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27 th January 2014

Lecture 1

Chapter 0

Introduction

  • Total Marks 100

  • Contact hrs: 3 per week

Text Book

“Transport Phenomena”

by R. Byron Bird, Warren E. Stewart, Edwin N. Lightfoot

Second Edition

Course Contents

Ch.E-407

TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

  • Viscosity and the mechanism of momentum transport; Velocity distributions in laminar flow; The equations of change for isothermal systems; Velocity distribution with more than one independent variable

  • Thermal conductivity and mechanism of energy transport; Temperature distribution in solids and in laminar flow; The equations of change for non-isothermal systems

  • Diffusivity and the mechanisms of mass transport; Concentration distribution in solids and in laminar flow; The equations of change for multi-component systems.

What are Transport Phenomena?

  • Fluid Dynamics (transport of momentum)

  • Heat Transfer (transport of energy)

  • Mass Transfer (transport of mass)

Why Study Transport Phenomena?

  • The 3 processes occur simultaneously in industrial, biological and agricultural problems.

  • The basic equations are closely related.

  • Mathematical tools used are similar.

  • The molecular mechanisms in these are nearly similar.

How to study Transport Phenomena?

  • Study the transportation of momentum, heat, mass through media as governed by various laws of nature.

  • Basic parameters representing the phenomena and nomenclature

Entity Being Transported/

Type of

Transport

MOMENTUM

TRANSPORT

BY

MOLECULAR

MOTION

VISCOSITY µ

Newton’s law of

viscosity.

Temperature, Pressure & Composition dependence on µ

Kinetic theory of µ

THERMAL

CONDUCTIVITY

k

Fourier’s law of heat

conduction Temperature, Pressure, and composition

dependence on k

Kinetic theory of k

DIFFUSIVITY D AB

Fick’s law of diffusion Temperature, Pressure, and composition dependence on

  • D AB

Kinetic theory of D AB

TRANSPORT in LAMINAR FLOW or in SOLIDS,

in ONE DIMENSION

SHELL MOMENTUM BALANCES

Velocity profiles Average velocity

Momentum flux at surfaces

SHELL ENERGY BALANCES

Temperature profiles Average temperature Energy flux at surfaces

SHELL MASS BALANCES

Concentration profiles Average concentration Mass flux at surfaces

Continue…

ENERGY MASS
ENERGY
MASS

Entity Being Transported

Type of

Transport

MOMENTUM

TRANSPORT

in an

ARBITRARY

CONTINUUM

EQUATION OF CHANGE (Isothermal)

EQUATION OF CHANGE (Non-isothermal)

EQUATION OF CHANGE (Multi-component)

Equation of continuity Equation of motion Equation of energy

Equation of continuity Equation of motion for forced and free convection

Equation of energy

Equation of continuity for each species

Equation of motion for

forced and free convection

Equation of energy

TRANSPORT IN LAMINAR FLOW or in

SOLIDS,

WITH TWO INDEPENDENT VARIABLES

MOMENTUM

TRANSPORT

Unsteady viscous flow

Two-dimensional viscous flow

Boundary-layer momentum transport

ENERGY TRANSPORT

MASS TRANSPORT

Unsteady heat conduction

Heat conduction in viscous

flow

Two-dimensional heat conduction in solids

Boundary-layer energy

transport

Unsteady diffusion

Diffusion in viscous flow

Two-dimensional diffusion in solids

Boundary-layer mass transport

Continue…

Entity Being Transported Type of Transport

MOMENTUM

   

TRANSPORT IN

TURBULENT

TURBULENT ENERGY

TURBULENT MASS

MOMENTUM

TRANSPORT

TRANSPORT

TURBULENT

FLOW

TRANSPORT

Time-smoothing of equation of change

Time-smoothing of equation of change

Time-smoothing of equation of change

Eddy viscosity

Eddy thermal conductivity

Eddy diffusivity

Turbulent velocity profiles

Turbulent temperature profiles

Turbulent concentration profiles

TRANSPORT

INTERPHASE

INTERPHASE ENERGY

INTERPHASE MASS

Between

MOMENTUM

TRASNPORT

TRASNPORT

TRASNPORT

TWO PHASES

Heat-transfer coefficient h

Heat-transfer coefficient k x

Friction factor f

Dimensionless

Dimensionless correlations (forced and

Dimensionless correlations (forced and free convection)

correlations

free convection)

