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Recent Management Tools and Techniques :

An Overview

Prof. B. Ramesh Babu
Department of Library and Information Science
University of Madras
Chennai 600 005
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INTRODUCTION
In this modern world, the art of Management has
become a part and parcel of everyday life, be it at
home, in the office or factory and in Government
Management is a systematic way of carrying out
activities in any field of human effort.
Lack of management causes disorder, confusion,
wastage, delay, destruction and even depression.
MANAGE MEN Tactfully = MANAGEMENT
Managing men, money and materials in the best
possible way, according to circumstances and
environment, is the most important and essential factor
for a successful management


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Management guidelines from Bhagavad Gita
There is an important distinction between
effectiveness and efficiency in managing.
Effectiveness is doing the right things.
Efficiency is doing things right.
The general principles of effective management can
be applied in every field, the differences being more
in application than in principle.
Management is a process of aligning people and
getting them committed to work for a common goal to
the maximum social benefit -in search of excellence.

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MANAGER'S FUNCTIONS
Forming a vision
Planning the strategy to realize the vision.
Cultivating the art of leadership.
Establishing institutional excellence.
Building an innovative organization.
Developing human resources.
Building teams and teamwork.
Delegation, motivation, and communication.
Reviewing performance and taking corrective
steps when called for.

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TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF MANAGEMENT
Quality School of
Management
TQM
Six Forces Model
SWOT analysis
VRIO framework
PEST analysis
Porters four corners model
Performance Appraisal
360-degree feedback
Behaviorally Anchored
Rating Scales (BARS)
Know the Big Five
Personality Factors for
Career Success
Adopt Reverse Mentoring to
Enhance Skill Levels
PEOPLE FIRST Attitude
Gets You into Leadership
Position
Participative Management
Change Management
Knowledge Management
Scenario Management



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Quality School of Management
The Quality School of Management is a comprehensive
concept for leading and operating an organization,
aimed at continually improving performance by
focusing on customers while addressing the needs of
all stakeholders
Organization makeup
Quality of goods and services
Continuous improvement in goods and services
Employees working in teams
Developing openness and trust
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Quality management involves employees in decision
making as a way to prevent quality problems.

Two approaches of QM are:

Kaizen (pronounced ky-zen) approach
Reengineering approach
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Kaizen (pronounced ky-zen) approach
Kaizen is the commitment to work toward steady,
continual improvement.
Uses incremental, continuous improvement for people,
products, and processes
The best support for continuous improvement is an
organization of people who give a high priority to
learning.
In this process, everyone in the organization
participates by identifying opportunities for
improvement, testing new approaches, recording the
results, and recommending changes
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Reengineering approach

The reengineering approach to management
focuses on creating change big change
and fast.
It centers on sensing the need to change,
seeing change coming, and reacting
effectively to change when it comes.
Focuses on sensing the need to change,
seeing change coming, and reacting effectively
to it when it comes.

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Total Quality Management (TQM)
T = Everyone has a role to play
Q = Doing right thing first time, every time, all time
M = Art of making it happen

TQM is a management philosophy & company practices that
aim to harness human & material resources in the most
effective way to achieve the objectives of the organisation.

It involves total commitment, dedication, teamwork, and long-
term commitment to training & development for all staff.

It is really a management philosophy that is driven by
customer needs and expectations.
Implementing TQM does not an addition of work, it is simply
improvement in the ways of work on continuous basis.


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TQM is based on:

One objective: continuous improvement.
Three principles: Customer focus, Process
improvement, and Total involvement.
Six Supporting Elements: Leadership, Education &
training, A supportive structure, Communication,
Reward & Recognition, and Measurement.

TQM is a new management concept wherein quality is
the diving force of the entire activity cycle from
beginning to end.
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13 steps in TQM

1. Understanding Quality
2. Commitment to Quality
3. Policy on Quality
4. Organisation for
Quality
5. Measurement of the
costs of Quality
6. Planning for Quality
7. Design for Quality
8. System for Quality
9. Capability for Quality
10. Control of Quality
11. Teamwork for Quality
12. Training for Quality
13. Implementation of TQM
9 Key features of TQM

1. Total Ownership
2. Quality improvement as a
way of life
3. Partnership with suppliers
& users
4. Recognition of internal
customers
5. Identification of key
performance indicators
6. Employee participation
7. Teamwork given priority
8. Removal of internal barriers
9. Simplification &
Standardisation of
Processes
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TQM is a management concept to achieve excellence.

