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Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley

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Design for Manufacturing
and
Assembly
Design for manufacturability (also sometimes known as
design for manufacturing or DFM) is the general
engineering art of designing products in such a way that
they are easy to manufacture.

Design for manufacturing (DFM) is design based on
minimizing the cost of production and/or time to market
for a product, while maintaining an appropriate level of
quality. A primary strategy in DFM involves minimizing
the number of parts in a product.

DFM describes the process of designing or engineering a
product in order to facilitate the manufacturing process in
order to reduce its manufacturing costs.

Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
Design for manufacturing (DFM) is design based on
minimizing the cost of production and/or time to market for a
product, while maintaining an appropriate level of quality.
The strategy in DFM involves minimizing the number of
parts in a product and selecting the appropriate
manufacturing process.

Design For Assembly (DFA) involves making attachment
directions and methods simpler.
"Design for Manufacture" (or DFM) means the
design for ease of manufacture of the
collection of parts that will form the product
after assembly and

"Design for Assembly" (or DFA) means the
design of the product for ease of assembly.

Thus, "design for manufacture and assembly"
(DFMA) is a combination of DFA and DFM.

UC Berkeley
4
Steps to be taken when using DFMA during design
The DFA analysis is first conducted leading to a simplification
of the product structure.

Then, using DFM, early cost estimates for the parts are obtained
for both the original design and the new design in order to make
trade-off decisions.

During this process the best materials and processes to be used
for the various parts are considered.

Once final selection of materials and processes has occurred, a
more thorough analysis for DFM can be carried out for the detail
design of parts.


DFM Method
1. Estimate the manufacturing costs.
2. Reduce the costs of components.
3. Reduce the costs of assembly.
4. Reduce the costs of supporting production.
5. Consider the impact of DFM decisions on
other factors.
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DFMA Method
Estimate the Manufacutring
Costs
Consider the Impact of DFM
Decisions on Other Factors
Recompute the
Manufacturing Costs
Reduce the Costs of
Supporting Production
Reduce the Costs of
Assembly
Reduce the Costs of
Components
Good
enough
?
N
Y
Acceptable Design
Proposed Design
1. Estimate the Manufacturing Costs
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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Finished Goods
Manufacturing System
Equipment Information Tooling
Waste Services Supplies Energy
Raw Materials
Labor
Purchased
Components
Elements of Manufacturing Cost of a
Product
Manufacturing Cost
Overhead Assembly Components
Standard Custom Labor
Equipment
and Tooling
Support
Indirect
Allocation
Raw
Material
Processing Tooling
Manufacturing Cost of a Product
Component Costs (parts of the product)
Parts purchased from supplier
Custom parts made in the manufacturers own plant or by
suppliers according to the manufacturers design
specifications

Assembly Costs (labor, equipment, & tooling)

Overhead Costs (all other costs)
Support Costs (material handling, quality assurance,
purchasing, shipping, receiving, facilities, etc.)
Indirect Allocations (not directly linked to a particular
product but must be paid for to be in business)

Fixed Costs vs. Variable Costs
Fixed Costs incurred in a predetermined
amount, regardless of number of units
produced (i.e. setting up the factory work area
or cost of an injection mold)

Variable Costs incurred in direct proportion
to the number of units produced (i.e. cost of
raw materials)
2. Reduce the Cost of Components
Understand the Process Constraints and Cost
Drivers
Redesign Components to Eliminate Processing
Steps
Choose the Appropriate Economic Scale for
the Part Process
Standardize Components and Processes
Adhere to Black Box Component
Procurement
Redesign costly parts with the same
performance while avoiding high
manufacturing costs.

Work closely with design engineersraise
awareness of difficult operations and high
costs.
Understand the Process Constraints
and Cost Drivers
Redesign Components to Eliminate
Processing Steps
Reduce the number of steps of the
production process
Will usually result in reduce costs
Eliminate unnecessary steps.
Use substitution steps, where applicable.
Analysis Tool Process Flow Chart and
Value Stream Mapping


Choose the Appropriate Economic
Scale for the Part Process
Economies of Scale As production volume
increases, manufacturing costs usually
decrease.
Fixed costs divided among more units.
Variable costs are lower since the firm can
use more efficient processes and equipment.

