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Measuring potential difference and voltage

FHI
Plan an investigation to measure and report on the
relationship between the voltage across a resistor and the
current through it.
Identify any equipment needed.
Tabulate your results and present the data graphically.
Conduct this experiment twice, using a lamp and a
resistor.
plan, choose equipment for and perform a first-hand investigation to gather data and use available
evidence to show the relationship between voltage across and current in a DC circuit
Measuring potential difference and voltage
FHI
Typical results using a 20 ohm resistor
Two ways of recording this data are as a
table
graph
Analysis of data
Begin by making qualitative observations
when the voltage is zero, the current is
zero
as the voltage increases, the current
increases
plan, choose equipment for and perform a first-hand investigation to gather data and use available
evidence to show the relationship between voltage across and current in a DC circuit
Results
As the current is increased, the
applied voltage increases at constant
rate. The voltage is proportional to
the current.
Results
Numerical Analysis
voltage is proportional to the current
voltage/current = constant (the gradient of the V-I graph)
gradient = 190/0.010 = 1900 [dont forget to convert milliamperes to amperes]
The constant ratio of the voltage:current is called the resistance, R = 1900 ohms
current (mA)
v
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t
a
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(
V
)

define resistance as the ratio of voltage to current for a particular conductor: R = V/I
Resistance
Resistance is defined as the ratio of the voltage to the
current
Resistance is measured
in ohms () if the
voltage is in volts and
the current is in
amperes
R = V/I
R = 10/0.01
R = 1000

define resistance as the ratio of voltage to current for a particular conductor: R = V/I
Resistance
Generally, materials that conduct electricity resist the flow
of current through the material to some degree.
This property is called resistance.
Electronic components
designed to control the flow of
electric current in a specific
manner due to their resistance
are called resistors.
A colour code is used to identify
the value of the resistor.
Resistance
*Check out this
site!
*
Resistance
Quiz: Calculate the current through this 1000 ohm resistor
if the applied voltage was 20 volts.
Solution
R = V/ I
1000 = 20/I
I = 20/1000
I = 0.02 A
or 20 milliamperes
Solve problems and analyse information applying R = V/I
Measuring potential difference and voltage
FHI plan, choose equipment for and perform a first-hand investigation to gather data and use
available evidence to show the relationship between voltage across and current in a DC circuit
containing an incandescent lamp
Typical results using a 5 W lamp
plan, choose equipment for and perform a first-hand investigation to gather data and use available
evidence to show the relationship between voltage across and current in a DC circuit
Results
Results
Observation
As the current is increased,
the applied voltage increases
at an increasing rate
The resistance of the light globe increases as the current increases due to the
increasing temperature of the filament.
An incandescent lamp is a non-ohmic conductor. Its resistance is not fixed.
plan, choose equipment for and perform a first-hand investigation to gather data and use available
evidence to show the relationship between voltage across and current in a DC circuit
The filament of a light globe
The filament of a light globe is a coiled tungsten wire.
The resistance of the light globe is determined by the
intrinsic properties of the filament and the final
temperature of the filament
When a potential difference is applied across a conductor,
the electric current through the conductor is affected by
the length of the conductor
the cross-sectional area of the conductor
the temperature
the type of material
Discuss qualitatively
Investigation
Carefully examine different wattage light globes
and describe any differences between them.
Examining Light Globes FHI
describe qualitatively how each of the following affects the movement of electricity through a conductor;
length, cross sectional area, temperature, material
The filament in a light globe is a coil made of tungsten