In a library with TQM, the employees have to do their job in a new
environment and the ways of doing the job may be different.

The introduction of TQM makes great demands on the staff.

TQM involves a process of change and therefore requires of staff
that they be ready to play a constructive role in that process.

TQM requires a basic reorientation from the media stock towards
customers and markets. For TQM a result-oriented approach, not
the input of resources, is of vital importance.

A strongly hierarchical organisation with fragmented
responsibilities is not well suited to the introduction of TQM since
all staff needs to feel a responsibility for influencing quality.



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Six Forces Model
The Six Forces Model is a market opportunities analysis
model, and is more robust than a standard SWOT analysis.

The following 6 forces are identified:

Competition
New entrants
End users/Buyers
Suppliers
Substitutes
Complementary products/ The government/ The public

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SWOT analysis
SWOT analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a
project or in a business venture.

It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project
and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and
unfavorable to achieve that objective.

It provides information that is helpful in matching the firm's resources
and capabilities to the competitive environment in which it operates.

A tool that identifies the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and
threats of an organization

It is instrumental in strategy formulation and selection.

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Strengths: attributes of the person or company that are
helpful to achieving the objectives.

Weaknesses: attributes of the person or company that
are harmful to achieving the objectives.

Opportunities: external conditions that are helpful to
achieving the objectives.

Threats: external conditions which could do damage to
the objectives.

It is based on the assumption, that if managers can
carefully review such strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities, and threats, a useful strategy for
ensuring organizational success will become evident to
them.

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SWOT Analysis Framework


Environmental Scan
/ \
Internal Analysis External Analysis
/ \ / \
Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats
|
SWOT Matrix
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SWOT / TOWS Matrix

Strengths Weaknesses

Opportunities
S-O strategies W-O strategies

Threats
S-T strategies W-T strategies
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S-O strategies pursue opportunities that are a
good fit to the company's strengths.
W-O strategies overcome weaknesses to pursue
opportunities.
S-T strategies identify ways that the firm can use
its strengths to reduce its vulnerability to
external threats.
W-T strategies establish a defensive plan to
prevent the firm's weaknesses from making it
highly susceptible to external threats.
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VRIO framework
The VRIO framework, is an internal tool of analysis in the
context of business management.

VRIO is an acronym for the four question framework you ask
about a resource or capability to determine its competitive
potential:

the question of Value, the question of Rarity, the question
of Imitability (Ease/Difficulty to Imitate), and the question
of Organization (ability to exploit the resource or
capability).
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The Question of Value: "Is the firm able to
exploit an opportunity or neutralize an external
threat with the resource/capability?"
The Question of Rarity: "Is control of the
resource/capability in the hands of a relative
few?"
The Question of Imitability: "Is it difficult to
imitate, and will there be significant cost
disadvantage to a firm trying to obtain, develop,
or duplicate the resource/capability?"
The Question of Organization: "Is the firm
organized, ready, and able to exploit the
resource/capability?"
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PEST analysis
PEST analysis stands for "Political, Economic, Social, and
Technological analysis
Framework of macro-environmental factors used in the
environmental scanning component of strategic management.
Some analysts added Legal and rearranged the mnemonic to
SLEPT, inserting Environmental factors expanded it to PESTEL
or PESTLE, which is popular in the UK.
The model has recently been further extended to STEEPLE and
STEEPLED, adding education and demographic factors.
It is a part of the external analysis when conducting a strategic
analysis or doing market research, and gives an overview of the
different macro environmental factors that the company has to
take into consideration.
It is a useful strategic tool for understanding market growth or
decline, business position, potential and direction for
operations.
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Porters FOUR corners model
Porters four corners model is a predictive tool designed by
Michael Porter that helps in determining a competitors course
of action.

Unlike other predictive models which predominantly rely on a
firms current strategy and capabilities to determine future
strategy, Porters model additionally calls for an understanding
of what motivates the competitor.

This added dimension of understanding a competitors internal
culture, value system, mindset and assumptions help in
determining a much more accurate and realistic reading of a
competitors possible reactions in a given situation.
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PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Performance appraisal, Employee appraisal, Performance review, or
(career) Development discussion, is a method by which the job
performance of an employee is evaluated (generally in terms of
quality, quantity, cost, and time) typically by the corresponding
manager or supervisor.

