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Chapter 4: Immunity Tests

IEC 61000-4-3 third edition: for radiated test


IEC 61000-4-6 second edition: for conducted test

CISPR 20 requires both conducted and
radiated immunity tests, but applies only to
broadcast receivers and related equipment.
Immunity Testing
ESD
Radiated RF Field
Electrical Fast Transient (EFT) Burst
Conducted RF Field
Surge
Voltage Dips, Short Interruptions, and
Voltage Variations
RF Immunity

RF Immunity Test System
The components of a typical radiated immunity test system
using a screened room
IEC 61000-4-3: Radiated RF Field
Basic Test Setup
Configuration for susceptibility testing against radiated RFI
Radiating
antenna
From RFI
power
generator
optional anechoic material
to reduce floor reflections
Wooden
table
80cm
EUT
1 to 3 m
Signal source
RF signal generator for freq. range:
80-1000 MHz: for IEC61000-4-3
150 kHz 80 MHz: for IEC61000-4-6
Its output level must match the input
requirement of the power amplifier with a
margin of a few dB(typically 0dB-so not a
problem)
Power Amplifier
Needed since most signal source will not have
sufficient output level on their own.
The output needed will depend on the field
strength that have to be generated at EUT.



=
.
2
30.



=
.
2
30.


Where:


= the antenna power input
r = the distance from antenna (in meters)
E = the field strength at r (in Volts/m)
G = the numerical antenna gain over isotropic
Required power vs freq
The power delivered to the antenna(net
power) is not the same as power supplied by
the amplifier unless the antenna is perfectly
matched( does not occur in practice).

With high VSWR(eg biconical and bilog below
70 MHz) most of the power supplied to the
amplifier is reflected back to it.
IEC 61000-4-3: Radiated RF Field
80 MHz to 1000 MHz, modulation: 1 kHz AM 80%
Sweep: <1.5 x 10
3
decades/s, continuous, or
1% steps
Field strength: 1, 3, or 10 V/m (unmodulated carrier)
RF power: 3100 W
distance: 1 m
field uniformity: 0/+6 dB)
Expose all six sides to vertical and horizontal polarizations
Additional single frequency test at 900 MHz, modulated by
200 Hz pulses
Test in a Shielded Room, TEM cell, or GTEM cell
Modulation
Modulation
Factors in specifying a power amplifier
Linearity: - RF immunity testing can tolerate
some distortion, but should not be excessive.
(The standard: should be at least -15 dB
relative to the carrier)
Ruggedness:- to operate at full power
continously.
Power Gain: - full power output must be
obtainable from the expected level of input
signal, with some safety margin, across the
whole freq. band.
Reliability and maintanability:

Field Strength monitor and levelling
Must ensure correct field strength at the EUT
Two major methods of controlling the applied
field:
(i) closed loop levelling: applied in non-
anechoic screened room, as specified by
military tests.
(i) by substitution: preferred for the anechoic
chamber with transducers eg TEM cells9Only
this method allowed in IEC61000-4-3)
Transducers
As discussed in chapter 3
Stripline
The Stripline
The TEM cell
An alternative to the stripline for small EUTs and low
freqencies.
TC-5060B TEM Cell, is an economical UHF TEM Cell which generates a
consistent Electromagnetic field for testing small RF devices such as
Pagers, GPS Receivers, Mobile Phones, etc.
GTEM
An Indoor Anechoic Chamber
[Source: Anritsu News, June 2002, Vol.22, No.105, p.17 ]
Field Uniformity
+6 dB / 0 dB
at 12 of 16 test points
from 80 to 1000 MHz
Typical Screened Room Instalation
Tests Methods
Preliminary checking: to find the most
susceptible configuration andoperating mode
of the EUT
Compliance Test
Testing above 1GHz: IEC 61000-4-3
Sweep rate, step size and modulation
Safety precautions: ICNIRP Guidelines
ICNIRP Guidlines
Electrostatic Discharge(ESD)
described in IEC 61000-4-2
Simplified ESD generator:

