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Bio-Pesticides and Chemical

Pesticides - Synergy
Agriculture - The Changing facets
Past : Origin of Agriculture, Pesticides and
Chemicalisation A History
Present : It has become customary out of
necessity conceived through individual
thoughts to talk about hazardous nature of
chemical usage in agriculture and compare it
with biologicals as if the later have no ill-
effect A view
Future : It was therefore thought fit at this
juncture when agriculture stands in the cross
roads of chemicals and biologicals to talk
about a synergy of both A concept
The pattern of pesticides use in the India
Item

% use in India
(4500 Cr.)

% use world
US $ 32 billion
in 1997

Insecticides

60

43.6

Herbicides

16

29.6

Fungicides

19

20.6

Others (Biopesticides
Biocontrol agents Botanicals
and other forms of ethnic
products
2
(many details
not available)

6.1

(Source : Agriculture today 2005 and Atwal, 1986 )
The pattern of insecticides use among various
crops in India
Crop

Pesticide
share (%)

Cropped area
share (%)
Cotton

52-55

5

Rice

17-18

24

Chillies/Vegetables/Fruits

13-14

3

Plantation crops

7-8

2

Pulses/Cereals/oil-seeds 2-3

58

Sugarcane

3-4

2

Others

3-4

6

(Source : Agriculture today 2005 and Atwal, 1986)
Pesticides - Some facts
Are we using too much of pesticides ? - the answer is
VERY BIG No!
The per hectare consumption in India is meager. Only
570 gms per hectare against 2500 gm/hectare in USA ,
3000 gms/Ha in Europe and 12,000 gm/Ha in Japan.
Is the agricultural productivity is directly proportional
with increased chemical usage .Again the answer is
VERY BIG No!
Then why such a hue and cry of using pesticide in
India? Is it right to call so?
(Source : agriculture Today. Nov. 2005)
Pests / Disease Chemicals Biologicals
Market potential Ruling the market Nascent stage
Concept promotion
Low risk
Already familiar in
the market
High risk
Still to be promoted for
familiarizing the concept
Government attitude
unchanged
Encouraging through
IPM programme
Farmers point of view
Continuing the existing
practices is easier
Looked at it as a
plausible alternative at
least as a supplement if
not substitute
Public opinion
(Consumers point of view)
Apparently
unfavorable
People have become more
health and environment
protection
Biggest support
End User : Farmers
view
End User : Consumers
view
Pesticides Vs Bio-Pesticides Differing marketing Perceptions
Pests/
Disease
Chemicals Biologicals
Trade name
National International
Insect pests
Mites
(Red spider mite
Pink mite
Purple mite)
Dicofol
Sulphur 80%
Quinolphos 25EC
Dicofol
Neem Nimbecidine
Neemazol
Fortune Aza
Margosan O
Bioneem
Paecilomyces
fumosoroseus

Priority


Lepidopteran pests
(Cutworms and
borer)
Coleopteran pests
(Grubs and Borers)
Quinolphos 25EC+
Dichlorovos 76 EC
Fenvalerate 20 EC
Neem Nimbecidine MargosanO
Bioneem
Beauveria
bassiana
Bio-Power Biotrol Osterinil
Mycotrol WP
Sucking pests
Whiteflies, Thrips,
Endosulfan 35EC
Quinolphos 25EC
Verticillium
lecanii
Bio-Catch Mycotal Vertalec
Verticillium50
Orthopteran pest
(Locust and
grasshoppers)
Quinolphos 25EC
Fenvalerate
Neem &
Metarhizium
anisopliae
Nimbecidine
Bio-Magic
Metaquino
Bioblast Biotrol
Disease

Root rot and Root wilt
caused by Fusarium,
Rhizoctonia etc.

