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EEE 461 1

Chapter 5
Digital Modulation Systems
Huseyin Bilgekul
EEE 461 Communication Systems II
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Eastern Mediterranean University

Multilevel Modulated Bandpass Signalling
Representation in the I-Q Plane
MPSK and QPSK
QAM
PSD of MPSK, QPSK and QAM
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Digital Modulation
Carrier signal: A
c
cos (2tf
c
t + )

Modulation: m(t)

Modulated signal: A
c
(t) cos (2tf
c
(t) t + (t))

Vary Vary
amplitude frequency & phase
Variations are discrete!!!!!
m(t); discrete
Binary
OOK
BPSK
DPSK
FSK
Multilevel
QPSK
MPSK
QAM
EEE 461 3
Multilevel Modulated Bandpass Signaling
Digital inputs with more than two levels are allowed on the transmitter output
Digital-to-
analog converter
l bits
Transmitter
Binary
input
R bits/sec
M=2
l
level
multilevel signal
l
R
D =
sec
symbols

Modulated
output
Multilevel Digital Transmission System
Multilevel signals can be generated by using a digital to analog converter (DAC).
Multilevel signaling reduces the bandwidth requirement.
EEE 461 4
Signal Vector Representation
Phase
S
0 degrees
I
Q
I-Q
Plane
s(t) = A
c
(t) cos (2tf
c
t + (t))
fixed!!!
t = 0
t = t
= 90
= 0
EEE 461 5
S
1

S
2

I
Q
Magnitude
Change
S
1

S
2

I
Q
Phase
Change
S
1

S
2

I
Q
Magnitude
& Phase
Changes
I-Q Diagrams
or
Constellations
Signal Changes: Representation in the I-Q plane
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M-ary Phase Shift Keying
If the transmitter is a PM transmitter with an M-level digital modulation signal,
M-ary phase-shift keying (MPSK) is generated
The complex envelope is given by

The phase (t) is permitted to have only M values
4 level M-ary signaling
( )
( ) t j
c
e A t g
u
=
When M=4, the resulting signal is called Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)
Binary Seq. DAC Value PSK Phases
00 -3V 0
0
01 -1V 90
0
10 +1V 180
0
11 +3V 270
0
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Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)

g(t)
Imaginary
(Quadrature)
Real
(In phase)

i
g(t)
Imaginary
(Quadrature)
(In phase)
Real
QPSK
/4 -QPSK
A /4 Quadrature Phase Shift Keeying ( /4 QPSK) is
generated by alternating between two QPSK constellations
t t
EEE 461 8
M-ary Phase Shift Keying
MPSK signal can also be generated using two quadrature carriers modulated
by the x and y components of the complex envelope
( )
( )
( ) ( ) t jy t x e A t g
t j
c
+ = =
u
Where the permitted values of x and y are
cos and sin
i c i i c i
x A y A u u = =
for the permitted phase angles
i
, I = 1, 2, M
EEE 461 9
QPSK signal
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0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
Binary
sequence
4 psk
signal
/4 - QPSK signal
I
Q
10
11
00
01
t/4
Gray Code
T
s
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M-ary Phase Shift Keying (MPSK)
I
Q
Octophase
I-Q
Constellation
MPSK signal constellation (permitted values of the complex envelope)
EEE 461 12
QAM signal constellations are not restricted to having signaling points only
on the circle of radius A
c
(This is unlike M-PSK)
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
The general QAM signal
( ) ( ) ( ) t t y t t x t s
c c
e e sin cos =
Where the complex envelope is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) t j
e t R t jy t x t g
u
= + =
( )

|
.
|

\
|
=
n
n
D
n
t h x t x
1
( )

|
.
|

\
|
=
n
n
D
n
t h y t y
1
With
where
l
R
D =
D
n
nT t
s
= =
and
(x
n
,y
n
) denotes one of the permitted values of (x
i
,y
i
) during the
symbol time that is centered on
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16-QAM
I-Q
Constellation
Q
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
I
16 symbol QAM constellation (four symbols per dimension)
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OPSK & /4 QPSK
Offset Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (OQPSK) is M=4 PSK in which
allowed data transition times for the I and Q components are offset by a
symbol period
A /4 Quadrature Phase-shift Keying (/4 QPSK) signal is generated by
alternating between two QPSK constellations that are rotated by /4 with
respect to each other
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PSD for MPSK, QAM, OQPSK, and /4 QPSK
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
H =
s
T
t
t f
( ) ( )


=
s n
nT t f c t g
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
b
b
b
s
s
s
fT l
fT l
lT
fT
fT
T f F
t
t
t
t sin sin
( )
2
sin
|
|
.
|

\
|
= P
b
b
g
f lT
f lT
k f
t
t
b s
lT T =
s
T
D
1
=
b
T
R
1
=
The complex envelope is given by
The rectangular symbol pulse
T
s
Symbol period
Baud rate
And its fourier transform
where
where
b
ClT k =
l
M 2 =
C variance of c
n
PSD for the complex envelope of MPSK or QAM is
EEE 461 16
PSD for complex envelope of MPSK, QAM
The PSD of MPSK or QAM is obtained by translating the PSD to the
carrier frequency
For l =1 PSD for BPSK
For l =2 PSD for QPSK, OQPSK
PSD for complex envelope of the bandpass multilevel signal is same
as the PSD of baseband multilevel signals
Observations :
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llustrating the Gray encoding of the four quadrants and dibits
in each quadrant for the V.32 modem. The dashed arrows
illustrate the 90 rotational invariance.
EEE 461 18
(a) Signal constellation of V.32 modem using nonredundant coding.
(b) Signal constellation of V.32 modem using trellis coding.
EEE 461 19
Quarter-superconstellation of V.34 modem with 240 signal points. The full
superconstellation is obtained by combining the rotated versions of these
points by 0, 90, 180, and 270 degrees. (Taken from Forney et al., 1996)
EEE 461 20
Decision Regions
BPSK
QPSK
Real
A
Imag
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Real
A
Imag
x
x
x
x
x
Received
signal points
without error
*
Transmitted
signal point
*
Received
signal points
with error
EEE 461 21
Decision Regions and Noise Effects
What if the noise is not symmetric?
Adds a bias onto the signals
Asymmetric distribution
Decision surface moves over
Real
A
Imag
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Noise
Amplitude
0
p(n)
x
x
x
x
x
EEE 461 22
QAM Decision Regions
Sketch the decision
regions for QAM16
Assume uniform noise
Assume that you sent a
1101 symbol, what
range should the in-phase
and quadrature
components be in?
What do you decide if:
(1.9,-1) is received?
(2.1,-1) is received due
to noise?