THINK
Filaments in Light Globes
Why is the filament coiled?
Electric current
When a potential difference is applied across a conductor, the electric
current through the conductor is affected by the conductors
length
cross-sectional area
temperature
the type of material
The longer the conductor, the more
resistance it has to the flow of
electrons through it.
This is an important factor to be
accounted for when electricity is
being distributed over long
distances.
Longer
wires
Less bright
describe qualitatively how each of the following affects the movement of electricity through a conductor;
length, cross sectional area, temperature, material
describe qualitatively how each of the following affects the movement of electricity through a conductor;
length, cross sectional area, temperature, material
Electric current
When a potential difference is applied across a conductor, the electric
current through the conductor is affected by the conductors
length
cross-sectional area
temperature
the type of material
The larger the conductors diameter,
the less resistance it has to the flow
of electrons through it.
This is an important factor to be
accounted for when electricity is
being distributed over long
distances.
Thinner wires
Less bright
More bright
Thicker wires
describe qualitatively how each of the following affects the movement of electricity through a conductor;
length, cross sectional area, temperature, material
Electric current
When a potential difference is applied across a conductor, the electric
current through the conductor is affected by the conductors
length
cross-sectional area
temperature
the type of material
The higher the conductors
temperature, the more resistance it
has to the flow of current through it.
Experimental distribution of
electricity using superconductors at
very low temperatures has begun.
More bright
Cooler wires
Hotter wires
Less bright
Electric current
When a potential difference is applied across a conductor, the electric
current through the conductor is affected by the conductors
length
cross-sectional area
temperature
the type of material
Copper and aluminium are both
good conductors of electricity.
Although copper is a better
conductor than aluminium,
aluminium is the metal used in most
power lines. WHY?
More bright
copper wires
aluminium wires
Less bright
describe qualitatively how each of the following affects the movement of electricity through a conductor;
length, cross sectional area, temperature, material
Oct
2002
Energy
Energy is defined as the ability to do work.
Symbols for work are W and E
Work always involves the conversion of
energy from one form to another, or the
transfer of energy from one place to another.
Electrical energy is transformed into many
other useful forms by household appliances,
e.g.
sound
light
heat
movement

Power
Power is defined as the rate at which
energy is transformed from one form to
another.
Electrical power is thus the amount of
work that an electric current can
accomplish in a given amount of time.

The unit for power is the watt (W)
The symbol for power is P

From previous work : V = E/q
And I = q/t
Use the definition of power P = E/t
And eliminate q and t from these
equations
Hence P = E/t = qV/t = VI
P = VI
Power and energy transformation
explain that power is the rate at which energy is transformed from one form to another
Power and energy transformation
Think
What happens to the rest of
the energy consumed by the
100 W filament lamp if it is
less bright than a 17 W
fluorescent lamp?
The higher the power of an
appliance, the greater the
amount of electrical energy it
consumes in a given time.
The brightness of
incandescent light bulbs
increases with the power
rating of the bulb.
A 17 watt fluorescent lamp
however may produce more
light than a 100 watt
incandescent light bulbs.
The future of lighting - LED

explain that power is the rate at which energy is transformed from one form to another
Power and energy transformation
Most of the energy consumed by an incandescent bulb is converted to heat energy
A 100 W incandescent bulb gets very hot while it is operating
A 100 W bulb must never be placed in a lamp fitting rated for less powerful bulbs
explain that power is the rate at which energy is transformed from one form to another
explain that power is the rate at which energy is transformed from one form to another

Incandescent lamps are very
sensitive to changes in the
supply voltage. These
characteristics are of great
practical and economic
importance. For a supply
voltage V
Light output is approximately
proportional to V
3.4
Power consumption is
approximately proportional to
V
1.6

inversely proportional to V
16

An image of a 60 W (240
V) light bulb filament. To
increase the filament
length while keeping its
physical size small, the
filament takes the form
of a coiled coil. By
comparison, low voltage
lamp filaments usually
take the form of a single
coil.
Power, potential difference and current
Power
The power produced by
the conversion of
electrical energy is given
by the expression
power = voltage x current
P = VI
Energy = power x time
E = VIt
identify the relationship between power, potential difference and current
solve problems and analyse information using P=VI and E = VIt
Power of Domestic Appliances
Typical values

