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electricity n stuff

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FHI

Plan an investigation to measure and report on the

relationship between the voltage across a resistor and the

current through it.

Identify any equipment needed.

Tabulate your results and present the data graphically.

Conduct this experiment twice, using a lamp and a

resistor.

plan, choose equipment for and perform a first-hand investigation to gather data and use available

evidence to show the relationship between voltage across and current in a DC circuit

Measuring potential difference and voltage

FHI

Typical results using a 20 ohm resistor

Two ways of recording this data are as a

table

graph

Analysis of data

Begin by making qualitative observations

when the voltage is zero, the current is

zero

as the voltage increases, the current

increases

plan, choose equipment for and perform a first-hand investigation to gather data and use available

evidence to show the relationship between voltage across and current in a DC circuit

Results

As the current is increased, the

applied voltage increases at constant

rate. The voltage is proportional to

the current.

Results

Numerical Analysis

voltage is proportional to the current

voltage/current = constant (the gradient of the V-I graph)

gradient = 190/0.010 = 1900 [dont forget to convert milliamperes to amperes]

The constant ratio of the voltage:current is called the resistance, R = 1900 ohms

current (mA)

v

o

l

t

a

g

e

(

V

)

define resistance as the ratio of voltage to current for a particular conductor: R = V/I

Resistance

Resistance is defined as the ratio of the voltage to the

current

Resistance is measured

in ohms () if the

voltage is in volts and

the current is in

amperes

R = V/I

R = 10/0.01

R = 1000

define resistance as the ratio of voltage to current for a particular conductor: R = V/I

Resistance

Generally, materials that conduct electricity resist the flow

of current through the material to some degree.

This property is called resistance.

Electronic components

designed to control the flow of

electric current in a specific

manner due to their resistance

are called resistors.

A colour code is used to identify

the value of the resistor.

Resistance

*Check out this

site!

*

Resistance

Quiz: Calculate the current through this 1000 ohm resistor

if the applied voltage was 20 volts.

Solution

R = V/ I

1000 = 20/I

I = 20/1000

I = 0.02 A

or 20 milliamperes

Solve problems and analyse information applying R = V/I

Measuring potential difference and voltage

FHI plan, choose equipment for and perform a first-hand investigation to gather data and use

available evidence to show the relationship between voltage across and current in a DC circuit

containing an incandescent lamp

Typical results using a 5 W lamp

plan, choose equipment for and perform a first-hand investigation to gather data and use available

evidence to show the relationship between voltage across and current in a DC circuit

Results

Results

Observation

As the current is increased,

the applied voltage increases

at an increasing rate

The resistance of the light globe increases as the current increases due to the

increasing temperature of the filament.

An incandescent lamp is a non-ohmic conductor. Its resistance is not fixed.

plan, choose equipment for and perform a first-hand investigation to gather data and use available

evidence to show the relationship between voltage across and current in a DC circuit

The filament of a light globe

The filament of a light globe is a coiled tungsten wire.

The resistance of the light globe is determined by the

intrinsic properties of the filament and the final

temperature of the filament

When a potential difference is applied across a conductor,

the electric current through the conductor is affected by

the length of the conductor

the cross-sectional area of the conductor

the temperature

the type of material

Discuss qualitatively

Investigation

Carefully examine different wattage light globes

and describe any differences between them.

Examining Light Globes FHI

describe qualitatively how each of the following affects the movement of electricity through a conductor;

length, cross sectional area, temperature, material

The filament in a light globe is a coil made of tungsten

THINK

Filaments in Light Globes

Why is the filament coiled?

Electric current

When a potential difference is applied across a conductor, the electric

current through the conductor is affected by the conductors

length

cross-sectional area

temperature

the type of material

The longer the conductor, the more

resistance it has to the flow of

electrons through it.

This is an important factor to be

accounted for when electricity is

being distributed over long

distances.