Propiconazole
Difenconazole
Tebuconazole
Mancozeb
Pohrate

Trichoderma
viridie

Bio-Cure F
Trisan;Trichoseal;
Trichopel
F-Stop
Pseudomonas
fluorescence
Bio-Cure B Blight Ban
Ecogen
Nutrient
Management

Fertilizers NPK Biofertilizers
N-fixers; P-solublizer
K-mobilizer
Symbion N & P


Chemical pesticides and the equivalent Biological supplement
Locked horns :
Agrochemicals Vs. Biologicals
Factors

Agrochemicals

Agri-biologicals

Cost effectiveness

Cheap but increased
spraying cost

Costlier but reduced number of
applications

Persistence and residual
effect

High

Low, mostly Bio-degradable
and self perpetuating

Knockdown effect

Immediate

Delayed

Handling and Bulkiness

Easy but danger and
Hazardous

Bulky : Carrier based
Easy : Liquid formulation

Pest resurgence

More

Less

Resistance

More prone

Less prone

Effect on Beneficial flora

At times destruction of
friendly pest

Less harmful on beneficial
pests

Target specificity

Mostly broad spectrum

Mostly host specific

Waiting time

Very high

Almost nil

Nature of control

Curative

Preventive

Shelf life

More

Less

(Source : agriculture Today. Nov. 2005)
Fertilizers Vs Plant Health
Exploitation of the natures store house
later let to depletion of soil nutrients
subsequently leading to chemicalisation
However, the excessive impoundment
of nitrogenous fertilizers may lead to
increased pest infestation.
Alternate Natural Sources of Nutrients
Organic manure ( Agricultural & Urban residue)
Biofertilizers
Vermicompost
Bio-Dynamic preparation
Animal waste
Bio-fertilizer Production in India (2000)
Source: Adapted by authors from FAI, 2001.
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
90000
M T
Demad potential (MT X10) Produciton capacity(MT) Actual production(MT)
Biofertilizer -Scope in India
8,18,730 MT
16,500 MT
8,000 MT
Source: Abhay Phadke, 2001
During 1946 to 1965, 7.95 lakh MT of chemical fertilizer and 7341
MT of chemical pesticides were used to produce an increase in yield
of 1.60% (per annum). Food grain production estimated between <
50Mllion MT to 90Milliion MT)

During the years between 1967-1978, with an usage of 23.15 lakh
MT of chemical fertilizers, ie. nearly 3 times that of earlier decades
and usage of 47091 MT of pesticides, ie. nearly 7 fold that of the
previous decade, has only resulted in the reduction of percentage of
yield increase by 0.20% (per annum) and stood at 1.40%. Food
grain production estimated at 129.6 Million MT)

Indicates yield growth recorded between 1949-1965 is not
maintainable during 1967-1978 even with increased chemicalization.
Therefore, for sustainable agricultural one should focus on
synergism of chemicals and biologicals
Pesticides, Fertilizers usage Vs. Production
Source :The Organic farming source aBook:88pp; http:/indiabudget.nic.in www.photius.com
Agricultural Yield vs. In-Puts
Source :The Organic farming source aBook:88pp; http:/indiabudget.nic.in www.photius.com
<90 MMT
129.6 MMT
220 MMT
Increase in
chemical usage is
not directly
proportional to
yield increase
The total area
cultivation and
irrigation
improvement
along with
chemicals
contributed to
yield increase
1965 Chem.Cons.(F&P) = 87.0 MMT
Food production = 90MMT
2001 Chem.Cons.(F&P) = 1000 MMT
Food Production = 220 MMT
12 fold increase of CF consumption resulted in 2.5 fold increase of food production
2.5 Fold increase in food production = Fertilizer consumption | Increase in area
F
P
F
F
P
P
All Figures in MMT
All Fig. In MMT
Consumption Pattern of Chemical Pesticide
and Food Production in India
Source: Indian Chemical Statistics 2000-01
http://agricoop.nic.in/statatglance2003.htm
In tonnes
Risk with chemical pesticides
Agricultural and Consumer front
Indiscriminate use let to the Three sad Rs :
Resistance, Resurgence and Residues.
Elimination of Natural enemies of pests
Upsetting the ecological balance
Environmental degradation/Pollution
Beyond the Economic: Farmer,Practices and
Identities
Enters food chain and lead to Bio-Accumulation
and Bio-Magnification
INTEGRATING BIOLOGICALS IN
PEST MANAGEMENT
An integrated approach i.e. integrating
chemicals with biologicals in the pest
management is needed to reduce the
crop losses due to pests and to make
agriculture more sustainable
Botanical pesticides and biocontrol
agents offer immense scope in the IPM
1. Biorational and creates Natural epizootics.
2. Inherently less harmful than conventional
pesticides
3. Suppress, rather than eliminate, a pest
population
4. Biopesticides are effective and often quickly
biodegradable and Present no residue problems.
5. Mostly self perpetuating