A performance appraisal is a part of guiding and managing career
development.

It is the process of obtaining, analyzing, and recording information
about the relative worth of an employee to the organization.

Performance appraisal is an analysis of an employee's recent
successes and failures, personal strengths and weaknesses, and
suitability for promotion or further training.

It is also the judgment of an employee's performance in a job based
on considerations other than productivity alone.
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Objectives of Performance appraisal
To review the performance of the employees over a given period of
time.
To judge the gap between the actual and the desired performance.
To help the management in exercising organizational control.
Helps to strengthen the relationship and communication between
superior subordinates and management employees.
To diagnose the strengths and weaknesses of the individuals so as to
identify the training and development needs of the future.
To provide feedback to the employees regarding their past
performance.
Provide information to assist in the other personal decisions in the
organization.
Provide clarity of the expectations and responsibilities of the functions
to be performed by the employees.
To judge the effectiveness of the other human resource functions of
the organization such as recruitment, selection, training and
development.
To reduce the grievances of the employees.
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Methods of Performance Appraisal

A common approach to assessing performance is to use a
numerical or scalar rating system whereby managers are asked
to score an individual against a number of objectives/attributes.

In some companies, employees receive assessments from their
manager, peers, subordinates, and customers, while also
performing a self assessment.

This is also known as a 360-degree appraisal and forms good
communication patterns.

The most popular methods used in the performance appraisal
process include the following:
Management by objectives (MBO)
360-degree appraisal
Behavioral observation scale
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales(BARS)

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Management By Objectives (MBO)
MBO is a process of agreeing upon objectives within
an organization so that management and employees
agree to the objectives and understand what they are in
the organization.
The term "management by objectives" was first
popularized by Peter Drucker in his 1954 book 'The
Practice of Management
The essence of MBO is participative goal setting,
choosing course of actions and decision making.
It is the measurement and the comparison of the
employees actual performance with the standards set.
Ideally, when employees themselves have been
involved with the goal setting and choosing the course
of action to be followed by them, they are more likely to
fulfill their responsibilities.
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MBO PROCESS

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Unique features and advantages of the MBO
The principle behind Management by Objectives (MBO) is basically
for employees to have clarity of the roles and responsibilities
expected of them.

Motivation

Better communication and Coordination

Clarity of goals

Subordinates have a higher commitment to objectives that they set
themselves than those imposed on them by their managers.

Managers can ensure that objectives of the subordinates are linked
to the organisation 's objectives.

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360-DEGREE FEEDBACK
In human resources or industrial/organizational psychology,
360-degree feedback, also known as multi-rater feedback,
multisource feedback, or multisource assessment.

Feedback that comes from all around an employee.

"360" refers to the 360 degrees in a circle, with an individual
figuratively in the center of the circle.

Feedback is provided by subordinates, peers, and supervisors.

It also includes a self-assessment and, in some cases, feedback
from external sources such as customers and suppliers or other
interested stakeholders.


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It may be contrasted with "upward feedback," where managers
are given feedback by their direct reports, or a "traditional
performance appraisal," where the employees are most often
reviewed only by their managers.

The results from 360-degree feedback are often used by the
person receiving the feedback to plan training and development.

Results are also used by some organizations in making
administrative decisions, such as pay or promotion.

When this is the case, the 360 assessment is for evaluation
purposes, and is sometimes called a "360-degree review.

There is also controversy regarding whether 360-degree feedback
improves employee performance, and it has even been suggested
that it may decrease shareholder value.
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Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) are scales used to
report performance.

BARS are normally presented vertically with scale points
ranging from five to nine.

It is an appraisal method that aims to combine the benefits of
narratives, critical incident incidents, and quantified ratings by
anchoring a quantified scale with specific narrative examples of
good or poor performance.

A method that combines elements of the traditional rating
scales and critical incidents methods.

This is by far the best method used for a performance appraisal
method
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KNOW THE BIG FIVE PERSONALITY FACTORS FOR
CAREER SUCCESS
The Big Five personality traits are five broad
dimensions that thought to influence individual
personality and behaviour.

They refer to personality factors such as
neuroticism, extraversion, openness,
agreeableness and conscientiousness.

These traits appear to play an important role in a
persons ability to perform and succeed in a work
environment.
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Extraversion refers to a positive outlook and energetic approach
to the world around and consists of traits such as sociability,
activity, assertiveness, and expressiveness.

