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Meiosis

Jaron Gladstone
Period 3
G1 phase: The period prior to the synthesis of DNA. In this phase,
the cell increases in mass in preparation for cell division. Note that
the G in G1 represents gap and the 1 represents first, so the G1
phase is the first gap phase.

S phase: The period during which DNA is synthesized. In most


cells, there is a narrow window of time during which DNA is
synthesized. Note that the S represents synthesis.

G2 phase: The period after DNA synthesis has occurred but prior
to the start of prophase. The cell synthesizes proteins and
continues to increase in size. Note that the G in G2 represents gap
and the 2 represents second, so the G2 phase is the second gap
phase.
Meiosis 1

In prophase I the chromosomes become visible. However, unlike prophase of


mitosis, the two chromosomes combine or synapse to form tetrads. Tetrads are
also known as bivalents because they contain two pairs of chromosomes. At this
point the chromosomes cross over at points called chiasmata. Crossing over
allows the chromosomes to exchange genetic material, allowing for more different
combinations of genetic material. As in the prophase of mitosis the nuclear
envelope disperses, the spindle moves into the center, and the tetrads become
connected to the spindle fibers by kinetochores.
Meiosis 1

In metaphase I the tetrads are again arranged across


the center by the movements of the kinetochores
with the two centromeres opposite each other, but
this time the sister chromatids will not be pulled apart
as in mitosis.
Meiosis 1

In anaphase I the chromatids holding the chromosomes together


loosen. The two homologous chromatids of each tetrad are
separated into separate poles. Since the chromosomes from
each parent can go into either pole this is another means to
increase genetic diversity.
Meiosis 1

In this phase, like in mitosis the chromosomes are moved into


opposite poles and the nuclear envelope reforms and the spindle
is broken down. Remember that there are two chromosomes, not
one as in mitosis.
Meiosis 1

The division of the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane


following the division of the nucleus resulting into two daughter
cells, each having its own nucleus and cytoplasm surrounded by
a plasma membrane.
Meiosis 2

In meiosis the cell goes directly from telophase I to prophase


II without the interphase. In prophase II the nuclear envelope
is again dissolved and the spindle is set up again. Prophase
II is identical to prophase of mitosis except that there is half
the amount of chromosomes.
Meiosis 2

Again the chromosomes move into the center and line up.
Now there are two chromosomes, instead of two tetrads, so
that the chromatids will split off this time.
Meiosis 2

The kinetochores move towards the poles, splitting up the


sister chromatids.
Meiosis 2

In telophase II the chromatids concentrate in the


poles and the nuclear envelope is reformed and
the spindle again is dissolved. The cells divide for
the last time, leaving a total of four haploid cells,
which have half the chromosomes of a diploid
cell. Unlike the daughter cells from mitosis, the
daughter cells produced here cannot immediately
cycle back to interphase.
Meiosis 2

The division of the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane


following the division of the nucleus resulting into four
daughter cells, each having its own nucleus and cytoplasm
surrounded by a plasma membrane.