You are on page 1of 14

M.

PRASAD NAI DU
MSC MEDI CAL BI OCHEMI STRY, PH. D, .
THYROID GLAND
Thyroid gland
Thyroid tissue is present in all vertebrates
TG consists of 2 lobes, one on each side of trachea
H- shape
25 gms
Season, climate, geographical location, food

Thyroid gland
Thyroglobulin : glyco protein storage form of
thyroid glands
TGb on hydrolysis MIT & DIT
TGb on hydrolysis also yields non-iodinated
compounds which serum Ca
2+

Biosynthesis & secretion
Entry of iodide ions from the blood
Against the conc. Gradient (Active tpt)
TSH
Thiocyanate, perchlorate
Oxidation of I
-
to I
+
/ HIO
-
(iodide peroxidase)
Iodination first at 3
rd
& 5
th
MIT
DIT
Synthesis of T
2
,T
3
and T
4


Functions
T3 is the most reactive
5-10 time more active than T4
Protein synthesis
blood sugar ( Hyperglycemia)
utilization of glucose
glycolysis, TCA cycle, HMP shunt
lipolysis & lipogenesis
degradation of cholesterol bile acids
rate of energy exchange & O2 consumption (calorigenic effect)
requirement of certain B complex vitamins
normal growth & skeletal maturation
heart beat rate (T4)
Partly effects calcium levels
Regulation
TSH
Growth of TG, iodide uptake, oxidation, iodination,
coupling & release of thyroid hormones
Clinical importance
T3 & T4 are synthesized only when sufficient iodine
is supplied in the diet
Goiter Iodine deficiency
hypothyroidism:
Myxedema in adults
Cretinism in children
Hyper thyroidism: Graves disease
Parathyroid gland
In humans , usually 4
2 are superior poles & 2 are in inferior poles of
thyroid gland
4 glands weigh about 0.3gm
2 hormones namely
Parathormone (PTH)
Calcitonin
PTH
Linear PP
84 aa
8500
N- Ala & C- glutamine
Chief cells of parathyroid glands
functions
Ca conc in serum by
i) absorption of Ca from the intestine
ii) rate of mobilization of Ca from bones
iii) renal tubular reabsorption
Thus PTH produces Hypercalcimia
P conc in serum
elimination of Ca & P in urine
citrate content of blood, kidney & bones
alkaline phospatase & acidphosphatase in blood plasma
Depolymerization of skeletal mucopolysaccharides
Acts on kidney through cAMP
Regulation
PTH is not stored in the gland
Synthesized & secreted continuously
PTH requires Vit D for its functioning
When Ca conc is low , PTH secretion is
Calcitonin
Thyroid and parathyroids
Synthesized from C-cells or parafollicular cells
Single PP
32 aa
3600
N- Cys & C- prolinamide
Functions
Causes rapid & brief Ca level in blood
Influences the tpt of ions in the kidney
Regulation:
Blood Ca levels
in serum Ca calcitonin - hypocalcimia
THANK YOU