Standardize Components and
Processes
Economies of Scale The unit cost of a
component decreases as the production
volume increases.
Standard Componentscommon to more
than one product
Analysis tools group technology and mass
customization
Adhere to Black Box Component
Procurement
Black boxonly give a description of what
the component has to do, not how to
achieve it
Successful black box design requires clear
definitions of the functions, interfaces, and
interactions of each component.
3. Reduce the Costs of Assembly
Design for Assembly (DFA) index
Integrated Parts (Advantages and
Disadvantages)
Maximize Ease of Assembly
Consider Customer Assembly

DFA Systems
Boothroyd Dewhurst DFM & A
Munro & Assoc. (Design Prophet/Profit)
Others


Design for Assembly Index
DFA index =
(Theoretical minimum number of parts) x (3 seconds)
Estimated total assembly time
Determining the Theoretical
Minimum Number of Parts
Does the part need to move relative to the
rest of the assembly?
Must the part be made of a different
material from the rest of the assembly for
fundamental physical reasons?
Does the part have to be separated from the
assembly for assembly access, replacement,
or repair?
Advantages of Integrated Parts
Do not have to be assembled
Often less expensive to fabricate rather than
the sum of each individual part
Allows critical geometric features to be
controlled by the part fabrication process
versus a similar assembly process
Minimize Ease of Assembly
Part is inserted from the top of the assembly
Part is self-aligning
Part does not need to be oriented
Part requires only one hand for assembly
Part requires no tools
Part is assembled in a single, linear motion
Part is secured immediately upon insertion

Consider Customer Assembly
Customers will tolerate some assembly
Design product so that customers can easily
and assemble correctly
Customers will likely ignore directions
4. Reduce the Costs of Supporting
Production
Minimize Systemic Complexity (inputs, outputs,
and transforming processes)
Use smart design decisions
Error Proofing (Poka Yoke)
Anticipate possible failure modes
Take appropriate corrective actions in the early
stages
Use color coding to easily identify similar
looking, but different parts
5. Consider the Impact of DFM
Decisions on Other Factors
Development Time
Development Cost
Product Quality
External Factors
Component reuse
Life cycle costs

DFMA provides a systematic procedure for analyzing a
proposed design from the point of view of assembly and
manufacture.
This procedure results in simpler and more reliable products
that are less expensive to assemble and manufacture.
In addition, any reduction in the number of parts in an
assembly produces a snowball effect on cost reduction because
of the drawings and specifications that are no longer needed,
the vendors that are no longer needed, and the inventory that is
eliminated.
All of these factors have an important effect on overheads,
which, in many cases, form the largest proportion of the total
cost of the product.

DFM and DFA Benefits
DFMA tools also encourage dialogue between designers
and the manufacturing engineers and any other individuals
who play a part in determining final product costs during
the early stages of design.

This means that teamwork is encouraged and the benefits
of simultaneous or concurrent engineering can be
achieved.

The savings in manufacturing costs obtained by many
companies who have implemented DFMA are astounding.

DFM and DFA Benefits
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DFM and DFA Benefits
It reduces part count thereby reducing cost. If a
design is easier to produce and assemble, it can
be done in less time, so it is less expensive.
Design for manufacturing and assembly should
be used for that reason if no other.

It increases reliability, because if the production
process is simplified, then there is less
opportunity for errors.
It generally increases the quality of the product for the
same reason as why it increases the reliability.
Less parts to design, document, revise
Less Bill of Material (BOM) cost, parts to receive,
inspect, store, handle
Less labor and energy to build product
Gets into the customers hands faster
Less complexity
Simpler assembly instructions
Higher quality
Higher profit margin


DFM and DFA Benefits
More competitive in the marketplace

Quantitative method to assess design

Communication tool with other engineering disciplines and other
departments (Sales, etc.)

Greater role for other groups while still in the engineering phase such as
Manufacturing

Since almost 75% of the product cost is determined in the engineering
phase, it gives a tool to attack those hidden waste areas before committing
to a design

Fact: Fasteners typically account for 5% of BOM cost, yet contribute to
70% of the labor cost!

DFM and DFA Benefits
The design stage is very important in product design. Most of
the product lifecycle costs are committed at design stage.