Agreeableness describes the tendency to conform and concur
with others, even at the cost of ones own interests and priorities.

Conscientiousness is the ability of an individual to practice self
discipline, act dutifully, and facilitate task and goal directed
behaviour, such as thinking before acting, delaying gratification,
following rules, planning, organizing and prioritizing.

Neuroticism is the display of negative emotions, such as feeling
anxious, angry, nervous, sad, and tense.

Openness to experience as against close mindedness describes
the depth, originality, and complexity of a persons thinking and a
willingness to experiment and adapt to change.
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REVERSE MENTORING
Reverse Mentoring is generally implemented when organizations are
carrying out a major technological makeover or when the age gap
between the senior employees and junior employees is considerable.

The concept was conceived by Jack Welch, then CEO of General
Electric, when he and his management team decided to learn about the
Internet from their young mentors.

In reverse mentoring, a junior employee tutors a senior employee.

However, it is not limited to sharing the latest technology.

It extends to cover developments in the industry, subject matter
advances, new perspectives and approaches.

It is a kind of relationship where everyone connected has something to
gain.
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REVERSE MENTORING
By endorsing reverse mentoring the management brings
employees from different age groups, academic backgrounds
and streams of experience together, and facilitates bonding and
collaboration between them.

It is a way of implementing diversity in its true spirit.

Reverse mentoring comes with its share of potential problems.

The senior executive may not feel comfortable with the idea of
learning from his junior.

There could be an ego clash.

Adopt Reverse mentoring to enhance skill level

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Guidelines for the success of Reverse Mentoring
There should be a clear set of goals that would be achieved with the
given time.

They should discuss mutual expectations to ensure that the results
are completely achieved.

The executive and the employee should understand and agree on
these goals.

If the participants themselves set the targets, they should inform the
HR or others in charge of training.

Both the parties should be aware about why the specific mentoring
exercise is required and what each of them would gain in return.

Reverse mentoring is a good option if an organization wants its
employees from different generations understand and appreciate
each others strengths and perspectives. When implemented
according action plan, it promotes learning and collaboration.
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PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT
The concept of participative management has gained wide
acclaim and acceptance at least at the intellectual level
during recent years.

It is a method of management which needs careful
handling and the development of a supportive culture, if it is
to be successful and satisfying for both manager and
participants.
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Four Levels of Participation
1. Informative and Associative Participation

2. Consultative Participation

3. Administrative Participation

4. Decisive of Decision-Making Participation
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How Participative Management?
Group Meetings

Committees

Delegation of authority and responsibility

Communication both upward and downward etc.
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When Participative Management?
Participative Management can be introduced as a
normal practice to handle various problems in the
library or it can be used to handle some special
problems of the library.

For its introduction, there should be congenial
atmosphere wherein superiors should have
favourable attitude towards participative
management and subordinates should be
psychologically involved and must be capable of
providing effective contribution.
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Where Participative Management?
Participative Management should be implemented at
all levels of the organisation, i.e. at Top Management,
Senior Management, Junior Management, Supervisor
and work place.

The role of participation may vary from one level to
another and from one situation to another in the
organisation.

The real success of the Participative Management in
the libraries depends of psychological preparedness
and the emotional commitment of librarian and staff
as equal partners in decision-making process.
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CHANGE MANAGEMENT
Change management is nothing but worthy techniques or
changes implement in the existing management system.

Its implementation is based on the effect occurred in the inside
organization structure or out side force.

The concept is elasticity against the internal and external
changes occurred in the organization.

In the information retrieval systems, it will enhance the status
of the library.
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Key Steps in Change Management
Lucy Jeynes has presented the key steps in change management as
follows:

Recognising the need for change (do not change to correct
problems from the past, but to prepare for the challenges of the
future);

Building the vision (be bold, be audacious);

Mobilizing commitment (change is about people);

Diagnosing reality (the SWOT [Strengths Weaknesses
Opportunities and Threats] analysis);

Getting there (change models like business process re-
engineering, organizational development, etc);

Knowing the change cycle.
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Successful change programs have:
Top management commitment

Constant, consistent communication

Employee involvement at all levels

A shared vision of the future

Understanding of the need to change

Management of the political network
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Principles of Change Management

