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Huawei
Hardware Installation Of BTS
Course No.: QA-HI-008
Compiled by: Engineering Center Service Management Dept.
Issue Date: 2004-11-15
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Huawei
Table of Contents
Introduction to BTS312

Procedure to Install BTS312

Install BTS312 Cabinet

Install Antenna and Feeder System
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Huawei
Introduction to BTS312
Most GSM base stations are BTS312 presently.
BTS30 is seldom used. The features of BTS312
are as follows:
Dimensions: 1880 mm 650 mm 500 mm (H W
D)
Weight (under full configuration of 12 TRXs): 330
kg
Power consumption (under full configuration of
12 TRXs): 2400 W
Normal working temperature: 1530 C
Normal working humidity: 40%60%
Transmitting frequency band (MHZ): BTS
935~960 M1805~1880 M
MS 890~815 M 1710~1785M
A BTS cabinet consists of four subracks: one
public resources subrack and three TRX
combiner and divider subracks from bottom up.
A single BTS cabinet can hold up to 12 TRXs.
Combined cabinets are used to achieve the
synchronous cells of more than 12 TRXs. Among
the combined cabinets, the cabinet that includes
the TMU acts as the basic cabinet and the others
as the extended ones. The extended cabinets
receive the time and maintenance signals
through cables from the basic cabinet.
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Huawei
Introduction to BTS312
RF schematic diagram of BTS312
3 Typical CDU-involved configurations - 6 or S6/6/6 P8
TTA (optional)
A sector uses a dual polarization sectorized
beam antenna (S6)
An omnidirectional cell uses two single
polarization omnidirectional antennas ( 6)
Amplifier Amplifier
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Duplexer Duplexer
Combiner
Combiner Combiner Combiner Combiner
1-to-4
divider
1-to-4
divider
1-to-4
divider
1-to-4
divider
P
A
P
A
PA
PA
PA
PA
The left figure
shows the major
parts of six TRXs
of a sector or an
omnidirectional
cell.
Only one SCU
and the
corresponding
TRXs and
connection
accessories need
be added to a
sector to expand
S4/4/4 to S6/6/6.
Antenna
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Huawei
Introduction to BTS312
Overall system architecture of BTS312
Mains
Generator
AC power
distribution
box
ACU
Rectifier
unit
Cabling rack
BTS
BTS DDF
Transmission equipment
(DDF, SDH, and microwave)
Antenna stand
Outdoor lightning
protection ground
DCU
Battery
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Cabinet
Alarm
collection
box
Feeder
window
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Introduction to BTS312
earthing of BTS312
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Grounding bar Ground loop
of tower
Outdoor
grounding bar
Ground loop
of building
DC working
grounding bar
AC grounding bar
Rack (indoor)
Protection
grounding bar
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Procedure to Install BTS312
1. Preparation before installation
1) Personnel preparation 2) Documentation preparation 3) Tools

2. Check room conditions
1) Building conditions 2) Environment conditions
3) Power supply conditions
4) Auxiliary equipment 5) Lightning protection and earthing

3. Engineering plan
1) Engineering interface 2) Engineering coordination and cooperation
3) Engineering schedule

4. Preparation after arrival at customer's location
1) Engineering coordination meeting 2) View equipment room
3) Unpack goods for inspection
4) Enter goods in equipment room 5) Start installation and commissioning
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Procedure to Install BTS312
2. Install board
4. Prepare and route
outdoor jumper
3. Install CDU
1. Fix cabinet
4. Install cables in
cabinet
8. Install lightning
arrester
7. Install trunk cables
on DDF
9. Prepare and route
outdoor jumper
5. Install power and
earthing cables
2. Install TTA
(optional)
6. Install power
supply lightning
arrester
5. Install lightning
protection earthing clip
3. Route feeder
Hardware installation
check
Clean up engineering
documentation
1. Install antenna
6. Attach label
Procedure to install BTS312
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Huawei
Install BTS312 Cabinet
A BTS312 cabinet can be installed:
4 On an antistatic floor
4 On a cement ground

There are the following three possibilities of installing the cabinet on the
cement ground according to the uniform load of the ground and the
distance between the cabinet rear and the wall opposite.
To install the cabinet far from the wall. This is applicable when the rear of
the BTS312 cabinet is not less than 800 mm away from the wall opposite.
To install the cabinet near the wall. This is applicable when the rear of the
BTS312 cabinet is less that 800 mm away from the wall opposite.
To install the cabinet on a large base. This is applicable when the uniform
load of the ground is less than 4 kN/m2. The large base decreases the
pressure of the cabinet pushing on the ground.
The distance between the cabinet rear and the wall opposite cannot be less
than 100 mm in consideration of heat dissipation.

