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Bibliotherapy is an adjunct to
psychological treatment that
incorporates appropriate books or
other written materials, usually
intended to be read outside
of psychotherapy sessions, into the
treatment regimen.

In most settings, bibliotherapy is used as an adjunct to more
traditional forms of psychotherapy. Practitioners of cognitive-
behavioral therapies are among the most enthusiastic
supporters of bibliotherapy, particularly in the development
of individualized treatment protocols, including workbooks,
for specific disorders. For example, clients with eating
disorders, especially bulimia nervosa, often benefit from
receiving educational information appropriate to their stage
of recovery, such as books or articles about cultural biases
regarding weight, attractiveness, and dieting. This
information helps clients better understand the rationale for
their treatment and to work on new skills or behavioral
changes more effectively.

The goal of bibliotherapy is to broaden and deepen the
client's understanding of the particular problem that
requires treatment. The written materials may educate the
client about the disorder itself or be used to increase the
client's acceptance of a proposed treatment. Many people
find that the opportunity to read about their problem
outside the therapist's office facilitates active participation
in their treatment and promotes a stronger sense of
personal responsibility for recovery. In addition, many are
relieved to find that others have had the same disorder or
problem and have coped successfully with it or recovered
from it. From the therapist's standpoint, providing a client
with specific information or assignments to be completed
outside regular in-office sessions speeds the progress of

Bibliotherapy has been applied in a
variety of settings to many kinds of
psychological problems. Practitioners
have reported successful use of
bibliotherapy in treating eating
disorders, anxiety and mood
disorders, agoraphobia , alcohol and
substance abuse, and stress-related
physical disorders.

As with any form of treatment, bibliotherapy is effective only
if it actively engages the client's desire for and belief in
recovery. For many people, additional information or
workbooks that can be used in private reinforce their
commitment to getting better. People who lack the time or
finances to attend regular psychotherapy sessions at a
practitioner's office often find that bibliotherapy can bridge
the gap between infrequent appointments. Likewise, the
nature of the disorder itself may preclude in-office
treatment for some people, such as persons suffering
from agoraphobia. Current research indicates that a
bibliotherapeutic approach can be highly effective in
helping agoraphobics better understand and cope with their

It is a form of therapy that generally are
based around cognitive or behavioural,
humanistic or psychoanalytic frameworks or
a mixture of approaches. There are usually
both active and receptive parts of the
therapy, meaning that at times music is
listened to and at other times there is the use
of musical improvisation or creation.

Is the most frequently used to
help the mentally or physical
disabled. It can help people to
express feelings by making
musical sounds and music.

Stimulate patient to think about something
and talk about himself.
Give him reason to value himself and
increase his self-respect.
Music is selected which evoke the patients
long term memory processes and stimulates

Use of music as an addition to
relaxation therapy in psychotherapy to
elicit expression of suppressed emotion
by promoting patient to dance, out,
laugh or crazy in response

The patient was quiet as he was
listening to the music.
He was thinking of something in
preparation for art therapy.
Promote healing in a number of ways.
Moving in a group brings people out of
isolation, creates powerful social and
emotional bonds and generates those good
feelings that come from being others.
Moving rhythmically eases muscle rigidity,
diminishes anxiety, and increases energy.
Practice is based on knowledge of human
developmental and psychological theories
which are implemented in the full spectrum
of models of assessment and treatment
including educational, psychodynamic,
cognitive, transpersonal, and other
therapeutic means of reconciling emotional
conflicts, foster self-awareness, developing
social skills, managing behavior, solving
problems , reducing anxiety, and increasing
self esteem.

Ensures that appropriate materials and
space are available for the client-artist, as
well as an adequate amount of time for the

Provide protection in the environment by
constant observation and removal of objects
that could harm self/ others.
As human service profession that
uses art media, images, the creative
process, and patient/client responses to
the created products as reflections of
individuals development, abilities,
personality, interest, concerns and

Hair: long and unshaved- ambivalence or hostility over sexuality.

Eyes: blind- tendency to avoid unpleasant situations

Nose: long- aggression, ascendance seeking
-socially outgoing and active.

Lips/mouth: rigidly closed rejection of dependent need
-may be sign of suppression or hostility

Arms: folded- rejection of world
-rigid control over impulses to act out violently

Belt: heavily shaded- concern over control of sensuality
Leg: no legs- pathological feelings of constriction and dependence
-feeling of lack of autonomy

Head: large- shows strong intellectual strivings
-considerable fantasy activity as source of satisfaction

Ears: emphasize- sensitivity to outside world
-extreme emphasis may indicate auditory hallucination

Hands/fingers: in pockets or behind back-unwillingness to deal with situation

Front view profile: implications of exhibitionism, naivet, social communication

Stroking: insecurity and anxiety
-sign of feeling of inadequacy if pressure is light

Placement: center of the page- insecurity and rigidity
-need to maintain careful control
-normal degree of control and rigidity.

The patient looks bored but he still participative and performs the exercise.

Milieu therapy is the treatment of mental
disorder or maladjustment by making
substantial changes in a patient's immediate
life circumstances and environment in a way
that will enhance the effectiveness of other
forms of therapy.

The goal of milieu therapy is to manipulate
the environment so that all aspects of the
patients hospital experience are considered
Is the process of providing safety and security
and involves the patients access to food and
shelter. In a well contained milieu, patient feels
safe from their illnesses and protected against
social stigma.

Most facilities encourage patients and nursing
staff to wear street clothes, which helps
decrease the formalized nature of hospital
settings and promotes nurse- patient
relationships. Therapeutic milieu emphasises
patient involvement in treatment decisions
and operations of the unit.

Provide protection in the environment by
constant observation and removal of
objects that could harm self/ others. He
must serve as role model, practicing the
behavior that is expected of the group.
He must facilitate the group in
developing a list of rules and
expectations and dealing with infractions
without coming across as an authority
Milieu therapy works by manipulating
the environment in order to benefit the
patient. This can involve living within a
community where life is tightly
structured. The interaction of those in
the group is important because positive
change occurs due to these client to
client encounters. Clients are able to
provide feedback to each other and solve
problems together.
The patient has blunt affect as he
described the pictures being
presented but still cooperative and
doesnt demonstrate uneasiness