The importance of Biopesticides in Agriculture
Is Bio-Pesticides are risk Free
Biopesticides, particularly microbial
biopesticides, have virtually all the health
safety and environmental properties that
one would desire in a pesticide

The ecological fallacy and the individualistic
fallacy needs to be studied in detail.
Microbial insecticides
Microbial insecticides are come
from naturally-occurring bacteria,
fungi, viruses.
Biopesticides and their uses
Biopesticide
Type

Source

Nature

Nature

Used against

Crops
benefited
Natural
product

Plants
Neem
Vitex Garlic
Biochemicals

Antifeedant, Growth
regulation, oviposition and
mating. disruption

Insect pest

Horticultural,
plantation and
plain crops



Microbials

Bacteria

Bacillus
thuringiensis(
Bt)
B.sphaericus, ,

Infection Insect pests



Pseudomonas

Antibiosis

Disease

Virus

Nuclear
Polyhedrosis
Viruses, GV,

Infection resulting in
epizootics

Insect pest

Fungi

Beauveria,
Metarhizium,
Paecilomyces,
Nomuraea

Infection resulting in
epizootics

Insect pests



Trichoderma
Gliocladium

Antagonism and Antibiosis

Fungal disease
of plants
Protozoa

Nosema,
Thelohania,
Vairimorpha

Epizootics

Insect pests.

Pheromones

:



Pheromones

Biochemicals

Mating disruption, lure and kill, or
insect monitoring strategies

Insect pest

Genes or
Plant-
pesticide :

Desired
genes from a
known
source

Biochemicals

Confer tolerance of herbicide
application or resistance to
attack by viruses or insects

Insect pest and
disease



Mode of action of Entomopathogenic fungi
Entomopathogenic fungi -in Insect Control
Tea Mites
Rice bugs
Helicoverpa Beauveria infected Helicoverpa
Paecilomyces infected tea mites
Metarhizium infected rice bugs
The Pests which are difficult
to control by Pesticides can be
controlled by Biopesticides
Mycoparasitism by a Trichoderma strain
on the plant pathogen (Pythium)
Antagonistic
fungi for
disease
control
Biologicals - Safe to Predators and Parasites
Biologicals
Market potential for Biopesticides - Current
Status :International Status

For many years, from the late 1960s until the late 1980s,
the market was static with sales of around $20-25 M.
The market for biopesticides continues to grow, although
in total it has reached a much lower level of consumption
than anticipated 10 or 20 years ago.

By 1996-7 the market for biopesticides was $85-90 M and
the projected estimated growth is around 10-15% per
year ; it is also forecasted that if the present momentum
is to continue by the end of 2008 a net market share of
$200 - $250 M for biological could become a reality.
Source : Agriculture today, Jan,2005
Biopesticides Market Estimates/Predictions by Multinationals
Biopesticides Market Estimates/Predictions

Company

Year

Biopesticides market size ($)

Sandoz

1994-5

<60m

Ecogen

1994-5

60m

Mycogen

1994-5

60m

Abbott

1994-5

>60m

BMP

1994-5

70m

Novartis

1997

194m

BASF

indefinite

2% (500m ) to <5% (1.25b)

Market Intelligence

1998

196m

Freedonia

1997

150m (US only)

Woodburn

1998

410m

Business Communications

1997

197m (US only)

Ernst and Young

1995+

312m

Agrow

2000

600m

Source : Agriculture today, Jan,2005
The domestic market of biopesticides is the best showcase of
their plight - It is in infant stage still - Despite decades of
existence, Biopesticides are considered as marginal products.
Virtually bereft of buyers and sellers.

