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Management Control


Presented by:
Ravish prakash
Management Control System
Is the process of evaluating,
monitoring and controlling the various
sub-units of the organization so that
there is effective and efficient
allocation and utilization of resources
in achieving the predetermined goals

Characteristics of Control
System In Organization
Involvement of people
Information about the actual state of
the organization is compiled by people.
It is compared by people.
With the desired state decided by
For significant difference, a course of
action is recommended by people
Action taken by people
The management decides the desired state
or standards against which performance is
It decides what the organization plans to
achieve in a given time framework which is
known as Planning Process.
Actual Performance is compared to Planned
Performance in control, so planning and
controlling are interlinked and are known as
P&C systems

Planning activities of an organization
Coordinating activities of an organization
Communication information to different
levels of the hierarchical structure
Evaluating information and deciding the
actions to be taken
Influencing people to change their

Responsibility Centres
A responsibility centre is an organisation unit
that is headed by manager who is
responsible for its activities.
delegation of responsibility for specific to
successive lower levels of organisation.
motivation of the level of management to
which a certain task has been delegated.
measurement of the achievement of
specified objectives.

The key consideration in determining the
responsibility centre is
ability to control cost or revenue
determining the question of controllability
evaluation of responsibility centre as per
predetermined criteria

The responsibility centres may be classified
Revenue Centres
Expense Centres
(III) Profit Centres
(IV) Investment Centres

Revenue Centres
In a revenue centre, output (I.e., revenue) is measured in
monetary terms, but no formal attempt is made to relate
input (I.e., expenses or cost) to output.
The main focus of managements efforts will be on
revenue generated by it.
The sales department is an example for a revenue
The effectiveness of the centre is not judged by how
much sales revenue exceeds the cost of the centre.
Sales budget are prepared for revenue centre and
budgeted figures are compared with actual sales.
Generally the costs are not related to output.

Expenses Centre

It is the lowest level of responsibility centre in an
Its manager is basically responsible for production of a
product or service; his decision authority relates to how
human resource, machinery and materials should be
used to produce the product or service.
Expense centre manager has no control over revenues,
profits or investment.
He has no control over marketing decisions or
investment decisions.
Total performance of an expense centre manager
depends on how effectively and efficiently an expense
centre is operated.

Effectiveness of an expense centre manager will depend
on a host of non-financial parameters such as
maintaining quality level of output, compliance with
production schedules and targets, maintaining morale of
the workers and so on.
Normally, separate reporting systems are used to report
Efficiency is judged in terms of financial performance.
It is measured and reported by the responsibility
accounting system.
Evaluation of the financial performance of an expense
centre manager is by comparing the actual expenses of
the centre against the budgeted expenses.

Profit Center

A profit centre is an organizational unit responsible for
both revenues and costs.
Profit centre manager has no control over the investment
in the centres assets.
Managers are concerned with both the production and
marketing of the products.
Activities of the manager is much more broader than that
of a revenue centre manager because of the
responsibility to produce the product most efficiently.
Profit centres performance measured in terms of profit.
It enhances profit consciousness
Example:division of a company that produces and
markets different products.

Investment Center
An investment centre is responsible for the
production, marketing and investment in the
assets employed in the segment.
An investment centre manager decides on
aspects such as the credit policies, inventory
policies, and within broad framework.
Investment centre manager responsible for profit
in relation to amounts invested in the division.
Financial performance of the manager of the
division is measured by comparing the actual
with projected rate of return on investments of
the centres
Audit is the activity of examination and
verification of records and other evidence
by an individual or a body of persons so as
to confirm whether these records and
evidence present a true and fair picture of
whatever they are supposed to reflect.
Audits are most commonly used in the
accounting and finance functions

Categories Of Audits
Audit category Brief description
statement audit
Gives an opinion on the accuracy of the financial
Ensures compliance with the relevant accounting
standards and reporting framework
Internal audit
An independent appraisal function established within
an organization to examine and evaluate its activities
as a service to the organization
Need not be limited to books of accounts and related
Fraud auditing and
forensic audit
Deters, detects, investigates, and reports fraud
Forensic: related to the legal system, especially
issues of evidence
Operational audit
Audits operational aspects of the enterprise
Quality audit, R&D audit, etc
Audit category Brief description
systems audit
Audit of computer systems
Checks whether the computer system safeguards
assets, maintains data integrity, and contributes to
organizational effectiveness and efficiency
Management audit
Audit of the management, as a tool for evaluation
and control of organizational performance
Examines the conditions and provides a diagnosis of
deficiencies with recommendations for correcting
Social audit
Audit of the enterprise's reported performance in
meeting its declared social , community, or
environmental objectives
Environmental compliance audit: a checking
Environmental management audit: an evaluation
The auditing process
Staffing the audit team
Creating an audit project plan
Laying the ground work
Conducting the audit
Analyzing audit results
Sharing audit results
Writing audit reports
Dealing with resistance to audit
Building an ongoing audit program

Benefits of Auditing
Identify opportunities for improvement
Identify outdated strategies
Increase managements ability to address
Enhance teamwork
Reality check

In the rapidly changing world of business, considering
only the financial measures of performance gives an
incomplete picture of the overall organizational
performance. It has become increasingly necessary for
organizations to simultaneously look at non financial
measures for this purpose.
Concepts like JIT, TQM, and SIX SIGMA have brought
out the growing importance of non financial measures for
evaluating the organizations overall performance.
A combination of financial and non financial measures
gives a better picture of organizational performance. One
concept which has received universal acclaim is the
Balance Scorecard (BSC), proposed by Robert Kaplan
and David Norton in 1992.

