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Digital Modulation 1

CHAPTER 4 (DIGITAL MODULATION) -

REVIEW

1. The analog signal is converted to a digital signal
(pulses) by using ADC before transmitted.

2. Types :
1. Pulses - PAM, PWM, PPM
2. Binary - ASK, FSK, PSK, BPSK, DBPSK,
PCM, QAM
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CHAPTER 4 (DIGITAL MODULATION) -
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3. The channel capacity :
I = 3.32BWlog(1 + SNR) in bps

4. Bit :
The speed of data transmission before entering
digital modulator, unit = bps

5. Baud :
The speed of data transmission after undergone
digital demodulator

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CHAPTER 4 (DIGITAL MODULATION) -
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6. Baud can be define as:
Bit rate / number of bit at one signal,
Baud = f
b
/ n

7. FSK :
i) Space Frequency, f
s
at logic 1 (Low Freq)
ii) Mark frequency, f
m
at logic 0 (High Freq)
iii) f
a
(the highest fundametanl analog freq) = f
b
/ 2
iv) Frequency deviation, f = |f
m
- f
s
|/2
Digital Modulation 4
CHAPTER 4 (DIGITAL MODULATION) -
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8. BPSK :
I) Logic 1 at 0
o

II) Logic 0 at 180
o

III) 2 possible ouputs [ 0 or 1]

9. QPSK :
I) 2 Channel, I = in-phase, Q = 90
o
out of phase

II) Logic 0 at 180 degree
III) 4 possible output [00, 01, 10, 11]
IV) Bandwidth, BW = f
b
/ 2
v) For 3-bit systems, BW = f
b
/ 3

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CHAPTER 4 (DIGITAL MODULATION) -
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10. QAM
I) Combination of Amplitude & Phases Shift to

optimize the constellation diagram

II) 8-QAM => 8 output condition (2
3
)
BW = Baud = f
b
/ 3
III) 16-QAM => 16 output conditiion (2
4
),
BW = Baud = f
b
/ 4

* REFER TO TABLE 9-1 (Textbook, page 384)

11. PCM :
I) Assign binary to the Pulse signal

III) 2 type of sampling :
- Natural (did not involve Sample & Hold cct)
- Involve Sample & Hold cct
IV) Sampling rate, f
s
2f
a

v) Dynamic range, DR = Vmax / Vmin = Vmax / resolution
in Db = 20log Vmax/Vmin

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CHAPTER 4 (DIGITAL MODULATION) -
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11. PCM Line Speed
VI) Line speed, Bit rate = samples/sec x bits/sample

VII) Sampling time = 1 / f
s

12. Multiplexing :
I) 3 typical types : TDM, FDM & CDM

II) For multiple users => TDMA, FDMA & CDMA
III) Frame => contains number of channel for number of
bit per sample
Framing bit => inserted for data protection
IV) Example calculation:
If there are 24 channels per frame with a frame contains
8 bits per channel and the sampling frequency of 8 kHz,
The line speed :
f
b
= 24 channel/frame x 8 bits/channel x 8000 sample/sec
= 1.536 Mbps
if 1 framing bit inserted, then
Line spped = [(24 channel/fram x 8 bits/channel) + 1] x 8000
sample/sec
= 1.544 Mbps

Digital Modulation 7
CHAPTER 4 (DIGITAL MODULATION) -
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13. Quantization Level
I) depend on number of bit, L or M = 2
n

II) The higher the quantization level, the higher
the DR, SNR and the number of bit per sample

14. Line Coding :
I) Source Coding

II) Channel Coding
III) Used for data protection & errors/noise
Framing bit => inserted for data protection