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Kinetics of Rigid Bodies

Some engineering problems require consideration of


forces causing motion, in addition to motion
characteristics.
The branch of dynamics that deals with such problems
involving relationship between motion of particles or a
rigid body and its causes is called kinetics.
The causes of motion may be forces, moments, or a
combination of these.
Generally, the Newtons laws of motion are used to
solve such problems.
However, another principle known as DAlemberts
principle is best suited for these problems
Newtons Laws
English scientist, Sir Isaac Newton in 1687,
form the basis of classical mechanics.
They describe the relationship between
motion of a body and the forces causing the
motion.
They relate the velocity and acceleration of a
body to changes in its energy and momentum.
Newtons first law
An object tends to remain in its state of rest or of
motion in straight line with constant velocity; unless it
experiences a net external force.
This tendency of a body to retain its state is known as
inertia.
Hence, this is also known as law of inertia.
This law implies :
Objects in vacuum move with constant velocity, if no
external force acts on them.
External force originates from outside the object. Hence,
an external agent is required to change the velocity of the
object.

Newtons second law
The net force acting on an object is equal to rate of
change of its linear momentum (mv) with time in an
inertial frame of reference.

For mass remaining constant,

where, a is the acceleration of the object.
It can also be stated as the acceleration of an object
is directly proportional to the net external force
acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass.
( ) d mv
F
dt
=
dv
F m ma F ma
dt
= = =
Newtons third law
To every action, there is
always an opposite reaction
of same magnitude.
In other words, this law may
be stated as the mutual
actions of two bodies upon
each other are always equal
and opposite in direction.
This implies that whenever a
motion is restrained, reaction
is produced.

D Alemberts Principle
It is an alternative to Newtons second law and
leads to a simpler solution in some special
cases.
It states that the net external force on a body
plus the negative of inertia force is equal to
zero.

When a force F is applied on a body of mass m, an
acceleration a is produced.
If a fictitious force (equal to inertia force ma) is
applied to the body in a direction opposite to that of
acceleration a, the body comes in equilibrium.



We can then write

0 F ma =
This is the most common form of D' Alembert's
principle.
This implies that the body is in dynamic
equilibrium under the action of the real force F
and the fictitious force, ma.
This fictitious force is called inertial force.
It acts through the centre of mass of the rigid
body.
By using DAlemberts principle, effectively a
dynamics problem changes into a problem of
statics.

0 F ma =
DAlemberts principle for Rotating
Body
Similarly, in case of a rotating body, net moment (F.r)
about mass centre can be balanced by inertial torque
(I.), where I is the centroidal mass moment of
inertia, are the angular acceleration.
Therefore, according to DAlemberts principle,

0 Fr Io =
A man weighing 700 N stands on the floor of a lift.
Determine the force exerted on the floor when
(a) the lift moves upward with an acceleration of 1.5
m/s
2
, and
(b) the lift moves downward with an acceleration of 1.5
m/s
2
.
(c) If 800-N force is being exerted on the floor, with what
acceleration the lift is moving?
Solve the problem by using D Alemberts principle.

Motion of Vehicles on Curved
Roads
Motion of vehicles on Level and Banked
roads
Centripetal acc,
2
/
n
a v r =
(a) The Angle of Leaning
For equilibrium (no overturning), the sum of
moments about point A must be zero, therefore
A
0: ( tan ) ( ) 0
n
M W h ma h u E = =
2
tan
W v
Wh h
g r
u
| | | |
=
| |
\ .\ .
2 2
1
ta ta n n
v
rg
v
rg
u u

| |
=
|
\
=
.

(b) Maximum Speed to Avoid Skidding


For equilibrium in vertical and horz. directions,


Skidding can be avoided if frictional force F
developed is sufficient to balance the centrifugal
force. Thus, maximum value of frictional force,

0: 0
y
F R W R W E = = =
0: 0
x n n
F ma F F ma E = = =
max
F R W = =
2
2
max
or
n
W v
F ma W v gr
g r

| |
> > s
|
\ .
max
v gr =
Motion of a Vehicle on a Level
Circular Road
Apply inertial force ma
n
to bring the vehicle in
dynamic equilibrium.
A B A B
0 : + 0 +
y
F R R W R R W E = = =
B
A
2
B
0 : (2 ) ( ) ( ) 0
2 0
n
M R b W b ma h
W v
bR bW h
g r
E = =
| |
=
|
\ .
2
B
1
2
W v h
R
grb
| |
= +
|
\ .
2
A B
1
2
W v h
R W R W
grb
| |
= = +
|
\ .
2
A
1
2
W v h
R
grb
| |
=
|
\ .
(b) Maximum Speed to Avoid
Overturning
Overturning would take place, if wheel A lifts off the
ground when reaction R
A
tends to become zero.
Therefore, to avoid overturning, we must have
A
0 R >
max
grb
v
h
=
2
1 0
2
W v h
grb
| |
>
|
\ .
2
1
v h grb
v
grb h
s s
(c) Maximum Speed to Avoid Skidding
If centrifugal force becomes more than the total
frictional force (F
A
+ F
B
) on the tyres of the vehicle, it
will skid away from the centre C.
To avoid skidding,
( )
A B
+
n
ma F F s
( )
2
A B
+
W v
R R
g r

| | | |
s
| |
\ .\ .
2
W v
W
g r

| | | |
s
| |
\ .\ .
max
v gr =
Motion of a Vehicle on Banked
Circular Road
To reduce the possibility of overturning of vehicles
while moving on a curved road, the road is slightly
slanted by making the outer edge higher than the
inner edge.
This is called banking of the road, and height
different as Superelevation.
Banking required to avoid overturning
Apply inertial force ma
n
on the car to bring it in
dynamic equilibrium.


Dividing one eq. by other


From this, optimum speed,
0: sin 0
x n
F ma R u E = =
2 2
sin 0 sin
W V WV
R R
g r gr
u u
| | | |
= =
| |
\ .\ .
0: cos 0 cos
y
F R W R W u u E = = =
2 2
1
tan tan
V V
gr gr
u u

| |
= =
|
\ .
tan V gr u =
A ball weighing 100 g is suspended from the
ceiling of a railway carriage, as shown in Fig.
The suspending string was found to make an
angle of 12 with vertical during negotiating a
horizontal curve of radius 90 m. Determine
the velocity of the carriage and the tension in
the string.

A vehicle weighting 15 000 N is to negotiate a
circular corner of radius 120 m on a level road with a
speed of 36 km/h. The height of its CG above the
road is 1 m and the distance between its wheels is
1.5 m. Find the reactions at the wheels. At what
maximum speed can it move to turn the corner
without fear of overturning ?