IEC 61000-4-2: Electrostatic
Discharge (ESD)
Air discharge (2 to 15 kV)
Contact discharge (8 kV)
polarities
0.7 to 1 ns rise time
10 single contact discharges to each selected
points if accessible; air discharges if not accessible
Several points accessible to the personnel must be
tested
10 single discharges to a coupling plane 0.1 m
from the EUT
[Source: ESD Simulator, Model: NSG438, by TESEO (formerly known as Schaffner) ]
ESD Testing Setup for Tabletop Apparatus
EUT on a nonmetallic
table
HCP (1.6 m x 0.8 m)
VCP (0.5 m x 0.5 m)
R (450 kW 1 MW)
isolates HCP and VCP to
the ground-plane
Discharge to the EUT
Discharge to the HCP and
the VCP
Equipment
Under Test
(EUT)
EUT Power
Cable
(If applicable)
Building
Power
Vertical
Coupling
Plane (VCP)
Horizontal
Coupling Plane
(HCP, Metal Sheet)
0.5 mm Thick
Insulator
Wooden
Table
Metal Ground Plane
IEC 61000-4-4: Electrical Fast
Transient (EFT) Burst
The EFT-B test checks the immunity of the product
against high frequency, low energy transient bursts
due to switching events in the near environment.
Pulses: t
r
= 5 ns, t
h
= 50 ns
(5 ns/50 ns pulses), polarities
T
ON
= 15 ms, T
ON
+T
OFF
= 300 ms,
repetitive rate = 5 kHz (and 100 kHz in the future)
0.5, 1, 2 or 4 kV on power supply lines, voltage
on data/signal/control lines
Source Z
o
= 50 W
Waveform of EFT Burst
2 1
/ /
) 1 ( ) (
t t t t
p
e e AV t v


A & V
p
= constant
t
1
= 5 ns,
t
2
= 50 ns
5 ns
50 ns
1
0.9

0.5

0.1
t
E
200 ms (5 kHz)
t
E
300 ms
15 ms
t
E
EFT Burst Test Setup
CDN for
AC Mains
Clamp for
signal
lines
[Source: 61000-4-4 . IEC:1995 +A1:2000 +A2:2001]
IEC 61000-4-6: Conducted RF
Field
150 kHz to 230 MHz, modulation: 1 kHz
AM 80%
Sweep: <1.5 x 10
3
decades/s, continuous,
or
1% steps
Voltage level: 1, 3, or 10 V (unmodulated
carrier)
Applied via coupling/decoupling networks
(CDN), EM-clamps, or current injection
probes
IEC 61000-4-6: Conducted RF Field
Test System Setup
The nominal frequency range of IEC 61000-4-6: 9 kHz to 80 MHz.
In practice, 150 kHz to 230 MHz is used for small-sized equipment.
50 termination
Power attenuator
RFI
generator
EUT
CDN CDN
CDN = coupling and decoupling network
Auxiliary
equipment 1
Auxiliary
equipment 2
Insulating support 10 cm
Metallic reference plane
IEC 61000-4-5: Surge Test Waveform
High-Energy Combination Waves
5 positive and 5 negative 1.2/50 ms voltage
or 8/20 ms current waveshape surges
0.5, 1, 2, or 4 kV; all lower test level voltages
must also be applied
Repetitive rate: no faster than 1 per minute
Source output impedance:
2 W (line-to-line on AC/DC power lines)
12 W (line-to-earth on AC/DC power lines)
42 W (capacitive coupled line-to-line or line-to-
earth on AC/DC power lines)
Surge Test Setup
Surge current injection
Surge voltage injection

EUT
Back-filter
P N G
Surge
Generator

Surge
coupling
transformer

EUT
Back-filter
P N G
Surge
Generator

Surge
coupling
capacitor
IEC 61000-4-11: Voltage Dips,
Interruptions, and Variations
Applies to equipment using low-voltage
power supply, consuming 16 A per phase
Dips and interruptions at any phase angle of
the input voltage
level: 0%, 40%, and 70%
duration: 0.5 to 50 periods
Variations:
level: 0% and 40%
duration: 2 s decreasing to test level,
1 s at test level,
2 s rising to normal level


Generic Immunity Standard
Performance Criteria
Performance Criterion A (e.g., continuous RF interference)
The apparatus shall continue to operate as intended. No degradation of
performance or loss of function is allowed below a performance level or
a permissible loss of performance specified by the manufacturer
(e.g., 10% change of motor speed).
Performance Criterion B (e.g., transient phenomena)
The apparatus shall continue to operate as intended after the test. No
degradation of performance or loss of function is allowed below a
performance level or a permissible loss of performance specified by the
manufacturer, when the apparatus is used as intended. During the test,
degradation of performance is, however, allowed. No change of actual
operating state or stored data is allowed.
Performance Criterion C (e.g., mains interruption)
Temporary loss of function is allowed, provided the loss of function is
self-recoverable or can be restored by the operation of the controls.