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# Impact of jet

## Impulse- Momentum Principle

Introduction
The study of forces resulting from the
impact of fluid jets involves the application
of newtons second law in the form of
F = m.a.

The forces are determined by calculating
the change of momentum of the flowing
fluids.
Newtons Second Law : The force acting on a body in a fixed
direction is equal to rate of increase of momentum of the body
in that direction.
A fluid is essentially a collection of particles and the net force,
in a fixed direction, on a defined quantity of fluid equals the
total rate of momentum of that fluid quantity in that direction.

Consider a mass m with initial velocity u and is brought to
rest. Its loss of momentum is m.u and if it stopped in a time
interval t then
the rate of change of momentum is m.u /t.
The force F required to stop the moving mass F = m.u / t .
Now jet of fluid with a mass flow rate ( m / t ) which equals to
the volumetric flow rate x the density ( Q. )
The equivalent force on a flowing fluid is F = Q. u.
Initssimplestform,theforceonafluidflowinasetdirectionis
equaltoitsmassflowratetimesbythechangeinvelocityinthe
set direction. The fluid flow also exerts an equal and opposite
reactionforceasaresultofthischangeinmomentum.

F=Q(u
1
-u
2
)...(Fanduarevectorquantities)

Theresultantforceonafluidinaparticulardirectionisequalto
therateofincreaseofmomentuminthatdirection.
Expt. Set-up
Impact for various plate potions
Expt. Set-up
Fa

Vs

Q
Asthedischargeincreasestheactualforceincreases