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Install BTS312 Cabinet Position
Cabinet and Mark Lines
Learn the uniform load of the ground in the equipment room and the weight of the
cabinet and batteries (the weights of different types of batteries are different). Position
the cabinet according to the reference dimensions in the engineering design drawings.
Position several marking points using a tape measure. Mark two 370-mm-spaced lines
parallel to the reference using a fountain pen. Position the mounting holes of the first
cabinet on the two lines based on the design requirements. Mark the mounting holes of
the other cabinets with these holes as a reference.
Inner wall or reference body
Cabinet door edge line
Expansion bolt M12
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Huawei
Install BTS312 Cabinet Install
Cabinet Near Wall
Apply a base suite to connect the cabinet with the ground when installing the cabinet near
the wall opposite to the cabinet rear. The suite consists of an upper frame and a lower
one. Fix the upper frame at the bottom of the cabinet. Fix the lower one on the cement
ground. Assemble the upper and lower frames to complete the installation.
Lower frame
Spring washer 12
Insulation
shell
Mounting direction
Gasket
M12 nut
Large plain
washer 12
Insulation pad
M12X 80 explosive expansion bolt
Lower frame
Upper frame
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Huawei
Bolt M12X35
Spring washer 12
Insulation shell
Large plain washer
Upper frame
of base suite
Install BTS312 Cabinet
Connect Combined Cabinets
Connecting holes
Shield cover and fastener of
side panel
4 Remove the shield cover and
fastener from the side panel
by which you want to combine
the cabinet with another
cabinet. Attach shield strip to
the outer surface around the
port.
4 Place all the combined
cabinets in position. Align
them closely. Connect them
by inserting fasteners through
the connecting holes (four) in
their side panels.
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Huawei
Install BTS312 Cabinet Install
Cabinet Far from Wall
Align the mounting holes of the large base
with the corresponding expansion bolts. Fix
the large base on the ground using nuts,
spring washers, and plain washers. Tighten
the nuts to 45Nm. Pay attention to the
installation direction of the cabinet. Be
careful to mount the insulation washers and
insulation shells when installing the cabinet.
Fix the cabinet on the large base using bolts
and washers. Tighten the bolts to 45Nm. Be
sure to apply large plain washers rather
than common ones.
Apply a large base to decrease
the pressure of the cabinet
pushing on the ground when
installing the cabinet far from the
wall opposite to the cabinet rear.
Extended base
Extended base
Connecting section steel
Basic base
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Install BTS312 Cabinet Install
Cabinet on Antistatic Floor
Install BTS312 cabinet on antistatic floor
Connecting holes for installing BTS312 cabinet
Upper support
Lower support
Mounting hole
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Huawei
(1) Port for data bus (DCF1) (2) External alarm ports (EAC1, EAC2) (3) 120 E1 ports (TME1) (4)
Port for battery management signal cable (PWRC) (5) Clock ports (CKB1, CKB2) (6) Port for data
bus (DCF2) (7) 75 E1 port (TX, RX) (8) External synchronization clock port (SYNC) (9) Ports for
cascading CDUs of combined cabinets (CDU) (10) Port for earthing cable of combined cabinets
(SHELLGND) (11) Ports for external power cables(12) Feeder input port (ANT)
Terminals on top of BTS312 cabinet

Install BTS312 Cabinet
Terminals on Cabinet Top
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Huawei
Install BTS312 Cabinet Install
Power Cable of Alarm Box
The alarm box power cable has white,
black and green cores.
(1) Connect the OT terminal of the white
core together with the blue -48V/+24V
power cable to one filter binding post.
(2) Connect the black core together with
the black -48V/+24V power cable to one
filter binding post.
(3) Connect the green core together with
the yellow PGND cable to the PGND
screw on the cabinet top.

Note: For an environment monitor unit of
220V AC power supply connect the
communication ground to the PGND
screw on the cabinet top. Connect the AC
power input cables still to the AC power
distribution box.
Panel of alarm box

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April 8 10 : 23
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Huawei
Huawei has adopted a new method to install the DC power supply
lightning arrester and E1 lightning arrester of a BTS. Huawei
replaces the existing power input box cover with a new one. The E1
and power supply lightning arresters are designed to be in the new
power input box cover (on the cabinet top).