Longer

wires

Less bright

describe qualitatively how each of the following affects the movement of electricity through a conductor;

length, cross sectional area, temperature, material

describe qualitatively how each of the following affects the movement of electricity through a conductor;

length, cross sectional area, temperature, material

Electric current

When a potential difference is applied across a conductor, the electric

current through the conductor is affected by the conductors

length

cross-sectional area

temperature

the type of material

The larger the conductors diameter,

the less resistance it has to the flow

of electrons through it.

This is an important factor to be

accounted for when electricity is

being distributed over long

distances.

Thinner wires

Less bright

More bright

Thicker wires

describe qualitatively how each of the following affects the movement of electricity through a conductor;

length, cross sectional area, temperature, material

Electric current

When a potential difference is applied across a conductor, the electric

current through the conductor is affected by the conductors

length

cross-sectional area

temperature

the type of material

The higher the conductors

temperature, the more resistance it

has to the flow of current through it.

Experimental distribution of

electricity using superconductors at

very low temperatures has begun.

More bright

Cooler wires

Hotter wires

Less bright

Electric current

When a potential difference is applied across a conductor, the electric

current through the conductor is affected by the conductors

length

cross-sectional area

temperature

the type of material

Copper and aluminium are both

good conductors of electricity.

Although copper is a better

conductor than aluminium,

aluminium is the metal used in most

power lines. WHY?

More bright

copper wires

aluminium wires

Less bright

describe qualitatively how each of the following affects the movement of electricity through a conductor;

length, cross sectional area, temperature, material

Oct

2002

Energy

Energy is defined as the ability to do work.

Symbols for work are W and E

Work always involves the conversion of

energy from one form to another, or the

transfer of energy from one place to another.

Electrical energy is transformed into many

other useful forms by household appliances,

e.g.

sound

light

heat

movement

Power

Power is defined as the rate at which

energy is transformed from one form to

another.

Electrical power is thus the amount of

work that an electric current can

accomplish in a given amount of time.

The unit for power is the watt (W)

The symbol for power is P

From previous work : V = E/q

And I = q/t

Use the definition of power P = E/t

And eliminate q and t from these

equations

Hence P = E/t = qV/t = VI

P = VI

Power and energy transformation

explain that power is the rate at which energy is transformed from one form to another

Power and energy transformation

Think

What happens to the rest of

the energy consumed by the

100 W filament lamp if it is

less bright than a 17 W

fluorescent lamp?

The higher the power of an

appliance, the greater the

amount of electrical energy it

consumes in a given time.

The brightness of

incandescent light bulbs

increases with the power

rating of the bulb.

A 17 watt fluorescent lamp

however may produce more

light than a 100 watt

incandescent light bulbs.

The future of lighting - LED

explain that power is the rate at which energy is transformed from one form to another

Power and energy transformation

Most of the energy consumed by an incandescent bulb is converted to heat energy

A 100 W incandescent bulb gets very hot while it is operating

A 100 W bulb must never be placed in a lamp fitting rated for less powerful bulbs

explain that power is the rate at which energy is transformed from one form to another

explain that power is the rate at which energy is transformed from one form to another

Incandescent lamps are very

sensitive to changes in the

supply voltage. These

characteristics are of great

practical and economic

importance. For a supply

voltage V

Light output is approximately

proportional to V

3.4

Power consumption is

approximately proportional to

V

1.6

Lifetime is approximately

inversely proportional to V

16

Voltage, light output, and lifetime

An image of a 60 W (240

V) light bulb filament. To

increase the filament

length while keeping its

physical size small, the

filament takes the form

of a coiled coil. By

comparison, low voltage

lamp filaments usually

take the form of a single

coil.

