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ADRI AN LABONDE

I NTERNATI ONAL LAND AND WATER


MANAGEMENT
I NTERN AT THE I NTERNATI ONAL RI CE
RESEARCH CENTER, LOS BAOS,
PHI LI PPI NES
The use and dissemination of the
alternate wetting and drying technology
in Central Luzon, Philippines:

THE CASES OF GRAVITY IRRIGATION IN UPRIIS AND PUMP
IRRIGATED AREAS
Introduction
Water supply is becoming scarce
More rice per drop
Usually cont. flooded
Alternate wetting and drying technology
address unproductive water flows
Continuous flooding not required throughout the
growing season
Introduction in Canarem, Tarlac (P-38, pump area)
Good results: less water, similar yields
Less pump hours, less fuel, less costs
Positive feedback and acceptance of AWD


Demo site in Sto Domingo, UPRIIS (gravity)
Similar results in terms of no yield reduction
Better soil conditions during harvest (mechanization)
NIA: encouraged dissemination in UPRIIS and other
irrigation systems

Casecnan Multipurpose Irrigation and Power Project
Expansion and rehabilitation of UPRIIS service area
Additional 37,000 ha (>23,000)
More water in the system

Current water situation
UPRIIS
Division 5
Complementing Division 1-4
Casecnan canal reaches Tarlac

Current water situation
UPRIIS
Division 5
Complementing Division 1-4
Casecnan reaches Tarlac

The case UPRIIS
Flat-rate water pricing
Water shortages only in parts during dry season
->Rotational water scheme applied (tail-end first)

Sufficient, but inefficient water distribution (Lampayan)
There is no shortage of water to start with (Siopongco
et al., 2013)
Why should the farmer use AWD when there is plenty of
water in the canals? (Lack of incentives, no cost
reductions?)



Global relevance of AWD
Imminent water crisis in Asia
El Nio years?
Methane gas reductions and AWD
AWD meant as response option to water scarcity
The concept should be there (Lampayan)


Research questions
AWD relevance in UPRIIS and pump irrigated area?
How do irrigation practices of farmers change under
Casecnan?
What are the perceptions of farmers on AWD?
Presentation focuses on Canarem and Casecnan

Hypotheses
AWD most beneficial for pump users
Farmers with in UPRIIS have sufficient water for cont.
flooding and do lack incentives to use AWD
The Casecnan project changes the irrigation practices of
farmers in Canarem (gets reached by SDC).

Key informant interviews and Focus Group Discussions
NIA, NIA-UPRIIS, PhilRice, IRRI
Opinions and perceptions on AWD of NIA and farmers
Water management focus

2 cases: gravity and pump under improving water
availability
Data analysis just started
Only some initial findings

Canarem
Do get reached by SDC (tail-end) in two seasons
Overlapping irrigation
P-38, TG10 and other IAs (suppl. canal)
Parts do not get reached



Canarem
Suppl. Irrigation in start of season (timing)
Too much water in times of terminal drainage
Excess water wets their fields
Construction of bypass canal and dam to capture
excess water
Adjusting for double cropping



Farmers perceptions
Back in 2002 there was not enough water. Today it
seems that AWD is not needed anymore.
Past: 5 hours of irrigation (8 l/h), AWD: 3 hours
We used AWD to save costs for irrigation
Fuel prices high - Irrigation service fees cheaper



Canarem farmers use AWD even with sufficient water for
cont. flooding
there are only some stages that the field should be
irrigated (tillering and flowering stage)
Less irrigation time (costs), more time, heavier grains
Disadvantages:
3 days after transplanting we sprayed herbicide to
control the weeds

Why is it hard to convince other farmers to implement
AWD in their field?
Other farmers do not care if other farmers do not have water.
It will be very hard to implement AWD in the gravity
irrigation system because there is a lot of water.
They even suggest volumetric pricing in UPRIIS. Let
farmers pay the amount they use

How is AWD implemented?
DA Administrative Order 25: disseminate water-saving
technologies
AWD is part of training activities
NIA: why should farmers use AWD when canals are full?
There are benefits in using AWD, however
not well known
Some are not open to it
Canarem farmers:
There should be somebody who will teach farmers about the technology.
NIA should have a strong(er) policy to implement AWD
Upstream farmers do not follow rotational schedule
NIA Rationalisation + NIA administration has new focus


Why AWD?
Water is becoming scarce and farmers should be
prepared for the future
AWD is a response option in case of water scarcity
Local relevance:
Farmers will not lose anything
The concept should be there
AWD can be beneficial for farmers
Strong policy support is needed


Suggestions
Look for ways to effectively communicate the AWD
concept and farmers perceptions among them:
Its ok to let the field dry for certain days
Canarem farmers use AWD even with sufficient water for cont.
flooding




Thanks to IRRI and my Team
Room for discussion