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08/02 05/02/03

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05/02/03
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Busbar Protection

Protection & Contrle / Application

Rev. A JM, September 2004
08/02 05/02/03
2 2
Without Busbar Protection
F
2

F
1


There are fewer faults on busbars than on other parts of the
power system.
No risk of dislocation of system due to accidental operation of
busbar protection.

Argues
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Without Busbar Protection
F
2

F
1


Slow fault clearance.
Busbar faults at F1 and F2 are cleared by remote time
delayed protection on circuits feeding the faults:
Time Delayed Overcurrent or
Time Delayed Distance Protection
Drawbacks
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With Busbar Protection
BUSBAR
ZONE
F
1


Fast clearance by breakers at the busbars
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With Busbar Protection
BUSBAR
ZONE
F
2
F
1


Where busbars are sectionalised,
Protection can limit the amount of system
disruption for a busbar fault
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21 21
87BB
87BB
1/2
With Busbar Protection
SS
1
SS
2
SS
3
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21 21
87BB
87BB
2/2
With Busbar Protection
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21 21 21
21 21
1/2
With No Busbar Protection
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21 21
2/2
21
21 21
With No Busbar Protection
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21 21
21
21 21
21 21
87BB
87BB
With Busbar protection
With No Busbar protection
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Busbar Faults Are Usually Permanent
Causes of Busbar Faults :
Falling debris
Insulation failures
Circuit breaker failures
Current transformer failures
Isolators switchs operated on load or outside their ratings
Safety earths left connected


Therefore :
Circuit breakers should be tripped and locked out by busbar
protection
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Busbar Protection must be :
RELIABLE
Failure to trip could cause widespread damage to the substation
STABLE
False tripping can cause widespread interruption of supplies to
customers / possible power system instability
DISCRIMINATING
Should trip the minimum number of breakers to clear the fault
FAST
To limit damage and possible power system instability
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Methods of Providing Busbar Protection
Frame to Earth (Leakage) Protection




Blocking Scheme Protection





Differential Protection : High Impedance
Low Impedance
Insulation
>I
>I >I >I >I >I
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05/02/03
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Frame Leakage Protection

Protection & Contrle / Application

Rev. A JM, September 2004
08/02 05/02/03
15 15
Insulation
>I
Frame Leakage Busbar Protection
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>I
Frame Leakage Busbar Protection
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>I
Frame Leakage Busbar Protection
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>I
Frame Leakage Busbar Protection
>I
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Can detect only earth faults

Switchgear must be insulated from earth (by standing on
concrete plinth)

Only one single earth conductor allowed on switchgear

All cable glands must be insulated

Switchgear sections must be insulated
Frame Leakage Busbar Protection
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>I
>I
Frame Leakage Busbar Protection
Neutral Check
False Operation
because induced
loop
No operation
prevents from
false trip
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>I
>I
Frame Leakage Busbar Protection
Neutral Check
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>I
>I
Neutral Check
Frame Leakage Busbar Protection
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Blocking Scheme Protection

Protection & Contrle / Application

Rev. A JM, September 2004
08/02 05/02/03
24 24
>I >I >I >I >I
Blocking Scheme Busbar Protection
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25 25
>I >I >I >I >I
Blocking Scheme Busbar Protection
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>I >I >I >I >I
Blocking Scheme Busbar Protection
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High Impedance Protection

Protection & Contrle / Application

Rev. A JM, September 2004
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Single Bus Substation
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P1
P2
S1
S2
P1
P2
S1
S2
P1
P2
S1
S2
Single Bus Substation
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Single Bus Substation
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Single Bus Substation
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Single Bus Substation
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Double Bus Substation
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Isolator Auxiliary Switches
Current switching
Bus A
Bus B
a
b
Current
P1
P2
S1
S2
P1
P2
S1
S2
P1
P2
S1
S2
P1
P2
S1
S2
P1
P2
S1
S2
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Isolator Auxiliary Switches
Current switching
Bus A
Bus B
a
b
Current
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Isolator Auxiliary Switches
Current switching
Bus A
Bus B
a
b
Current
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Isolator Auxiliary Switches
Current switching
Bus A
Bus B
a
b
Current
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Isolator Auxiliary Switches
Current switching
Bus A
Bus B
a
b
Current
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Isolator Auxiliary Switches
Current switching
Bus A
Bus B
a
b
Current
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Bus A
Current
Bus B
a
b
Isolator Auxiliary Switches
Tripping switching
Tripping
a
b
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Main CT must be identical

Current switching via auxilliary relay is not acceptable.


Requirement of number of position contact (Disconnector
switch) is high
Interposing CT are not acceptable
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Isolator Auxiliary Switches
Current switching
Bus A
Bus B
a
b
Current
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Isolator Auxiliary Switches
Current switching
Bus A
Bus B
a
b
Current
Bus A
Bus B
a
b
Current
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Bus A
Bus B
a
b
Current
Isolator Auxiliary Switches
On Load Transfer
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Bus A
Bus B
a
b Current
Isolator Auxiliary Switches
On Load Transfer
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Bus A
Bus B
a
b
Current
Isolator Auxiliary Switches
On Load Transfer
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Bus A
Bus B
a
b Current
Isolator Auxiliary Switches
On Load Transfer
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Bus A
Bus B
a
b
Current
Isolator Auxiliary Switches
On Load Transfer
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Bus A
Bus B
a
b
Current
Isolator Auxiliary Switches
On Load Transfer
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Bus A
Bus B
a
b Current
Isolator Auxiliary Switches
On Load Transfer
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Bus A
Bus B
T
r
i
p

B
u
s

A

T
r
i
p

B
u
s

B

Zone A
Zone B
Isolator Auxiliary Switches
Check Zone
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Bus A
Bus B
T
r
i
p

B
u
s

A

T
r
i
p

B
u
s

B

Zone A
Zone B
Isolator Auxiliary Switches
Check Zone
Current
switching
failure
False
Tripping
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Bus A
Bus B
T
r
i
p

B
u
s

A

T
r
i
p

B
u
s

B

Check
Zone
Zone A
Zone B
Isolator Auxiliary Switches
Check Zone
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Bus A
Bus B
T
r
i
p

B
u
s

A

T
r
i
p

B
u
s

B

Zone A
Zone B
Isolator Auxiliary Switches
Check Zone
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Bus A
Bus B
T
r
i
p

B
u
s

A

T
r
i
p

B
u
s

B

Check
Zone
Isolator Auxiliary Switches
Check Zone
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One Breaker and a Half
Substation
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Bus A Bus
B
P1
P2
S1
S2
P1
S1
P2
S2
P1 P2
S1 S2
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Bus A Bus
B
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Bus A Bus
B
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Bus A Bus
B
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Bus A Bus
B
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Bus A Bus
B
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Bus A Bus
B
P1
S1
P2
S2
P1
S1
P2
S2
P1
S1
P2
S2
P1
S1
P2
S2