The product design is not just based on good design but it
should be possible to produce by manufacturing as well. Often
an otherwise good design is difficult or impossible to produce.

Typically a design engineer will create a model or design and
send it to manufacturing for review and invite feedback. This
process is called a design review.

If this process is not followed diligently, the product may fail
at the manufacturing stage.

DFM and DFA
UC Berkeley
DFM and DFA
DFM and DFA starts with the formation of the
design team which tends to be multi-disciplinary,
including engineers, manufacturing managers,
cost accountants, and marketing and sales
professionals.

The most basic approach to design for
manufacturing and assembly is to apply design
guidelines.

You should use design guidelines with an
understanding of design goals. Make sure that the
application of a guideline improves the design
concept on those goal.

If these DFM guidelines are not followed, it will result in
iterative design, loss of manufacturing time and overall
resulting in longer time to market. Hence many organizations
have adopted concept of Design for Manufacturing.

Depending on various types of manufacturing processes there
are set guidelines for DFM practices. These DFM guidelines
help to precisely define various tolerances, rules and common
manufacturing checks related to DFM.

DFM and DFA
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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DFM and DFA Design Guidelines
Minimize part count by incorporating multiple functions into
single parts. Several parts could be fabricated by using different
manufacturing processes (sheet metal forming, injection
molding). Ask yourself if a part function can be performed by a
neighboring part.
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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DFM and DFA Design Guidelines
Modularize multiple parts into single sub-assemblies.
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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DFM and DFA Design Guidelines
Design to allow assembly in open spaces, not
confined spaces. Do not bury important
components.
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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DFM and DFA Design Guidelines
Parts should easily indicate orientation for insertion.
Parts should have self-locking features so that the
precise alignment during assembly is not required. Or,
provide marks (indentation) to make orientation
easier.
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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DFM and DFA Design Guidelines
Standardize parts to reduce variety.
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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DFM and DFA Design Guidelines
Design parts so they do not tangle or stick to each
other.
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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DFM and DFA Design Guidelines
Distinguish different parts that are shaped
similarly by non-geometric means, such as color
coding.
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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DFM and DFA Design Guidelines
Design parts to prevent nesting. Nesting is when
parts are stacked on top of one another clamp to
one another, for example, cups and coffee lids
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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DFM and DFA Design Guidelines
Design parts with orienting features to make
alignment easier.
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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DFM and DFA Design Guidelines
Provide alignment features on the assembly
so parts are easily oriented.
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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DFM and DFA Design Guidelines
Design the mating parts for easy insertion. Provide
allowance on each part to compensate for
variation in part dimensions.
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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DFM and DFA Design Guidelines
Design the first part large and wide to be stable and
then assemble the smaller parts on top of it
sequentially.
Insertion from the top
is preferred.
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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DFM and DFA Design Guidelines
If you cannot assemble parts from the top down
exclusively, then minimize the number of
insertion direction. Never require the assembly to
be turned over.
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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DFM and DFA Design Guidelines
Joining parts can be done with fasteners (screws,
nuts and bolts, rivets), snap fits, welds or
adhesives.
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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DFM and DFA Design Guidelines
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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Minimizing the Number of Parts
To determine whether it is possible to combine neighboring
parts, ask yourself the following questions:
If the answer to all questions is NO, you should
find a way to combine the parts.
Must the parts move relative to each other?
Must the parts be electrically or thermally
insulated?
Must the parts be made of different material?
Does combing the parts interfere with
assembly of other parts?
Will servicing be adversely affected?
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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Minimizing the Number of Parts
The concept of the theoretical minimum number of parts
was originally proposed by Boothroyd (1982).
During the assembly of the product, generally a part
is required only when;
1. A kinematic motion of the part is required.
2. A different material is required.
3. Assembly of other parts would otherwise be
prevented.
If non of these statements are true, then the part is not
needed to be a separate entity.

KI SS Keep I t Simple Stupid
Ken Youssefi UC Berkeley
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DFM Design Guidelines
Another aspect of design for manufacturing is to make
each part easy to produce.
The up to date DFM guidelines for different processes
should be obtained from production engineer
knowledgeable about the process. The manufacturing
processes are constantly refined.