1. Install power supply lightning arrester
Keep the -48V/+24V end of the power supply lightning arrester facing the
opening of the protective ring. Keep its end with the earth sign away from
the opening of the ring.
2. Install E1 lightning arrester
Keep the OUT/Equip end of all the E1 lightning arresters on the inner side
of the lightning protection box cover. Keep their IN/Line end on the outer
side of the box. The lightning arrester is useless when you install it in the
opposite direction.

Install BTS312 Cabinet Install
Lightning Arrester
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Be sure to wear an antistatic wrist strap before touching the equipment or holding
a plug board, circuit board or IC chip. Keep the other end of the antistatic wrist
strap well grounded. This is to prevent your static electricity from damaging the
sensitive components.
The electrostatic discharge impairments can accumulate. The components are not
disabled when a slight impairment occurs. However, they will suddenly become
disabled when cumulative impairments are caused. The electrostatic discharge
impairments are divided into two kinds, dominant impairment and recessive
impairment. You might not perceive a recessive impairment immediately it occurs.
However, the impaired component will become more delicate and be in all
likelihood damaged under over-voltage and high temperature conditions.
Install BTS312 Cabinet Static
Electricity Protection
Connector of antistatic wrist strap
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Huawei
Huawei provides the RF cable suite according to the actual BTS
configuration. Each cable has a number at either end, indicating
where the end shall be connected (make sure that the terminal
silkscreen on the panel is proper).
1. Do not bend a cable sharply in a too small bending radius,
risking damage on the cable. The appropriate bending radius is
greater than 3 cm. Screw a SMA load on an idle SMA port of a
combiner/divider. Be careful to connect the matched load to an
output port of a divider to avoid an open signal output circuit
during the service. Check the cable routing. Make sure that all RF
connectors are installed. Prevent dummy connection from
affecting the system service.
2. Tighten an RF connector using a spanner by appropriate force.
Do not over-tighten or under-tighten it. Impart different torques to
different types of connectors.
The receiving cable from the divider output port of a CDU to the
RX input port of a TRX has a SMA connector at either end. The
transmitting cable from the power output port of a TRX to the
TX1/TX2 port of a CDU has an N connector at either end. The soft
jumper from the antenna receiving/transmitting port of a CDU to
the top of the BTS312 cabinet has a 7/16DIN connector (to the
cabinet top) and a N connector (to the CDU).
Recommended torques for the various types of connectors are as
follows:
SMA: 0.6~1.8 N?m Recommended tool and manufacturer: 74Z-0-
0-21 (Huber-Suhner)
N: 0.7~1.1 N?m Recommended tool and manufacturer: 74Z-0-0-
193 (Huber-Suhner)
7/16DIN: 25~30 N?m
Install BTS312 Cabinet
Install RF Cables
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Huawei
GND
-48V
! Cable size
95 mm2
Outdoor earthing bar
Indoor earthing bar
* Make a water curve for
the feeder outside the
feeder window entry.
Power supply lightning arrester
Transmission
* Route the
various signal
cables separately
from the power
and earthing
cables.
* Grounded at a point within 1 m outside the feeder window entry
* Keep the feeder earthing clips at an angle of less than 15 from the
feeder. Lay them from the top down.
Feeder
Indoor
Outdoor
BTS
Primary power supply or
DC power distribution
cabinet
! Cable size 95 mm2
! Be careful to mount the insulation
washers during the installation to
insulate the cabinet from the ground
and walls.
-48V GND PGND
* Keep the feeder window
well sealed.
* Ground the
indoor cabling rack
to the indoor earthing
bar.

* Separate the
indoor cabling rack
from the outdoor
cabling rack.
! Ground the GND of the
primary power supply.
! The power supply safety is
satisfactory.
Install the power supply lightning arrester on
the cabinet top.
! Distinguish the power and earthing cables by their colors and
install them properly.
! The size of all the power and earthing cables are satisfactory.
! Cut the excess power and earthing cables. Do not coil them.
!! Do not apply a connector in the middle of one power or
earthing cable.
! Install the cable connectors securely.
! Install antenna and
feeder lightning arrester
Indoor cabling rack
Note: Ground the indoor and outdoor earthing bars respectively to the ground grid.
The earthing resistance shall be not greater than 5 .
It is acceptable when the earthing resistance is under 10 in the region where
the average number of thunderstorm days per year is less than 20.
! The feeder connectors are standard
and secure.
! The bending radius of the feeder/jumper is not
less than 20 times the diameter of the
feeder/jumper.
! Connect the feeder properly to the
proper sector. Attach a proper label
properly to either end of it.
! Do cross the feeders/jumpers with each other.
Arrange them in neat rows and columns. Bend
them, where required, in consistent bending
radius.
Install BTS312 Cabinet Install RF
Cables
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The antenna and feeder system plays an important role in providing air
interface for the GSM BTS. Its engineering design and construction quality are
directly related to the system performance of the entire BTS. Its installation is
the major part of the BTS system installation. The antenna and feeder system
installation normally consumes 70% of the entire engineering time. The
installation methods and procedures of different types of antennas in different
installation environments are different. The installation supervisor shall
determine the installation method and procedure rationally and flexibly
according to the engineering design documentation, the number of installation
engineers, installation environment and antenna type. Your safety during the
installation is also worth your much attention