First
Power, potential difference and current
FHI
Plan a first hand investigation
to gather information and use
available evidence to
demonstrate the relationship
between current, voltage and
power for a model 12 V heating
coil.
perform a first-hand investigation, gather information and use available evidence to
demonstrate the relationship between current, voltage and power for a model 6V to 12V
electric heating coil
First
Power, potential difference and current
Consider
The energy, measured in joules (J),
drawn from the power supply
E = VIt
The energy gained by the water
E = cmT
V = voltage (V)
I = current (A)
c = specific heat of water
m = mass of water
T = temperature change
perform a first-hand investigation, gather information and use available evidence to
demonstrate the relationship between current, voltage and power for a model 6V to 12V
electric heating coil
Power, potential difference and current
Quiz
A 240 V electric room heater has a compliance plate
stating that the appliance draws a current of 5 A.
What is the power of this appliance?
How much energy does it use if operated for 6 hours?

P = VI
P = 240 x 5 = 1200 watts
E = VIt = 240 x 5 x (6 x 3600)
E = 2.592 x 10
7
J
Or 25.92 megajoules (MJ)
identify the relationship between power, potential difference and current
solve problems and analyse information using P=VI and E = VIt
Power, potential difference and current
Quiz
A 240 V electric toaster is rated at 980 watts.
What current does this appliance draw?

Compare the energy it uses in 10 minutes with that used by a 240 V
60 watt light globe operated continuously for 12 hours.
P = VI
980 = 240 x I
I = 4.08 A
E = VIt = 980 x 10 x 60 = 5.88 x 10
5
joules
For the light globe
E = VIt = 60 x 12 x 3600 = 2.59 x 10
6
joules
Hence the globe uses 4.4 times more energy than the toaster.
Power, potential difference and current
Quiz
How many 240 V 40 watt lamps can be put in parallel
before exceeding the typical 8 ampere current limit for a
household lighting circuit?
P = VI
The current drawn by one lamp is given by
I = P/V = 40/240 = 0.167 A
Lamps in parallel each draw the same current as if each
one was connected independently to the power supply.
Hence the number of lights is
8/0.167 = 47
[Why is it not valid to round the answer, 47.9 upward?]

Energy, potential difference and current
Quiz
Determine the time for which each of the appliances* in the
following table would have to be run in order to consume the same
amount of energy as a frying pan used for 2 hours.

Energy used by frying pan
Pt = 1.196 kW x 2 h = 2.392 kWh
Carving knife
2.392 = 0.092 t
t = 26 hours
etc
*
*
*
identify the relationship between power, potential difference and current
solve problems and analyse information using P=VI and E = Vit
identify that the total amount of energy used depends on the length of time the current is flowing and can be calculated
Compare
Compare an electricity bill with a gas bill, describing in
particular, the units by which the energy is sold.
Report this information back to the class.
Typical values
Quantity Cost (\$)
______ ______
______ ______
______ ______
Conversion
A kilowatt.hour is 1000 J/s x 3600 s
= 3 600 000 joules
A kilowatt hour is 3.6 MJ
Cost of Energy
identify the relationship between power, potential difference and current
solve problems and analyse information using P=VI and E = VIt
Electricity Bill
explain why the kilowatt-hour is used to measure electrical energy consumption rather than the joule
Electricity Bill
explain why the kilowatt-hour is used to measure electrical energy consumption rather than the joule
The kilowatt hour is used to
measure electrical energy
consumption because these
units are of a convenient size
and they do in fact measure
energy
Since energy = power x time
And the units for power are
watts (or kilowatts)
The units for energy, above are
kWh (where t is the time
measured in hours and power
is measured in kilowatts)
Electricity Transmission
Gas Bill
explain why the kilowatt-hour is used to measure electrical energy consumption rather than the joule
Gas Bill
explain why the kilowatt-hour is used to measure electrical energy consumption rather than the joule
Having the electricity energy
consumption in kilowatt.hours
and the gas energy
consumption in megajoules
makes it almost impossible for
compare the two.
It could be argued that this is a
both utilities.
Think!
explain why the kilowatt-hour is used to measure electrical energy consumption rather than the joule
Whats wrong with this?
Energy, potential difference and current
Discussion
Electrical energy is sold by the kilowatt hour (kWh),
whereas energy produced by gas is sold by the megajoule
(MJ).
Suggest reasons as to why the energy units are different.