Awareness about the advantages of biopesticides is abysmally
low as compared to the west," This affects their demand
adversely.

Manufacturers claim that the projected demand for
biopesticide has failed to become a reality. This lack of support is
proving to be the death knell of this infant industry.

Rough estimates by the experts indicated a less than 2 per cent
market share for Biopesticides in India.
Market potential - India
Source : Agriculture today, Jan,2005
Export market for biopesticides


The export market for biopesticides particularly for neem-based products is
however, flourishing.

At present a range of Biopesticides are being available in the Indian market and
its demand is expected to increase in the near future.

At present , there are 40 units registered with CIB for manufacture of Neem
based pesticides. Most of the units are located in A.P, Karnataka , Tamil Nadu and
Maharashtra. Apart from these units there are many small units in unrecognized
sector. Some of these units are exporting their product to developed countries also.

They produce @ 3000 Kiloliter of pesticides valued at 30 crores. According to
the experts opinion, this demand can increase 10 times in a short period of 5
years.


Factors contributed to the emergence of a market for
biologicals

Societies demand over environmental safety

An increase in the price of chemical insecticides and the
resistance of insects to these products

Need to reduce residues of toxic chemicals in foodstuffs,
especially those for export markets.

A strong increase in the sales of organic food as consumers
become more health conscious and concerned over their food
coupled with higher buying power leading to increase in non-
chemical crop protection and total crop care.

Caution

Dr Rachel Carson in her publication Silent Spring has summarized the
sufficient socio-economic problems associated with synthetic chemical
usage in the agricultural scenario.

All the more, one should not expect a over night change from synthetic
chemicals to biologicals, but a gradual and steady change from high
chemical input, off take to, low level of chemical input farming could be
foreseen, planned and implemented.

One should bear in mind the socio-economic causes of agriculture and any
change in the agriculture systems should not significantly decline the food
production and the economic status of the rural poor.

Therefore, the reduction of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture
must be done very carefully and the system of change over from chemicals
to biologicals must be gradual.

Govt. Attitude towards Biologicals
IPM is the official strategy of the Government of India,
articulated also in the Rio Agenda (Agenda 21 policy
statements).

NPM programmers have so far not received any
governmental attention despite good successes.

NGOs have usually been pioneering the NPM approach.
On the organic front there are only some formal
government-led initiatives for crops like tea and spices.
Suggested Policies
Biopesticides: Wherever registration of biopesticides is
required, it should be done by a separate Registration
Board, rather than the Central Insecticides Board
(CIB).
The Biological inputs to be viewed differently due to
the different nature mode of action of the products.
Otherwise, the process of registration should be
simplified with fewer requirements for toxicology and
chemistry data. Bio-efficacy may be given top priority
for registering the products.
Exemption of biopesticides from State and Central
Sales taxes and also VAT wherever applicable and
exemption from Excise Duty.
To feed the future generations without degrading the resource
base that supports crop productivity, agriculture must become
economically viable and ecologically sustainable. Through
organic farming, sustainability could be achieved.

It is not a question of eliminating the chemical fertilizers and
pesticides from the agricultural production scenario.

How sufficient productivity can be achieved through Integrated
Nutrient Management (INM) and Integrated Pest Management
(IPM) and Integrated Water Management (IWM) using local
resources, aiming towards sustainability is the issue to be
addressed at this juncture.

Conclusion