Formulation of standard staff structure with proper
designations

Fixed norms for the pay structure for each designation

Prescription of definite qualification for each
designation

Selection of the staff for higher level based on strict
norms and regulations based on performance

Setting up clear goals for each individual which should
relate to the achievement of overall mission

Formulating feedback process and review procedures
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Principles of Change Management
contd.,
Arranging proper training based on hands on experience

Providing latest information about the current technology to
be used in libraries and train them to handle it with ease and
confidence

Providing training for developing effective communication
and professional skills

Setting up an effective communication process

Effective counseling for developing cooperation among the
staff

Introducing incentives for achievements and putting forth
innovative ideas for improving the services

5S Technique
Methodology o f creation and maintaining well
organised, clean, high effective and high quality
workplace.
It is Housekeeping Methodology
Five S refers to:
Structurise
Systemetise
Sanitize
Standardise
Self-discipline
Five Rules in 5S
When a problem first occurs, go to physical location
Check uncomfortable product and services
Take a temporary measure on the spot
Find the main cause
Standardise to prevent reoccurrence
- (Titu, Operan and Grecu, 2010)
Time management

Time management refers to a range of skills, tools, and techniques
used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks, projects
and goals.
This set encompasses a wide scope of activities, and these include
planning, allocating, setting goals, delegation, analysis of time
spent, monitoring, organizing, scheduling, and prioritizing.
Initially time management referred to just business or work activities,
but eventually the term broadened to include personal activities as
well.
A time management system is a designed combination of
processes, tools and techniques.


Time management literature paraphrased:

"Get Organized" - paperwork and task triage
"Protect Your Time" - insulate, isolate, delegate
"Set gravitational goals" - that attract actions automatically
"Achieve through Goal management Goal Focus" - motivational
emphasis
"Work in Priority Order" - set goals and prioritize
"Use Magical Tools to Get More Out of Your Time" - depends
on when written
"Master the Skills of Time Management"
"Go with the Flow" - natural rhythms, Eastern philosophy
"Recover from Bad Time Habits" - recovery from underlying
psychological problems,
Stress Management

Employers should provide a stress-free work environment,
recognise where stress is becoming a problem for staff, and
take action to reduce stress.
Stress in the workplace reduces productivity, increases
management pressures, and makes people ill in many ways,
evidence of which is still increasing.
Workplace stress affects the performance of the brain,
including functions of work performance; memory,
concentration, and learning.
Stress at work also provides a serious risk of litigation for all
employers and organisations, carrying significant liabilities for
damages, bad publicity and loss of reputation.
stress reduction techniques
Humour is one of the greatest and quickest devices for
reducing stress.
Brisk walk and self-talk
Rehydrate- Go get a big cup or a bottle of water.
Take a quick nap. It is nature's way of recharging and re-energising.
Any tea will do, but a flavoured cup of tea is even better.

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MANAGEMENT IN THE FUTURE
Modern management approaches respect the
classical, human resource, and quantitative
approaches to management.

However, successful managers recognize that
although each theoretical school has limitations in
its applications, each approach also offers valuable
insights that can broaden a manager's options in
solving problems and achieving organizational
goals.

Successful managers work to extend these
approaches to meet the demands of a dynamic
environment.
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Modern management approaches recognize that
people are complex and variable.

Employee needs change over time; people
possess a range of talents and capabilities that
can be developed.

Organizations and managers, therefore, should
respond to individuals with a wide variety of
managerial strategies and job opportunities.
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Key themes to be considered
The commitment to meet customer needs 100 percent of the time
guides organizations toward quality management and continuous
improvement of operations.

Today's global economy is a dramatic influence on organizations,
and opportunities abound to learn new ways of managing from
practices in other countries.

Organizations must reinvest in their most important asset, their
people.

If organizations cannot make the commitment to lifelong
employment, they must commit to using attrition to reduce head
count.

They will not receive cooperation unless they make it clear that
their people will not be working themselves out of a job.

Managers must excel in their leadership responsibilities to perform
numerous different roles.
Strategies of Management To be adopted
Formulate alliances and partnerships with related
organisations
Concerted intellectual commitment on the part of
librarians
Should adopt different roles at different times.
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CONCLUSION
Technological changes have contributed a change in
management.

A change in management becomes part of daily work.

These activities must be integrated with evolving socio-
technical and environment needs and processes.

New communities of practice must be nurtured,
including people and organizations experienced and
knowledgeable in changing management and
collaboration practice.