Conversion
A kilowatt.hour is 1000 J/s x 3600 s = 3 600 000 joules
A kilowatt hour is 3.6 MJ
Energy, potential difference and current
Quiz
What current is used by a 240 volt
coffee maker?
Compare the energy used to run the
coffee maker for 10 minutes with the
energy required by an active human
adult male needing 10 MJ per day.

I = P/V = 1200/240 = 5 A
Energy = Pt = 1200 x 10 x 60
Energy = 720 000 joules
The human needs about 10 MJ
or 10/0.72 times more 14 times.
Power of Domestic Appliances
Investigation
Most electrical appliances
are labelled with
power rating of the
appliance.
Examine the compliance
plates on a variety of
household appliances and
tabulate the information
found on the appliance
compliance plates.
Investigation of the labelling electrical goods
Appliance Voltage Current Power
Phone charger
Fluorescent light
TV
Electric kettle
Toaster
Iron
Calculator
Investigation of the labelling electrical goods
Appliance Voltage (V) Current (A) Power (W)
Phone charger 7.5 0.4 3
Fluorescent lamp 240 10
TV 240 120
Electric kettle 240 2400
Toaster 240 4.17
Iron 240 1400
Calculator
Investigation of the labelling electrical goods
Appliance Voltage (V) Current (A) Power (W)
Calculator 3 0.0002 0.0006
Television
Refrigerator
Electric kettle 240 2200
Keyboard 5 0.5
Phone 12 0.2
Printer 5 0.4 2
Monitor 240 1.3 312
Water heater 240 15 3600
Labelling Electrical Appliances
Power ratings
Most electrical appliances are labelled with information
about the power rating of the appliance.
Typical values
Calculator 0.00006 W
Television 115 W (Sony 68 cm CRT)
Refrigerator
Microwave 1500 W (input) 750 W (output)
Electric kettle 2200 W
...
Labelling Electrical Goods with Power Ratings
Assessing the practice of labelling appliances
Make a judgment
For
make customers aware of how much energy appliances use
allows comparison between like appliances
Against
costs money to manufacturers to put on the labels
people do not read the labels - they are often inaccessible
people do not know how to interpret information on the labels
Judgment
Energy rating of domestic appliances
Australian Energy Efficiency Rating (EER)
Five major classes of appliance must carry the star rating
refrigerators
freezers
dishwashers
washing machines and
clothes dryers
Information about an appliances energy consumption is
found on the label attached to all new appliances in these
categories.
Energy rating of domestic appliances
Australian Energy Efficiency Rating (EER)
The EER label shows
quantitative data
produced by a standard
testing procedure.
The energy efficiency is
also represented using
a system of stars.
Energy rating of domestic appliances
Australian Energy Efficiency Rating (EER)
This EER label shows
quantitative data for a
typical small
refrigerator.
Assess the efficiency of
this appliance, based
on this product label.
Propose some strategies
for minimising the amount
of energy used by a fridge.
Energy rating of domestic appliances
Australian Energy Efficiency Rating (EER) for Refrigerators
Purchase decisions based on factual information about appliances
energy consumptions can save significant amounts of money
Reducing Energy Consumption
Electrical energy is sold by the
kilowatt hour. A kWh is 3.6 MJ
What is the reading on the
electricity meter above?
The temperatures in this
chart are in Fahrenheit
degrees
Reducing Energy Consumption
USA domestic consumption data
Propose how a similar graph
for a Sydney home might be
different
Reducing Energy Consumption
Problem solving
Propose strategies that can assist in
reducing heating and lighting bills in