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INSTITUT PERTANIAN BOGOR

DEPARTMENT OF SILVICULTURE





ECOLOGY RESTORATION, SVK 611
(Methods of Seed Viability Test)

BY
PHILIP WORLANYO DUGBLEY (E451138231)

Lecturer:

Dr. Ir. Irdika Mansur, M.Sc


PRESENTATION OUTLINE




INTRODUCTION
Brief description of of Seed viability test
Aim of Viability Tests

METHODS OF VIABILITY TEST
The cut test
X-ray analysis Test
Tetrazolium chloride (TZ) Test
Germination Test

CONCLUSIONS




INTRODUCTION

Seed Viability
It is the capability of plant structure
to show living properties like
germination and growth. Viability
testing is one of the major aspects
of seed technology.
Is a also measure of the percentage of
seeds that are alive after storage. The
greater the viability of the seeds, the
fewer seeds that will be needed to
establish a desired number of plants in
the field or nursery.

INTRODUCTION

Germination test is the best indication of the
potential of a seed lot to emerge under field
conditions
The percentage of germination of a sample taken
from seeds to be planted is an important test, but
not sufficient enough. The vigor of the plant is
another factor.
Importance of Viability Tests

METHODS OF VIABILITY TEST

The Cut Test
Viability is determined by cutting the seed open and
examining the contents.
In particular, the seed embryo must appear intact
and healthy if the seed is viable to germinate
In addition, the endosperm must appear clean and
firm
Terry et al., (2003)

METHODS OF VIABILITY TEST

The Cut Test
Terry et al., (2003)

Tiny Undifferentiated embryo (e.g. Ranunculaceae)


Small differentiated embryo (e.g. Apiaceae)


Linear embryo (e.g. Oleaceae)


Bent embryo (e.g. Brassicaceae)


Large investing embryo (e.g. Mimosaceae)


METHODS OF VIABILITY TEST

X-ray Analysis
For seed workers with
access to an x-ray machine,
x-ray analysis can be a very
efficient and non-
destructive method of
assessing seed quality
A good x-ray image
will reveal details of
seed fill, insect
infestation and also
size or absence of the
embryo
To a lesser degree
it may also reveal
variation in storage
tissue quality.
Terry et al., (2003)

METHODS OF VIABILITY TEST

TZ Test
If germination test is conducted to test viability, it
requires long period, because of which seed processing
and marketing is delayed.
Tetrazolium test: It is a bio-chemical test. In this test,
the indicator TZ (a colorless solution of tetrazolium
salt is used).
TZ dyes living parts of seed with red color, while dead
parts appear colorless. Sometimes partial coloration is
also observed.
ISTA (2003)

METHODS OF VIABILITY TEST

TZ Test

Hydrated seeds are perforated
and placed overnight into a
solution of tetrazolium chloride.

Seed staining patterns are
examined the following day to
determine percentage seed
viability.
Usually only uniformly stained
red / dark pink embryos are
considered 'viable'.

METHODS OF VIABILITY TEST

Germination Test- Top of Paper Method
Cut folded paper towel
in half with sterile
scissors, then trim the
long edge of the paper
towel to fit petri dish
With a sterilized hand
or an inverted funnel,
snug substrate paper
into the container
Use a permanent
marker to label the
containers with the type
of seed being tested and
the replication number

METHODS OF VIABILITY TEST

Germination Test
Spread the seeds uniformly
on the moistened substrate,
ensuring that none of the
seeds touch each other
Close the lid, and place the
container inside a loosely
fitting sandwich bag to help
ensure additional moisture
retention
Place the containers in
your seed germination
cabinet, or in a warm area
where some light is
present.

CONCLUSIONS

Testing the viability of seeds through Cut test, TZ test, X-ray Analysis
and seed germination tests an important way to deduce the quality of seeds,
to determine the efficacy of seed storage methods, and to help you plant the
proper amount of seeds.

By conducting these simple seed viability tests, you can increase your
seed saving efficacy and help to empower farmers in the saving and
planting of important genetic diversity.

However, it must be emphasized that each method has it merits and
demerits. They should therefore be used based on available resources and
priority.

REFERENCES

Terry J, Probert RJ and Linington SH. 2003. Processing and maintenance
of the Millennium Seed Bank collections. In: Seed Conservation. Turning
Science into Practice. RD Smith, JB Dickie, SH Linington, HW Pritchard
and RJ Probert, eds. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 307-325

International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). 2003. ISTA Working
Sheets on Tetrazolium Testing. Vols. I and II. ISTA, Bassersdorf,
Switzerland.

Abram J. Bicksler 2011 Testing Seed Viability Using Simple Germination
Tests; A Regional Supplement to ECHO Development Notes. Unpublushed
Pp 1-4



THANK YOU!!!
SEED EXTRACTION
Seed drying and extraction involves
the removal of seed from the fruit
following collection.
These processes should be
carried out as soon as possible after
collection and care must be taken to
avoid any damage to the seed, which
may reduce viability and longevity.
Acacia mangium
The correct handling and processing of acacia
seed prior to storage is essential. Seed coming
from the field is rarely fit for immediate storage;
drying, extraction from the pods and further
cleaning are commonly required.
It is important to ensure that these operations do
not harm the seed, that the seedlots are not mixed
accidentally and that the identification of each
seedlot is maintained.
SEED EXTRACTION
SEED EXTRACTION
Pre-cleaning
Drying
Extraction
Cleaning
When harvested material
arrives at the depot there
should be an immediate
inspection to determine
its condition.
The rapid, artificial drying of
pods is especially useful
during rainy or humid weather.
A temperature treatment of
45C for a maximum period of
4872 hours
After drying the seed
must be removed
from the pod without
affecting seed
viability.
SEED EXTRACTION
Pre-cleaning Drying Extraction
The seed of many acacias can
be extracted from the dried
pod by beating with a flail or
slender pole, crushing the
pods between canvas sheets
by trampling underfoot or,
with small samples, simply
by breaking up the pods by
hand.




SEED EXTRACTION
Cleaning (Sieving and Winnowing)
Extraction


THANK YOU!!!