The antenna and feeder system consists of the antenna, primary feeder, jumper,
lightning arrester, tower top amplifier (TTA), and combiner and divider module.
Install Antenna and Feeder System
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4 Check the installation site
4 Get acquainted with the engineering design documentation
4 Determine the installation method
4 Install the sealing window
4 Lift the antenna
4 Install the TTA
4 Cut feeders and attach temporary labels
4 Prepare feeder connectors and attach labels to the outdoor
part of the feeders
4 Connect feeders with lightning arrester
4 Install indoor jumpers
4 Prepare and attach labels
Install Antenna and Feeder System Procedure
to Install Antenna and Feeder System
Perform the following procedure to install the
antenna and feeder system:
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Apply different methods to install different types of antennas.
(1) Install a rod omnidirectional antenna on a mast at a side of the tower, on a stand at
a side of the tower, at the center of the top of the tower, or on a mast on the top of the
building.
(2) Install a panel directional antenna on a mast at a side of the tower, on a stand at a
side of the tower, or on a master on the top of the building.
A TTA has two 7/16DIN (female) RF ports. One is connected with the receiving antenna
(marked with ANT). The other is connected with the BTS (marked with BTS). It is
connected with the 7/16DIN receiving RF port on the top cover plate of the cabinet
through a jumper and feeder.
Omnidirectional
antenna
Directional
antenna
TTA appearance
Install Antenna and Feeder System
Determine Installation Method
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Huawei
Install Antenna and Feeder System
Lift Antenna
Lift antenna and feeder
Note: Take certain measures to protect the installation engineers and the antenna during the lifting.
Wrap the antenna and feeder port to protect the port against paint peel-off and subsequent damage.
Only an engineer that is in good conditions and does not catch acrophobia can get on the tower. The
engineer cannot drink before getting on the tower. The engineer shall use safety measures and get
personal accident insurance.
At least five engineers are required to lift the antenna and feeder on a tower. At least three engineers
are required to route the feeder at the top of the building.
Install the antenna and feeder system in a fine day without strong winds if possible.

Windlass
Object to the
tower
Pulley
Pulley
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The horizontal distance between an omnidirectional antenna and the
lightning rod of the antenna shall be not less than 2.5 m at the top of the
building.
For a directional antenna the azimuth error shall be within 5 and the
inclination error within 0.5.
Antenna at building top
Note:
The area that extends
downward at a 45 angle all
around the peak of the
lightning rod is the protected
area of the lightning rod.
Install Antenna and Feeder System
Antenna at Building Top
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4 An omnidirectional antenna shall be not less
than 1.5 m away from the tower. A directional
antenna shall be not less than 1 m away from
the tower.
4 The horizontal distance between the receiving
and transmitting ends of an omnidirectional
antenna shall be not less than 3.5 m. The
distance between the diversity receiving ends
of a directional antenna shall be not less than
4 m.
4 The vertical distance between the receiving
and transmitting ends of a directional antenna
shall be not less than 2.5 m. The vertical
distance between the directional antennas on
one stand shall be not less than 0.5 m.
4 The top of an omnidirectional antenna shall be
on the same level as or slightly higher than the
top of the antenna stand.
4 An omnidirectional antenna shall stand upright.
Its vertical deviation shall be within 2.
Antenna at tower top
Install Antenna and Feeder System
Antenna at Tower Top
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Install Antenna and Feeder System
Adjust Angles of Antenna
The error of antenna
azimuth measurement
of shall be within 0.50.
Find mounting hole by
mounting hole number
Install
directional
antenna
Find mounting hole by
pitch angle of antenna
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4 Suspend a lightning arrester between the horizontal
crosspieces of the cabling rack. Cut the feeder a proper length
apart according to the requirements for lightning arrest
position in the engineering design drawings.
4 The lightning frame is the discharge ground of a feeder
lightning arrester. It is located physically indoors. It is actually
a part of the earthing system of the antenna and feeder system.
The lightning arrester is on the lightning frame and in
continuity with the frame. Insulate the lightning frame from the
cabling rack at a point about 1 m inside the feeder window
entry. Lengthen the distance if it is difficult to achieve that.
However, the point shall be as near as possible to the feeder
window. Connect the earthing cable of the lightning frame
straight through the feeder window to the outdoor copper
earthing bar.
4 Lay the feeders of one sector in one row and arrange all the
rows in consistent sequence when the feeders enter the room
in the direction parallel to the cabinet or opposite to the
cabinet rear. Lay the feeders of one section in one column and
arrange all the columns in consistent sequence when the
feeders enter the room in the direction opposite to the cabinet
front.
Attach the antenna and feeder label at a point 5 cm
from one end of the corresponding jumper. One
label is enough on each jumper because the jumper
is short.
Feeder lightning arrester
Install Antenna and Feeder System Install
Feeder Lightning Arrester on Cabling Rack
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4Lead the earthing cable of a lightning earthing clip from the top down. The appropriate angle formed
by the clip and the feeder is not greater than 15. Wind three layers of waterproof and insulation
tape around the clip. Wind the first layer from the bottom up, the second from the top down, and
the third from the bottom up.
4Connect the earthing cables of the lightning earthing clips outside to the outdoor earthing bar
or well-grounded outdoor cabling rack.
4Peel the antirust paint off the grounded point of the cabling rack. Recoat the point with antirust
paint after installing the earthing cable. Coat all the exposed connectors that are difficult to be
wrapped in insulation tape with antirust paint to guarantee good contact.
Install Antenna and Feeder System
Install Lightning earthing Clip
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Prepare 7/8" antenna and feeder connector
(See the installation manual for more details)

