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Oxygen Uptake and

Energy Expenditure
M.Prasad Naidu
MSc Medical Biochemistry, Ph.D,.

Objectives
Understand the meaning and derivation of the oxygen
uptake measurement and measurement of energy
expenditure.
Perform techniques to measure oxygen uptake (O
2
),
carbon dioxide production (CO
2
), and RER.
Calculate energy expenditure during exercise.
Aerobic Metabolism
O
2
CO
2
AIR
LUNGS
O
2
CO
2
V/Q Lungs
Pulmonary Circulation
Heart
Muscle/Tissues
Use O
2
, produce CO
2

ATP from CHO, Fats
VO
2
Fick Relationship
VO
2 (ml/min)
= Q
(L/min)
* AVDO2

Expanded: [HR * SV] * [1.34 * [Hb] * (S
a
O
2
- S
v
O
2
)]

SV = L blood/bt [Hb] = g Hb/100 ml blood
1.34 = ml O
2
/gm Hb Saturations in decimal equivalent of
%

Affects of: Heart Disease? Altitude? Lung Disease?
Training?
Uses:
Energy expenditure, efficiency, VO
2max
index of
fitness, Time course of VO
2
in response to work
Steady state concept
Important variables for
measurement of VO
2

V
E
or V
I
, F
e
O
2
, F
I
O
2
, F
I
CO
2
,

F
e
CO
2

Assumption: N
2
not produced or used by body
during exercise
Convert gas volumes to STPD from ATPS
(CCJ Lab Manual p. 60)
Standard Temperature Pressure Dry
Temperature = 0 degrees Celsius
Pressure = 760 mmHg (sea level)
Dry = 0% humidity
Equation 1:
V
STPD
= V
ATPS
* [(P
b
- P
H2O
) /760] * [273/(
o
C + 273)]
Note: P
H2O
under saturated conditions is temperature
dependent (CCJ, p. 60).
Ambient P
H2O
is obtained as:
Equation 2:
Ambient P
H2O
= Saturated P
H2O
* % Relative
Humidity/100
VO
2
Consumption is: volume O
2
inhaled - volume
O
2
exhaled
Equation 3:
VO
2
= (V
I
* F
I
O
2
) - (V
E
* F
e
O
2
)

NOTE: V
I
V
E
unless 100% Carbohydrate oxidized

Remember: C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
= 6H
2
O + 6CO
2

Therefore: CO
2
/ O
2
= 1

Haldane Transformation: Allows us to calculate
either V
I
or V
E
if only one is known. Based on fact
N
2
is not used or given off by body.

N
2
in = N
2
out
or
Equation 4:
V
I
* F
I
N
2
= V
E
* F
e
N
2


Assume: F
I
N
2
= 1 - F
I
O
2
- F
I
CO
2

F
E
N
2
= 1 -

F
E
O
2
- F
E
CO
2


Standard air values: F
I
O
2
= .2093
F
I
CO
2
= .0003
F
I
N
2
= .7904
Hadane Transformation (cont)
Rearrange and combine:
Equation 5:

V
I
=V
E
* (F
e
N
2
/ F
I
N
2
) or V
E
= V
I
* (F
I
N
2
/ F
e
N
2
)

Substitute into VO
2
equation if we measure V
E
gives:
Equation 6:

VO
2
= [V
E
* (F
e
N
2
/ F
I
N
2
) * F
I
O
2
] - (V
E
* F
E
O
2
)

|_________V
I
__________| - |__V
E
___|
VCO
2
Production is: volume CO
2
exhaled - volume CO
2
inhaled
Equation 7:
VCO
2
= (V
E
* F
E
CO
2
) - (V
I
* F
I
CO
2
)


Applying Haldane Transformation:

Equation 8:
VCO
2
= V
E
* F
E
CO
2
- [V
E
* (F
e
N
2
/ F
I
N
2
)] * F
I
CO
2

|___ V
E
__| -|__________ V
I
__________|


Respiratory Exchange Ratio
Caloric equivalents as function of fuels consumed
(CCJ, Table 6.1, p 62)

Equation 9:
RER = VCO
2
/VO
2


Examples of caloric equivalents and % fuels
consumed
RER kcal/L oxygen % CHO % Fat
0.78 4.776 26 74
0.9 4.924 68 32
1.0 5.047 100 0