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INDIAN DENTAL

ACADEMY
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At present there are two main forms of
orthodontic appliances :
1. The Removable appliances
2. The Fixed appliances
The efficiency of the removable appliances
invented to date is low when compared to
the fixed appliances .
With removable appliances ;one can only
bring about the tipping of the teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
It is possible with the fixed appliances to
move teeth bodily in all directions.
Furthermore , with fixed appliances the
roots of teeth can be torqued lingually or
Labially /bucally.

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According to ANGLE, of first importance
in the evolution of fixed orthodontic
appliance was The Bow of Fauchard of
France (1728); also called The Bandelete.

Magill was the first to use a plain band
cemented to the tooth by oxychloride of
zinc .
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THE E-ARCH

In the late 1800s came the first appliance by
Dr. Edward Heartly Angle called the ;E-
Arch.

The E-Arch was only capable of tipping
teeth to a new position.
Bands were placed only on the molars, and a
heavy labial wire extended around the arch.
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THE E-ARCH

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THE PIN AND TUBE APPLIANCE
Since, the E-Arch was unable to precisely
position any individual tooth, Angle started
to place bands on other teeth and used a
vertical tube on each tooth into which a
soldered pin from a smaller arch wire was
placed .

Tooth movement was accomplished by
repositioning the individual pins at each
appointment.


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THE PIN AND TUBE APPLIANCE
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In 1915 Dr. R.D Robinson presented a
system for painless and positive tooth
movement. Unsatisfied with the
complexities of the pin and tube appliance
and the extreme pressure associated with
the expansion arch ,he used rigid
attachments with light 0.020``arch wires.
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Dr. CALVIN S.CASES APPLIANCE FOR
TORQUING ROOTS OF ANTERIOR
TEETH LINGUALLY





The earliest record of the appliance designed
for moving tooth roots is Calvin Cases
appliance in 1908.







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THE RIBBON ARCH APPLIANCE

In the 1915 ,Dr. E.H Angle modified the tube
on each tooth to provide a vertically
positioned rectangular slot behind the
tube.This gave birth to the RIBBON ARCH
APPLIANCE.

It replaced the complicated pin and tube
appliance ,and was anultimate appliance
primarily because the arch wire had good
spring properties and was efficient in
aligning teeth .
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The ribbon arch could be twisted when
inserted into the slot ,but the major
weakness of the appliance was that it
provided poor control of root position.

The resiliency of the ribbon arch wire did
not allow generation of the moments
necessary to torque the roots to the new
position.A ribbon arch used 10 x 20 gold
wire into the slot and was held with pins.
(Rectangular arch wire used for the 1
st
time)
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THE RIBBON ARCH BRACKET AND
WIRE
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To overcome the deficiencies of the RIBBON
ARCH ,Dr.Angle in the year 1925 took the
ribbon arch wire ,which was normally
inserted vertically from the incisal , and
turned it on its edge... EDGEWISEto
insert it horizontally.

The dimension of the slot were altered to 22
x 28 mils, and a 22 x 28 precious metal wire
was used.
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These dimensions were arrived at after
extensive experiments and , did allow
EXCELLENT control of the crown and the
root positions in all the 3-planes.

Angle instructed Dr. Begg and Fred Ishii of
Japan in the use of the Edgewise
mechanism, before it was revealed to the
profession.Since Dr. Angle was ill , it was
they who first treated patients with the
EDGEWISE appliances .


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GRIFFINS RESILIENT ARCH
ASSEMBLAGE

In the year 1930 Dr.E.M Griffin introduced
the resilient arch assemblage Center
sections of the brackets were soldered to
the arch wire ,preventing free tipping and
sliding of the teeth on the wire .

Lingual arch wires were also used.

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Employs less tooth moving force than
Angles mechanism.

Each of the two light round arch wires is
0.011`` in diameter.
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In 1925 , Dr. Begg came back to Australia
and started practicing the EDGEWISE
mechanism..NON-EXTRACTION as
advocated by Dr.Angle

For 2 years he faithfully followed Dr. Angles
teaching of retaining full compliment of
teeth.
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Dr.Begg was not satisfied with many of his
patients post-Rx profiles, and was faced
with even greater problems.. Serious
relapse.

In Feb 1928 he began to routinely remove
teeth and /or reduce tooth widths by
proximal stripping ;as he knew from his
experience and the role of attrition, that
such reduction is often necessary for
enhanced function, stability and esthetics.
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Initially Dr. Begg was faced with fanatical
opposition from other dentists.It was only
after his superior Rx results which stood the
test of time that the criticism relented.

