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Petroleum Engineering 406

Lesson 3
Well Control
Read
Well Control Manual
Chapter 7-8
Homework 2 Due Jan. 30, 2001
Content
Equivalent Mud Weights - EMW
Casing Seat Tests
Kick Tolerance
Differences in Kick Types
Reaction of Gas in the Wellbore
Equivalent Mud Weight
EMW - the total pressure exerted at a given
depth expressed in ppg equivalent

EMW = Surf. Press./(0.052*TVD
int
)+MW
or
EMW = Total Press. /(0.052*TVD
int
)
Equivalent Mud Weight
Examples:
KWM
ECD - Equivalent Circulating Density
ECD = Ann. Fric./(0.052*TVD)+OWM
Frac gradient
Pore pressure, etc
Casing Seat Tests
We test casing seats to:
Determine max pressure that formation can
withstand
Determine if we have a good cement job

Casing Seat Tests
LOT - Leak-Off Test
Measure the fracture
pressure at casing seat
or, Maximum pressure
the formation can
withstand prior to
fracture


Volume pumped
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Leak-Off
MW
TVD
essure LeakOff
EMW
shoe
+ =
* 052 .
Pr
Fracture Initiation
Fracture Extension
Casing Test
Casing Seat Tests
PIT - Pressure Integrity Test (FIT)
Determine if the casing seat can withstand a
pre-determined pressure

Test Pressure = (EMW-MW)*0.052*TVD
casing seat

Kick Tolerance
Maximum Casing Pressure - MCP
Maximum Allowable Annular Surface
Pressure - MAASP, MASP
Maximum Casing pressure that the
formation can withstand prior to fracture
= (EMW-MW)*0.052*TVD
casing seat
Kick Tolerance
Maximum ppg kick - Maximum mud
weight increase on a kick prior to formation
fracture
=(EMW-MW)*TVD
shoe
/TVD
well

Assumes zero pit gain
Kick Tolerance
Maximum Kick Volume


Kick Types
Gas Kicks
Rapid expansion as gas circulated through
choke
Mud gas separators and flare lines used
Gas migration problems
Higher SICP than others
Kick Types
Gas Kicks, cont.
Barite settling in OB mud
Solubility of gas masks kick indicators
Flammability of gas
Slugging of gas at choke
Kick Types
Oil Kicks
Flammable but not as explosive as gas
Density greater than gas-lower SICP
Very little expansion as kick reaches surface

But, there is almost always some gas present
Kick Types
Water kicks
not flammable
very little expansion
lower SICP than gas or oil

But, there is still usually some gas present.
Kick Types
Prediction kick types
Density of gas =1-2 ppg
Density of oil = 6-8 ppg
Density of salt water =8.6-9.0 ppg
( )
f t bbl Cap Ann
bbl PitGain
height
height
SIDPP SICP
MW y KickDensit
/ , .
,
052 . 0
=

=
Drillers Method
Pressure at Top of Kick-P
x
( )
( ) MW x D
v
v
P P B
Z T
MW Z T P
v
V B B
P
X
B
FB B
B B
X X B
x
B
x
=

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
052 . 0
052 . 0
4 2
2 / 1
2
Drillers Method
Surface Casing Pressure - CP
CP=P
x
-0.052*MW*x
Pressure at casing seat - P
seat

P
seat
=CP+0.052*MW*D
seat

where the bubble is below the casing seat
P
seat
=P
B
-0.052*MW*(D-D
seat
)
where the bubble is above the casing seat
Wait & Weight Method
Pressure at Top of Kick-P
x
( )
( ) ( )
1 1 1
2 / 1
1
2
1 1
052 . 0 052 . 0 '
052 . 0
4 2
MW x D MW MW D
v
v
P P B
Z T
MW Z T P
v
V B B
P
X
B
FB B
B B
X X B
x
B
x
+ =

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
Wait & Weight Method
Surface Casing Pressure - CP
CP=P
x
-0.052*MW*x
Pressure at casing seat - P
seat

P
seat
=CP+0.052*MW*D
seat

where the bubble is below the casing seat
P
seat
=P
B
-(0.052*MW*D)
-[0.052*MW
1
*(D-D-D
SEAT
)]
where the bubble is above the casing seat

Nomenclature
Examples
Surface Casing Pressure
Ann. Press @ Various Depths
Reaction of Gas in a Wellbore
Boyles Law
PV=constant
Charles Law
V/T=constant
Avagadros Law
PV=nRT
Real Gas Law
PV=ZnRT
PV/ZT = nR

P
1
*V
1

=
P
2
*V
2

Z
1
*T
1
Z
2
*T
2

V
2
= P
1
*V
1
*Z
2
*T
2


P
2
*Z
1
*T
1
Reaction of Gas in a Wellbore
Circulating gas from wellbore
Given:
Depth =16,000
BHT =300
o
F
BHP =12480 psi
MW =15.0 ppg
Surf. Temp =140
o
F
Drilled up 1 cu.ft. of gas
Reaction of Gas in Wellbore
Reaction of Gas in Wellbore
Gas Migration
Gas Migration
MASP