Power, potential difference and current

Power

The power produced by

the conversion of

electrical energy is given

by the expression

power = voltage x current

P = VI

Energy = power x time

E = VIt

identify the relationship between power, potential difference and current

solve problems and analyse information using P=VI and E = VIt

Power of Domestic Appliances

Typical values

First

Power, potential difference and current

FHI

Plan a first hand investigation

to gather information and use

available evidence to

demonstrate the relationship

between current, voltage and

power for a model 12 V heating

coil.

perform a first-hand investigation, gather information and use available evidence to

demonstrate the relationship between current, voltage and power for a model 6V to 12V

electric heating coil

First

Power, potential difference and current

Consider

The energy, measured in joules (J),

drawn from the power supply

E = VIt

The energy gained by the water

E = cmT

V = voltage (V)

I = current (A)

c = specific heat of water

m = mass of water

T = temperature change

perform a first-hand investigation, gather information and use available evidence to

demonstrate the relationship between current, voltage and power for a model 6V to 12V

electric heating coil

Power, potential difference and current

Quiz

A 240 V electric room heater has a compliance plate

stating that the appliance draws a current of 5 A.

What is the power of this appliance?

How much energy does it use if operated for 6 hours?

P = VI

P = 240 x 5 = 1200 watts

E = VIt = 240 x 5 x (6 x 3600)

E = 2.592 x 10

7

J

Or 25.92 megajoules (MJ)

identify the relationship between power, potential difference and current

solve problems and analyse information using P=VI and E = VIt

Power, potential difference and current

Quiz

A 240 V electric toaster is rated at 980 watts.

What current does this appliance draw?

Compare the energy it uses in 10 minutes with that used by a 240 V

60 watt light globe operated continuously for 12 hours.

P = VI

980 = 240 x I

I = 4.08 A

E = VIt = 980 x 10 x 60 = 5.88 x 10

5

joules

For the light globe

E = VIt = 60 x 12 x 3600 = 2.59 x 10

6

joules

Hence the globe uses 4.4 times more energy than the toaster.

Power, potential difference and current

Quiz

How many 240 V 40 watt lamps can be put in parallel

before exceeding the typical 8 ampere current limit for a

household lighting circuit?

P = VI

The current drawn by one lamp is given by

I = P/V = 40/240 = 0.167 A

Lamps in parallel each draw the same current as if each

one was connected independently to the power supply.

Hence the number of lights is

8/0.167 = 47

[Why is it not valid to round the answer, 47.9 upward?]

Energy, potential difference and current

Quiz

Determine the time for which each of the appliances* in the

following table would have to be run in order to consume the same

amount of energy as a frying pan used for 2 hours.

Energy used by frying pan

Pt = 1.196 kW x 2 h = 2.392 kWh

Carving knife

2.392 = 0.092 t

t = 26 hours

etc

*

*

*

identify the relationship between power, potential difference and current

solve problems and analyse information using P=VI and E = Vit

identify that the total amount of energy used depends on the length of time the current is flowing and can be calculated

Compare

Compare an electricity bill with a gas bill, describing in

particular, the units by which the energy is sold.

Report this information back to the class.

Typical values

Quantity Cost ($)

______ ______

______ ______

______ ______

Conversion

A kilowatt.hour is 1000 J/s x 3600 s

= 3 600 000 joules

A kilowatt hour is 3.6 MJ

Cost of Energy

identify the relationship between power, potential difference and current

solve problems and analyse information using P=VI and E = VIt

Electricity Bill

explain why the kilowatt-hour is used to measure electrical energy consumption rather than the joule

Electricity Bill

explain why the kilowatt-hour is used to measure electrical energy consumption rather than the joule

The kilowatt hour is used to

measure electrical energy

consumption because these

units are of a convenient size

and they do in fact measure

energy

Since energy = power x time

And the units for power are

watts (or kilowatts)

The units for energy, above are

kWh (where t is the time

measured in hours and power

is measured in kilowatts)

Electricity Transmission

Gas Bill

explain why the kilowatt-hour is used to measure electrical energy consumption rather than the joule

Gas Bill

explain why the kilowatt-hour is used to measure electrical energy consumption rather than the joule

Having the electricity energy

consumption in kilowatt.hours

and the gas energy

consumption in megajoules

makes it almost impossible for

the average person to readily

compare the two.

It could be argued that this is a

distinct advantage for sellers of

both utilities.