Dr.Beggs experiences in this regard
paralleled those of Dr. Charles H. Tweed of
Tucson , Arizona, encountered 10 years later.
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Dr.Begg began to realize THE EDGEWISE
MECHANICS was not designed to rapidly
close the extraction spaces , or quickly
reduce the deep bites.

Thus ,to facilitate such changes he began to
use .020``round platinized gold,rather the
rectangular arch wire in 1929.
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In 1931 or 1932 he started using .018``
round stainless steel wire .

In 1933 he began treating some cases using
S.S White Ribbon Arch Brackets ,he
realized that these relatively narrow
brackets with vertically facing slots allowed
the teeth to move under much lighter
forces.


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In 1940s Dr.Begg met Mr. A.J Willcock, who
was directing metallurgical research
projects at the University of Melbourne,
Australia.






Mr. ARTHUR J.WILLCOCK www.indiandentalacademy.com
After many years of research and
development in producing high tensile
stainless steel wires , Mr. Willcock finally
produced a cold-drawn ,heat-treated wire
that combined the balance between
hardness and resilience with the unique
property of ZERO-STRESS RELAXATION

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In 1952 Dr.Begg began to use .016`` round ss
arch wires instead of .018``.

It was then possible to open the deep
anterior over-bites quickly.

In 1953 he began to experiment with root
tipping springs to upright teeth mesio-
distally.
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In 1954 Dr. Begg published a paper entitled
Stone age mans attritional occlusion.

At the end of this article he disclosed a new
tecnique which he referred to as the
ROUND WIRE TECNIQUE,advocating the
use of .018`` ss wire in modified Ribbon arch
brackets.
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Dr. Begg bent both intermaxillary hooks
and vertical spurs directly in the light round
arch wire.

He had same problem of controlling the
mesio-distal inclinations of teeth with
Ribbon arch brackets which Dr. Angle had
30 yrs before .He attempted to solve this
problem by soldering horizontal band spurs
and eyelets to the labial and buccal surfaces
of the bands.
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In 1956 Dr.Begg had another article
published entitled DIFFERENTIAL
FORCE IN ORTHODONTIC
TREATMENT.

It stated When a relatively light force is
applied between small-rooted anterior teeth
and large rooted posterior teeth , the
anterior teeth move relatively rapidly with a
minimum disturbance to the tooth investing
tissues.
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The large rooted posterior teeth remain
stationary.

Conversely , if relatively heavy force were
applied in the same situation , the anterior
teeth would resist movement due to
pathology around their roots .This same
force applied and distributed over large
rooted teeth would be much less per sq.unit
of root surface and result in their relatively
rapid ,physiologic movement.


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Dr. H.D KESLING
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In 1957 Dr.H.D Kesling &Dr. George
Dinham traveled to Adelaide to learn the
tecnique of Dr.Begg.

After returning back to united states
Dr.Kesling started treating all his patients
with Dr.Beggs tecnique ,He also tried to
improvise the modified ribbon arch bracket
in lure to design a better bracket.
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He designed many versions , the most
popular became to known as the DOUBLE
TAB BRACKET.

In the year 1960 Dr.Begg presented some of
his treated cases before the American
Association of Orthodontists, Dr. Kesling
was amazed by the quality of treatment,
and 3 hours after seeing the quality of the
results Dr. Kesling took the decision to scrap
his Double tab brackets

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In the subsequent years Begg refined his
technique further and

1. Separated the technique into 3- stages
and established objectives for each stage.

2. Developed root- torquing auxiliaries
separate from the main arch wire.

3. Introduced the mesio-distal uprighting
springs for efficient root movements.

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Dr. Begg over a period of 20- 30 years
refined his technique to the present form of
art & science. Since many of his patients
lived hundreds of miles from Adelaide ,it
was advantageous for him to have a
technique that required as few visits as
possible.

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Since 1960 hundreds of courses of the Beggs
light wire techniqhe have been held around
the world and thousands of orthodontists
have been trained .
But with the advent and improvisation of
the straight wire technique , the light wire
technique has lost its charm.
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1.Begg orthodontic theory and technique -3
rd

edition
2.Revised Begg appliance Barry
Mollenhauer
3.Cadman article
4.Graber and swain
5.Fletcher

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Leader in continuing dental education
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