one second. Period - the time distance between two similar points on a periodic wave. Wavelength - the distance traveled by an electromagnetic (radio) wave during one period.

PERIOD AND FREQUENCY COMPARED


T = One period

time

One cycle

Frequency = f = 1/T

Frequency and wavelength compared


+

T
0 time f = 1/T

distance

CALCULATING WAVELENGTH AND FREQUENCY


= 300/f f = 300/ = wavelength in meters f = frequency in MHz

30 Hz
ELF

107 m

300 Hz
VF

106 m
105 m 104 m

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM FROM 30 HZ TO 300 GHZ

(f = 300/) 3 kHz
VLF

30 kHz
LF

300 kHz
MF

103 m 102 m

3 MHz
HF

Frequency
30 MHz 300 MHz

Wavelength 10 m 1m

3 GHz
30 GHz 300 GHz

10-1 m
10-2 m 10-3 m
Millimeter waves

VHF UHF SHF EHF

( = 300/f) 10-4 m

LOW AND MEDIUM FREQUENCIES

Extremely Low Frequencies - 30 to 300 Hz


Voice Frequencies - 300 to 3000 Hz Very Low Frequencies - 3 kHz to 30 kHz

Low Frequencies - 30 kHz to 300 kHz


Medium Frequencies - 300 kHz to 3 MHz

HIGH FREQUENCIES

High Frequencies - 3 MHz to 30 MHz


Very High Frequencies - 30 MHz to 300 MHz Ultra High Frequencies - 300 MHz to 3 GHz (1 GHz and above = microwaves)

Super High Frequencies - 3 GHz to 30 GHz


Extremely High Frequencies - 30 GHz to 300 GHz

300 GHz Millimeter waves

10-3 m

10-4 m 10-5 m

Infrared 0.8 x 10-6 m Visible

0.4 x 10-6 m
Ultraviolet

X-rays

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM ABOVE 300 GHZ

Gamma rays

Wavelength

Cosmic rays

OPTICAL FREQUENCIES

Infrared - 0.7 to 10 micron


Visible light - 0.4 to 0.8 micron Ultraviolet - Shorter than 0.4 micron

Note: A micron is one millionth of a meter. Light waves are measured and expressed in wavelength rather than frequency.

Noise, interference and distortion


Noise:unwanted signals that coincide with the desired signals. Noise is random, undesirable electric energy. Two type of noise:internal and external noise. Internal noise: Caused by internal devices/components in the circuits. External noise:noise that is generated outside the circuit. Eg: atmospheric noise,solar noise, cosmic noise, man made noise. Interference-one type of external noise Distortion: signal being distorted

Limitations in communication system


Physical constraint -Delay, attenuation, bandwidth limitation, etc Technological constraint - hardware. - Expertise - economy, law

Frequency Spectrum &Bandwidth

The frequency spectrum of a waveform consists of all frequencies contained in the waveform and their amplitudes plotted in the frequency domain. The bandwidth of a frequency spectrum is the range of of frequencies contained in the spectrum.It is calculated by subtracting the lowest frequency from the highest.

Frequency Spectrum &Bandwidth (contd)

Bandwidth of the information signal equals to the difference between the highest and lowest frequency contained in the signal. Similarly, bandwidth of communication channel is the difference between the highest and lowest frequency that the channel allow to pass through it