Think!

explain why the kilowatt-hour is used to measure electrical energy consumption rather than the joule

Whats wrong with this?

Energy, potential difference and current

Discussion

Electrical energy is sold by the kilowatt hour (kWh),

whereas energy produced by gas is sold by the megajoule

(MJ).

Suggest reasons as to why the energy units are different.

Conversion

A kilowatt.hour is 1000 J/s x 3600 s = 3 600 000 joules

A kilowatt hour is 3.6 MJ

Energy, potential difference and current

Quiz

What current is used by a 240 volt

coffee maker?

Compare the energy used to run the

coffee maker for 10 minutes with the

energy required by an active human

adult male needing 10 MJ per day.

I = P/V = 1200/240 = 5 A

Energy = Pt = 1200 x 10 x 60

Energy = 720 000 joules

The human needs about 10 MJ

or 10/0.72 times more 14 times.

Power of Domestic Appliances

Investigation

Most electrical appliances

are labelled with

information about the

power rating of the

appliance.

Examine the compliance

plates on a variety of

household appliances and

tabulate the information

found on the appliance

compliance plates.

Investigation of the labelling electrical goods

Appliance Voltage Current Power

Phone charger

Fluorescent light

TV

Electric kettle

Toaster

Iron

Calculator

Investigation of the labelling electrical goods

Appliance Voltage (V) Current (A) Power (W)

Phone charger 7.5 0.4 3

Fluorescent lamp 240 10

TV 240 120

Electric kettle 240 2400

Toaster 240 4.17

Iron 240 1400

Calculator

Investigation of the labelling electrical goods

Appliance Voltage (V) Current (A) Power (W)

Calculator 3 0.0002 0.0006

Television

Refrigerator

Electric kettle 240 2200

Keyboard 5 0.5

Phone 12 0.2

Printer 5 0.4 2

Monitor 240 1.3 312

Water heater 240 15 3600

Labelling Electrical Appliances

Power ratings

Most electrical appliances are labelled with information

about the power rating of the appliance.

Typical values

Calculator 0.00006 W

Television 115 W (Sony 68 cm CRT)

Refrigerator

Microwave 1500 W (input) 750 W (output)

Electric kettle 2200 W

...

Labelling Electrical Goods with Power Ratings

Assessing the practice of labelling appliances

Make a judgment

For

make customers aware of how much energy appliances use

allows comparison between like appliances

allow consumers to determine if theyre overloading a circuit

Against

costs money to manufacturers to put on the labels

people do not read the labels - they are often inaccessible

people do not know how to interpret information on the labels

Judgment

Energy rating of domestic appliances

Australian Energy Efficiency Rating (EER)

Five major classes of appliance must carry the star rating

refrigerators

freezers

dishwashers

washing machines and

clothes dryers

Information about an appliances energy consumption is

found on the label attached to all new appliances in these

categories.

Energy rating of domestic appliances

Australian Energy Efficiency Rating (EER)

The EER label shows

quantitative data

produced by a standard

testing procedure.

The energy efficiency is

also represented using

a system of stars.

Energy rating of domestic appliances

Australian Energy Efficiency Rating (EER)

This EER label shows

quantitative data for a

typical small

refrigerator.

Assess the efficiency of

this appliance, based

on this product label.

Propose some strategies

for minimising the amount

of energy used by a fridge.

Energy rating of domestic appliances

Australian Energy Efficiency Rating (EER) for Refrigerators

Purchase decisions based on factual information about appliances

energy consumptions can save significant amounts of money

Reducing Energy Consumption

Electrical energy is sold by the

kilowatt hour. A kWh is 3.6 MJ

What is the reading on the

electricity meter above?

The temperatures in this

chart are in Fahrenheit

degrees

Reducing Energy Consumption

USA domestic consumption data

Propose how a similar graph

for a Sydney home might be

different

Reducing Energy Consumption

Problem solving

Propose strategies that can assist in

reducing heating and lighting bills in

your home.

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