Install Antenna and Feeder System
Prepare Antenna and Feeder Connector
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Install Antenna and Feeder System
Route Antenna and Feeder Outdoors
Add a grounding clip to a feeder that
runs over 20 m at the building top
Apply a 7/8" feeder if the feeder need
run less than 70 m and a 5/4" feeder if
the feeder need run over 70 m
Ground the outdoor cabling rack
Outdoor grounding cable
Make a water curve for the feeder
outside the feeder window entry
Outdoor grounding bar
Primary feeder Building top
Feeder
window
Feeder clip
There are two types of feeder
fixing clip: 7/8" and 5/4". Each
type can be further divided in two:
1-in-1 and 3-in-1. Mount a fixing
clip every two m of the feeder.
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Make a water curve for the antenna and
feeder outside the feeder window entry.
Installed antenna and feeder
nameplates
Installed 3-in-1 feeder clip
Install Antenna and Feeder System
Route Antenna and Feeder

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(1) The letters on the feeder nameplates are described as follows:
TX: transmitting
RX: receiving
RXD: receiving diversity
TRX: transmitting and receiving
(2) The digits following the letters are described as follows:
For an omnidirectional cell only one digit follows the letters. It indicates the
tributary number.
For a directional cell two digits follow the letters. The former and latter digits
respectively indicate the cell number and tributary number.
Install Antenna and Feeder System
Feeder Nameplate
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1. Mount the feeder earthing clips at the following points:
1) Within 1 m of the primary feeder after the feeder leaves the tower platform
2) Within 1 m of the primary feeder before the feeder leaves the cabling rack
3) Outside the feeder window entry
4) Every 25~35 m when the tower is over 60 m high
5) Every 30 m of the feeder at the building top
Outdoor earthing cable
Install Antenna and Feeder System
Outline of Antenna and Feeder System
* Install an antenna on a position
according to the design requirements
* Install the antenna in the protected area of
the lightning rod (downward at a 45 angle all
around the peak of the lightning rod)
* Connect the antenna stand
and the tower securely
Grounded at the point within 1 m
outside the platform
Fix a feeder grounding clip well to the nearby part of the tower
Lead the grounding cable of a feeder grounding clip from the
top down. The appropriate angle formed by the clip and the
feeder is not greater than 15
Add a grounding clip to the middle of the
tower that is over 60 m high
Do not bend or kink a feeder and jumper
No copper sheet is exposed
Install the primary feeder and jumper
properly
The feeder connectors are standard,
secure and waterproof
Arranges the feeders and jumpers neatly.
Do not cross them.
*Nameplate of outdoor feeder
Grounded at the point within 1 m inside the
Add a grounding clip to the middle of the
cabling rack that is over 1 m long
Grounded at the point within 1 m
outside the feeder window
Keep the feeder window well sealed
Outdoor grounding cable
Feeder window
Outdoor lightning protection ground Outdoor grounding bar
Tower
ground
20 times of the minimum bending
of feeder pipes and jumpers
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Huawei
Thanks