Continue…

Entity Being Transported

MOMENTUM

   

Type of

Transport

TRANSPORT

MOMENTUM

RADIENT ENERGY

MASS TRANSPORT IN

BY

TRANSPORT IN

TRANSPORT

MULTI-COMPONENT

RADIATION

POLYMERIC LIQUIDS

SYSTEMS

Planck’s radiation law

Concentration diffusion

Behavior of Polymeric

Molecular theories of

Rheometry

Stefan-Boltzmann law

Radiation through absorbing

and driving force

Liquids

polymeric liquids

Geometrical problems

media

Mass transfer across permeable membranes

Mass transfer in porous media

TRANSPORT IN

MICROSOPIC

MICROSOPIC

MICROSOPIC

LARGE FLOW

BALANCES

BALANCES

BALANCES (Multi-

SYSTEMS

(Isothermal)

(Non-isothermal)

component)

Mass balance

Mass balance

Mass balance of each

Mechanical energy balance

Momentum balance

Mechanical and total energy

species Momentum balance

(Bernoulli equation)

balance

Mechanical and total energy balance

THREE LEVELS OF STUDY OF TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

  • 1. Macroscopic Level

  • 2. Microscopic Level

  • 3. Molecular Level

Integral Analysis

Macroscopic Level

THREE LEVELS OF STUDY OF TRANSPORT PHENOMENA 1. Macroscopic Level 2. Microscopic Level 3. Molecular Level
No attempt to understand the details of what is going on within the control volume
No attempt to understand the
details of what is going on
within the control volume

Mainly used for the global

assessment of the problem

THREE LEVELS OF STUDY OF TRANSPORT PHENOMENA 1. Macroscopic Level 2. Microscopic Level 3. Molecular Level

A Macroscopic Balance of

1. Mass

  • 2. Momentum

  • 3. Energy

Due to various inputs & outputs

from our control volume

Differential Analysis

Microscopic Level

Differential Analysis Microscopic Level An attempt to understand the details of what is going on within
Differential Analysis Microscopic Level An attempt to understand the details of what is going on within

An attempt to understand the

details of what is going on

within the control volume

Differential Analysis Microscopic Level An attempt to understand the details of what is going on within

A Microscopic Balance of

1. Mass

  • 2. Momentum

  • 3. Energy

Due to various inputs & outputs

from our control volume

Mainly used to get information of 1. Velocity profiles

  • 2. Temperature profiles

  • 3. Concentration profiles

Differential Analysis Microscopic Level An attempt to understand the details of what is going on within

To understand the process and optimize it

Molecular Level

To seek the fundamental understanding of the process of

  • 1. Mass transfer

  • 2. Momentum transfer

  • 3. Energy transfer

In terms of molecular structure & intermolecular forces

Molecular Level To seek the fundamental understanding of the process of 1. Mass transfer 2. Momentum

A job primarily for

  • 1. Theoretical Physicists

  • 2. Physical Chemist

Some times Engineers/applied scientists do get involved in cases of

  • 1. Complex molecules

  • 2. Extreme temperatures/pressures

  • 3. Chemical Reacting Flows

Each of these levels involve typical length scales

Macroscopic Level

Order of cm or m

Each of these levels involve typical length scales Macroscopic Level Order of cm or m Microscopic

Microscopic Level

Micron to cm range

Each of these levels involve typical length scales Macroscopic Level Order of cm or m Microscopic

Molecular Level

1 to 1000 nanometers

Each of these levels involve typical length scales Macroscopic Level Order of cm or m Microscopic

Requirements For Good Understanding Of This Subject

Each of these levels involve typical length scales Macroscopic Level Order of cm or m Microscopic

MATHEMATICS, Differential Equations, Vectors, Calculus

Physical Interpretation of key mathematical results

Get into the habit of relating physical ideas to equations

Comparison of intuition and results obtained

Understanding of dimensional analysis

Division of Book

  • Chapters 1-8: Flow of pure fluids at constant temperature (momentum transport)

  • Chapters 9-16: Flow of pure fluids with varying temperature (energy transport)

  • Chapters 17-24: Flow of fluid mixtures with varying composition (convective mass transport)