The BSC framework considers the customer perspective, internal business perspective,
and the innovation/learning and growth perspective, in addition to the financial

perspective Underlying question
Customer perspective
To achieve our vision, how
should we appear to our
Financial perspective
To succeed financially, how
should we appear to our
Internal business
To satisfy our customer and
shareholders, at what business
processes must we excel?
growth perspective
To achieve our vision, how
will we sustain our ability to
change and improve?
Implementing the BSC
If an organization emphasizes only short-
term or financial goals, it will not be able to
successfully execute its strategies and
excel in the business. The balance
scorecard serves as a tool for strategic
performance control by clarifying the vision
and strategy of the organization and
articulating the top management's

A transfer is referred to the movement of
goods from a responsibility center to
another, within the same company

Different types of responsibility center,
belonging to different organizational levels,
are involved in the transfers

Many organizations set up business units that
cater to the needs of other business units within
their own fold. For example, one business unit
may manufacture components that are used by
another business unit to assemble the final
Here , there is a transfer of goods from the first
business to the second and the concept of
transfer pricing comes into play.

Decentralization is one of the approaches that
many large organizations use to attain
operational effectiveness. However , the main
challenges in operating in a decentralized
manner lie in designing responsibility structures
and formulating appropriate policies and
methods to determine the performance of the
responsibility centers.
The technique of transfer pricing plays an
important role in the smooth functioning of
responsibility structures in such an organization

Objectives of TP policy
Goal congruence:- the divisional manager in
maximizing the profits of his division, should not engage
in decision-making that fails to optimize the
organizations performance.
Performance appraisal :-it should aid in reliable and
objective assessment of the value added activities by
profit centers toward the organization as a whole
Divisional autonomy:- each divisional manger should
be free to satisfy the requirements of his profit center
from internal or external sources. There should be no
interference in the process by other divisions like buying
centers and selling centers
Budgets are business plans that are stated in
quantitative terms and are usually based on
These plans aid an organization in the
successful execution of strategies.
Due to the uncertainties in the business
environment and / or due to wrong estimation,
there may be significant deviations between the
a c t u a l s and the plans.
Budgeting as a control tool, provides an action
plan for the organization to ensure least

Budgets are used to give an overview of
the organization and its operations. They
are useful in resource allocation whereby
resources are allocated in such a way that
the processes which are expected to give
the highest returns are given priority.
Budgets are also used as forecast tools
and make the organization better prepared
to adapt to changes in the environment
Budget preparation requires the participation of
managers from different functions / departments.
This helps in integrating the tactical and
operational strategies of the departments with
the corporate strategy of the organization.
Budgets act as a means to verify the progress of
the various activities undertaken to achieve the
planned objectives. The verification is done by
comparing the a c t u a l s against standards

They help in the delegation of authority
and allocation of responsibility and
accountability to more people in an
organization. They thus promote division
of labor, which , in turn, promotes the
process of specialization. Functional
specialization leads to the overall
efficiency of the organization
Steps in Budget Formulation
Creating a budget department or appointing a budget
Developing guidelines for budget preparation
Developing budget proposals at department/business
unit level
Developing the budget for the entire organization
Determining the budget period and key budgets factors
Benchmarking the budget
Budget review and approval
Monitoring progress and revising the budgets

Types of Budgets Characteristics Examples
Appropriation budget A ceiling is set for certain
discretionary expenditures
Based on the management
Training, advertising, sales
promotion and R&D
Flexible budget A static amount is established
for discretionary and committed
fixed costs and a variable rate is
determined per unit of activity
for variable cost
The static part: Salaries,
depreciation, property taxes,
and planned maintenance. The
flexible part : direct material,
direct labor, and variable
overhead .sales commission
Capital budget Decisions regarding potential
investments are made using
discounted cash flow techniques
New plant and equipment
Master budget A comprehensive plan is
developed for all revenue and
All revenue and expenditures for
any organization
What is EVA
EVA = Economic profit
Not the same as accounting profit
Difference between revenues and costs
Costs include not only expenses but also cost of capital
Economic profit adjusts for distortions caused by accounting
Doesnt have to follow GAAP
R&D, advertising, restructuring costs, ...
Cost of capital accounted for explicitly
Rate of return required by suppliers of a firms debt and equity
Represents minimum acceptable return.

Components of EVA
Net operating profit after tax
Operating capital
Net operating working capital, net PP&E, goodwill, and
other operating assets
Cost of capital
Weighted average cost of capital %
Capital charge
Cost of capital % * operating capital
Economic value added
NOPLAT less the capital charge
Calculating EVA
Net operating profit after tax (NOPAT)
- Capital charge (= WACC * Capital)
= Economic value added (EVA)